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EDTA-compounds are commonly used in liquid Hydroponic nutrient products to chelate iron and other metallic nutrient ions. Simply put - chelates bond to metals the plant uses for growth, in soil or hydro, and ensures they are stable and mobile. EDDS (S, S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid), a structural isomer of EDTA, has been used as a biodegradable substitute.
Genetic function relies upon a perfectly balanced equilibrium of environment and chelation. Since pores are negatively charged to attract ions, this negative or neutral charge makes ionic bonding and storage of elements in the root pores less likely, increasing the efficiency of the root system. Sometimes inorganic elements are bound so tightly with their chelates (in synthetic situations) that they cannot be released for physiological function. These Documents contain information gathered from many Online Communities and all possible references have been given to the authors of each individual article. AS THE WORM TURNS Health and well being are part of the natural birthright of the human being. This year's essay topic, “Why is it important for all students to have arts education opportunities?” was inspired a panel on diversity at the 2015 EdTA conference. In response, the prosecution brought in an FBI analyst who had tested the blood smears for EDTA, a chemical used to keep blood samples in liquid form (rather than coagulating) inside test tubes for use in future testing.
This overview aims to summarize the existing potential of “Ionogels” as a platform to develop stimuli responsive materials. Direct nucleophillic addition of a trialkylphosphine (top) and 1-substituted imidazole (bottom) with 1-chloropropane to form their corresponding chloride Ionic Liquids (ILs).
Variants of the halide ILs can be prepared via their ion-exchange metathesis reaction with group I organic anions [30,31]. The photodynamic, pH and metal-ion chemistry of Spiropyran (SP) materials; (a) SP, (b) Merocyanine (MC), (c) MC-H and (d) MC-M2+ complex. Previous research has explored the behavior of the SP and MC isomers in systems capable of user controlled transition metal ion uptake and release [39,53], as effective solvatochromic probes [54,55] and as hybrid materials that exhibit user controlled multi-switchable optical properties [56]. Actuation times of photo-responsive ionogel valves under uniform white light illumination as a function of the IL anion [18] (Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry). Polymer optodes are similar to ISEs in terms of their composition, and how the analyte transfer is facilitated from the sample into the membrane phase [81]. EDTA belongs to a class of synthetic compounds known as polyaminocarboxylic acids It has a negative ionic charge, known as an anion, - EDTA4. EDTA bonds really well with Magnesium and Calcium as well as many other metal ions like Iron.
EDDS is a good complexing agent and is broken down during wastewater treatment processes, unlike EDTA. Synthetic chelates can, and often do, interfere with the osmotic equilibrium, by causing precipitation. The microbial activity greatly increases the amount of organic chelating agents being created as well as a natural byproduct.
Adding organic material is also a great way to increase the level of chelating agents by providing beneficial bacteria with food - basically increasing their production of natural chelating agents. A smooth chelation process is essential for plants to use minerals and keep them from bonding with each other, this keeps them mobile and stops them from precipitating. The plant has a hard time breaking down the inorganic chelates, where as the organic chelates do not share any of the same problems as the synthetics.
With all of its organs intact, the right diet, exercise and mental focus, a human body can overcome any disease.
Ionogels are a class of materials that contain an Ionic Liquid (IL) confined within a polymer matrix. IntroductionThe concept of a chemical sensor is one in which a material is used as a sensing agent and exhibits a selective interaction with a target species or analyte [1,2]. Key to the success of this reaction is the choice of solvent that it is undertaken in, it must serve to solvate the new IL formed and preferably promote the precipitation of the by-product (a classical alkali-halide salt).
Stimuli Responsive MaterialsStimuli responsive materials (SRM’s) are those that can undergo (in some cases a reversible) change in their molecular configuration in response to an externally applied stimulus.
Combining the photo-chemistry of SP and MC with the responsive chemistries of a hydrogel was first investigated by Szilagyi et al. Electro Responsive Ionogels for Sensing ApplicationsA particular advantage of using ionogels occurs in applications where the intrinsic ionic conductivity of the ionogel can be exploited, for example in electrochemical sensors and devices. The reaction mixture was prepared by dissolving both monomeric sub-units and the photo-initiator dimethoxy-phenylacetophenone (DMPA) into the IL([P6,6,6,14][DCA]).
