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Fresco of Approving of bylaw of Society of Jesus depicting Ignatius of Loyola receiving papal bull Regimini militantis Ecclesiae from Pope Paul 3.
This group bound themselves by a vow of poverty and chastity, to "enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct". They called themselves the Company of Jesus, and also Amigos En El Senor or "Friends in the Lord," because they felt "they were placed together by Christ." The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry "company"), as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus).
In this map the ocean appears as a watery zone, of equal breadth in every part, encircling the world. While centered precisely on Jerusalem, Paradise, in the Far East (top), is conceived in a somewhat exceptional manner. The draftsmana€™s excessive regard for a literal interpretation of the Old and New Testaments explains the orbo-centric position of Jerusalem. The closest relation of the Psalter map is the Ebstorf, which is probably junior by at least half a century; but the former is remarkable for a number of old names which do not occur on the maps of either Ebstorf or Hereford maps. The Psalter and Ebstorf maps also have a curiously similar treatment of the Caspian Rampart (otherwise Alexandera€™s Wall, the Hyrcanian Mountains, or Barrier of the Jews - some scholars believe that this feature is actually the reflection of a vague or confused reference to the Great Wall of China), shutting in the Gog-Magogs and other monsters of the North; but the Gates of Alexander are more clearly marked on the Psalter than anywhere else in this family of maps. With the Hereford map the textual correspondence is almost as noticeable as with the Ebstorf map; the difference in cartographic form are often probably mere arbitrary eccentricities of the designer.
Outside its own a€?familya€™, the Psalter map has some points of agreement both with Lambert of St. In coloration, the Psalter map shows seas in green (except the Red Sea which is colored red), the rivers are blue, and the relief is represented by naturally colored lobed chains. The most luxurious medieval Psalters contain full-page illuminations before the text, and a series of illuminated initials within it; this Psalter has both.
The fact that Jerusalem is in the center of the map, and the whole world is presided over at the top by Christ attended by angels, clearly shows that medieval people saw geography in terms of the biblical world, and Eartha€™s creation by God. It would be easy to assume, looking at a map like this, that medieval map-makers were ignorant or incapable of making maps that are a€?accuratea€™ in the modern sense, but this would be to overlook their purpose. The Psalter can be dated from 1225 to 1262 or later: the year in which Richard of Chichester was made a saint.
This page in an illuminated manuscript is one of the most important surviving examples of 13th century map-making. Barber, Peter, a€?The Manuscript Legacy: Maps in the Department of Manuscripts,a€? The Map Collector, September 1984. Brincken, Anna-Dorothee van den, a€?Das geographische Weltbild um 1300,a€? in Peter Moraw (ed.), Das geographische Weltbild um 1300.
Uhden, Richard, a€?Zur Herkunft und Systematik der mittelalterlichen Weltkarten,a€? Geographishe Zeitschrift 37 (1931), p. A zone of monstrous races runs along the southern coast of Africa.A  Among the monsters of this region are Dog-headed Folk and people with heads in various stages of aggressiveness, having either descended between their shoulders or else absorbed the entire trunk of the body. In coloration, the Psalter map shows seas in green (except the Red Sea which is colored red), the rivers are blue, and the relief is represented by naturally colored lobed chains.A  The settlements are displayed as ocher triangles. About 1830 the canoness, Charlotte von Lasperg, discovered a rolled manuscript map on a shelf in a wet and windowless storeroom where liturgical utensils dating from before the Reformation, and no longer used, were kept.
The map today exists only in a post-war reconstruction based on various 19th and early 20th century reproductions of it.
There was text around the map, which included descriptions of animals, the creation of the world, definitions of terms, and a sketch of the more common sort of T and O map with an explanation of how the world is divided into three parts. The sources drawn upon by the cartographer are varied and cover a considerable span of time.
In addition to the classical and religious sources, the author also shows familiarity with some writings current in his time, such as Johannes of Wurzburg (ca. The major design feature upon which the Ebstorf map is based is the classic T-O scheme (see #205), but with elaborate additions of both a fabulist and religious nature. Slightly lower down and to the west the map-maker has placed the country of the Amazons, guarded by two doughtily armed queens. Still further westwards, under Christa€™s right hand, stand the flaming altars of Alexander which mark the northern extremity of the world as it was known to the ancients. Wilma George describes, in what she labels the Oriental Region, the array of zoological information to be found on this pictorial encyclopedia.
The map shows a few fish in the eastern part of the circumfluent ocean, and an image of a huge sea serpent eating a stag just northeast of Paradise (see the first figure above). AFRICA: This continent is depicted as little more than a segment of a circle, its north and west coasts extending in an almost straight line from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic, while its south and east coasts describe a shallow curve. Approaching the eastern tip of the continent, the Nile disappears into the sand; but it emerges to flow in the opposite direction through Egypt, first skirting the region of MeroA« (inhabited by dwarfs who ride on crocodiles). EUROPE: On this more familiar continent, there are none of the mythical and monstrous figures that are seen in the more remote regions of Africa and Asia.
Some scholars, such as Beazley, dismiss this map as merely a gross exaggeration of the already unscientific medieval cartography. Curiously enough, one must consider that, like many of the other significant maps and texts of the so-called Dark Ages, the Ebstorf map serves also as an aid to our understanding of the period of great discoveries which began some two centuries after its completion.
What has divided scholarly opinion has not been so much the place of origin of the Ebstorf mappamundi as its date and the authorship.
It was, then, to satisfy hungry minds and thirsty ears with reliable information [oculata fide] that we appended this summary of the natural order and situation of the provinces, as they are distributed through the three parts of the world, so adding to the accuracy of our picture; for we are aware that the very variety of painters has resulted in the production of pictures which depart from the truth of the localities themselves - those pictures which are commonly called mappaemundi - since very often the painter, like any kind of witness mars by