If chelation is poor, the plant will be forced to expend energy to find available nutrients in the medium. This is accomplished by performing structural change, which can be seen in the posted pics.
Soils with high Cation Exhcange Capacity are generally high in chelating agents and organic content. Chelating agents nullify the positive charge on the ion and cause it to be more neutral or be a slightly charged anion, encouraging the nutrients to transfer through the pores on the leaf and root surface more rapidly. Even in organics, minerals are sometimes chelated with EDTA, which has been accepted as "organic".
My question is whether you think it would be more effective if taken on an empty stomach, or after meals?
Recently defined as “a solid interconnected network spreading throughout a liquid phase”, the ionogel therefore combines the properties of both its solid and liquid components. The specific interaction between the sensor and analyte produces a signal, which can then be observed via an appropriate detection scheme [3,4].
As the IL begins to form over time, so too do the ionic interactions of alkali and halide atoms, respectively, which transfer out of the reaction solvent.
They can of course be subdivided in relation to the particular stimulus applied, and are the subject of previous reviews. Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) are a particular breed of electrochemical sensor, which convert the activity of a given analyte in solution into a voltage potential.



Ionogels were based on pNIPAAM and Phosphonium ILs, whilst the change in optical properties of the encapsulated colorimetric dye was used to correlate with the pH of the incident sample. The barcode (18 ? 10 mm), consisted of four independent reservoirs, and was easily fabricated in PMMA and pressure-sensitive adhesive in five layers using CO2 ablation laser [110]. These cations bond with anions to form chelates; ie K+ (potasium anion) will bond with the EDTA cation. Western European countries have banned the use of EDTA in detergents, where it is commonly used to chelate metal ions in tapwater.
Chlorophyll is a chelate that consists of a complex chelating agent with magnesium as the central atom. However, as I already said it doesn?t break down, and should be avoided if at all possible. ILs are low melting salts that exist as liquids composed entirely of cations and anions at or around 100 °C. Liquid based sensors can suffer from volatility and handling issues, meaning their performance suffers over time. These reviews have discussed the alteration of molecular configurations in response to irradiated light [32], to an applied voltage [33], to a change in temperature [34], to an incident magnetic field [35] or a change in the pH of the surrounding environment [36]. We have expanded the area slightly to combine the properties of photo-responsive hydrogels with ILs producing ionogels [18,58], which will now form the basis of the next discussion. ISEs employ polymer gels based mainly on poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) and PMMA [61,62], for the selective detection of important environmental and biological analytes at levels as low as nanomolar concentrations in some cases [63,64].
Immersing the barcode in de-ionised water and then varying the pH from 0 to 14 in intervals of one pH unit, allowed the stability of the barcode to be studied. The unusual property of EDTA as a chelating agent is its ability to chelate ( aka complex metal ions) in 1:1 metal to EDTA complexes (If one is familiar with the abilities of chelates, this is a very strong proportion).
One could even argue this stress having an effect on yield, and overall degradation of genetics. Producing solid-state platforms is of great importance for some applications, as the solid-state removes many of the issues associated with that of the liquid state [5]. The change in molecular configuration is usually accompanied by an observable signal, for example a change in color, conductivity or surface energy. As PVC and PMMA exhibit high glass transitions, organic plasticizers are used to produce flexible transparent polymer membranes. The authors detailed enhanced selectivity toward hydrophilic anions for the ionogels versus conventional plasticizers, which they have attributed to the increased dielectric constant of the ionogel. Interestingly enough, the only difference between hemoglobin and chlorophyll is the Fe central atom as opposed to the Mg atom. Here we provide an overview to highlight the literature thus far, detailing the encapsulation of IL and responsive materials within these polymeric structures. There is great interest therefore in solid-state chemical sensors that can provide reliable signals at a low unit cost, and through careful optimization of the sensitive polymer composition, prevent leaching or removal of key components over time [6]. They are therefore ideal candidates for use as chemical sensors; if the molecular rearrangement can be induced by an interaction with a defined analyte, then it can also be used as the chemical sensor signal. They are prepared by co-dissolution with a suitable molecular solvent, producing the membrane as the solvent evaporates [65]. Exciting applications in the areas of optical and electrochemical sensing, solid state electrolytes and actuating materials shall be discussed. Polymer gels have been employed in sensing templates for this purpose and we will explore their use in detail in this review [7,8].A polymer gel is defined as an interconnected polymer network formed within a liquid phase [9,10]. Photo responsive materials are particularly good candidates for chemical sensors as, in some cases, the incident irradiation can be low enough in power (such as in the use of low power LEDs [37,38]) to be non-invasive on the sensing materials. The sensing agents are often incorporated into the polymer membranes via their co-dissolution with the polymer and the plasticizer solution.A prerequisite for a plasticizer therefore is that it must exhibit a markedly lower glass transition itself. The ionogel-dye interactions ensure no leaching of the dyes occurs during experiments, thereby providing long durability of the device for the monitoring of sweat pH measurements over time [110,111].Important contributions to current sensor research in the area of LOAC or µTAS systems can be made by employing ionogels as active constituents within organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). When the polymer network is generated in the presence of an Ionic Liquid (IL), the resultant gel has been termed an ionogel within the literature [11]. This is an important consideration for materials that may be subject to photostability issues, as exposure to high power sources can lead to rapid decomposition of the material. Photo Responsive Ionogels for Direct Fluid Control in Microfluidic DevicesOne of the issues for microfluidic or “lab on a chip” devices is the controlled movement of liquid throughout the device. Ionogels are therefore a new class of hybrid material that combine the physical properties of both the polymer gel and the physically entrapped IL within [12].
Addressing this issue can lead to improved reproducibility in the response obtained, which will improve the performance of the sensing device over increased time periods [39].
For example, an ion-exchanging salt is typically used in ISE membranes to facilitate the movement of the analyte between the aqueous and polymeric phases [69]. One novel alternative to this approach, is to control fluid movement using stimulus-responsive polymer valves integrated into the fluidic system that can be controlled using light [18].
In both cases the ionogels were based on a siloxane support, whilst the IL was used to bind to lanthanide element that exhibited photoluminescence upon UV irradiation. Previous reviews focused on the interaction and mobility of the IL within the polymer network [14]. The valve was based on an ionogel of which there were two distinct components: (a) The polymer gel, a co-polymer based on (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAM) and SP, and (b) phosphonium ILs. This overview will complement these reviews by focusing on the application of ionogels as functional materials for direct application as sensing and actuation agents.
Azobenzenes are particularly good candidates for use as chemical sensors as the photoisomoerization event not only yields a change in color [42], but also a significant change in polarity [43,44].
Publications detailing the response of ionogels to changes in pH, metal ion chelation, incident electromagnetic radiation and interactions with biomolecules will be discussed. The use of organogelators (a molecule which exhibits significant electrostatic interactions leading to the formation of an interconnected network [45,46]) has proved a worthy route for the development and incorporation of the photo-responsive chemistries of azo compounds into the solid state. A phenylene–ethynylene oligomer was synthesized and chemically tethered to an imidazolium cation; which exhibited fluorescence in the solid state as part of a siloxane based ionogel. Combining OECT properties with those of ionogels therefore offers significant potential for realizing new generations of solid-state biosensing devices in a variety of form factors, and using ILs to optimize the stability and reactive nature of the host enzyme.Most recently the development of a solid-state electrolyte incorporated into an OECT has been reported for the detection of lactate [20].


Using the ionogel as the electrolyte, the authors reported a detection limit as low as 0.3 ppm [71].
Irradiation of the sol at wavelengths longer than 460 nm resulted in reversal of the isomerization and re-formation of the gel. Ionogels as Bio-Sensing ComponentsAlong with the electrochemical applications of ILs (as discussed), ILs have gained momentum in bio applications.
Ionic LiquidsAccording to current convention, a salt melting below the normal boiling point of water is known as an IL, thus forming liquids that are comprised entirely of cations and anions at room temperature [21]. Pozzo and co-workers [48] employed the photochromic equilibrium of 3,3-diphenyl-3H-naphthopyran, which brings about a large conformational change.
Electro Responsive Ionogels for Electrochromic ApplicationsElectrochromic materials undergo a reversible change in their optical properties in response to an applied voltage [72].
Recent work in the area include ILs as biocatalytic reactions [87,88], biosensors [89], protein stabilization [90] and biopreservation [91]. Two forms of the naphthopyran can be distinguished: a colored open form and a colorless closed form [48]. They are good candidates for sensing templates as the color can vary by the choice of the electrochrome (of which there are many [73,74]) and its concentration. ILs typically contain a large bulky asymmetric cation together with a smaller ?-delocalized anion which overwhelmingly exhibit electrostatic interactions; thereby preventing the formation of a structured lattice [23,24].
In the closed form the naphthopyran unit does not influence the stacking process and the molecule acts an efficient gelator. The color generated can therefore act as a sensor signal in response to an electrical potential [75]. ILs exhibit good thermal stability [25], are intrinsically conductive [26] and have been shown to have electrochemical windows as high as 5.0 V in some cases [23]. Irradiation with UV light converts the naphthopyran unit into the open form and prevents the carbamate group from stacking.
Ionogels are good candidates for electrochromic devices as their intrinsic ionic conductivity can facilitate the charge required to produce the optical response [17].A publication by Ahmad et al.
These unique properties are of benefit for chemical sensing applications, as a good knowledge on the overall chemistry of the IL can be used to improve on the limitations of previous sensing approaches. The isomerization is accompanied by a color change, and while the gel liquefies it becomes yellow.
Heating converts the pyran unit back into the closed form, and upon cooling a colorless gel is again obtained (Figure 3).Of particular interest to many are the photo-responsive molecule Spiropyran (SP) and its zwitterionic isomer Merocyanine (MC) [49,50]. The two isomers exist in a photo-dynamic equilibrium controlled by the application of UV and visible light, respectively [51,52]. In this case the responsive chemistry of the ionogel facilitated the current flow toward the electrodes (to which the chromophores were deposited), which in turn caused a change in the optical properties of the device.
This is an important observation since proteins are sometimes unstable when handled in vitro, and stabilizing agents are a necessary component to ensure their long-term stability. Furthermore, MC can act as a Lewis base in the presence of an acid or metal ion solution, forming protonated forms and ion-complexes. This is especially true of proteins that have pharmaceutical potential since lack of stability is a limitation to widespread use of some protein therapeutics. It has been well documented that enzyme performance in an IL is affected by several parameters including water activity, pH and impurities [94]. In addition to the SP and MC isomers, the protonated and metal-ion chelated forms exhibit unique optical properties and the entire system is therefore inherently self-indicating of their status (Figure 4). Although outside the scope of this discussion, these areas have been discussed in an excellent review by Zhao [95]. The phosphonium salts moiety is commonly found in living creatures, and it was hypothesized that this family of ILs have good affinity with enzyme proteins and may provide a good environment for enzymes. Some examples are based on the immobilization of enzyme-IL systems in chitosan [97] or Nafions [98].
Thus, catalytically active proteins and enzymes may also be confined for biosensors applications in order to achieve direct electron transfer within ionogels.
It is therefore proposed that incorporating these biocompatible ILs into ionogels is a particularly attractive strategy in the field of biosensing. These materials, in theory, will inherit all of the favorable IL properties whilst being in a solid, gel like structure [99].
The Need for Wearable SensorsWearable sensors allow the continuous monitoring of a person’s physiology in a natural setting. At present, health-monitoring systems using electronic textiles are mainly targeting applications based upon physiological parameter measurements, such as body movements or electrocardiography (ECG). In this field, wearable sensors are becoming increasingly employed, through the use of embedded transducers or smart fabrics for monitoring parameters like breathing rate, heart rate and footfall [101].
These sensors require that the desired sample of analysis, usually a body fluid such as sweat is delivered to the sensor’s active surface, whereupon a reaction happens and a signal is generated.
Ideally, the system must be low cost, while still being robust, miniature, flexible, washable, reusable or disposable [1].
Changes in the pH of the skin are reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of skin diseases like irritant contact dermatitis and acne, among others [103]. Furthermore, it has been reported that sweat pH will rise in response to an increased sweat rate [105]. A relationship was also observed between pH and sodium (Na+) levels in isolated sweat glands in that the greater the concentration of Na+, the higher the sweat pH will be [106]. A barcode system (as shown in Figure 8) was developed as an initial sweat sensor with an ionogel being an important component in the fabrication of the sensing platform [110].



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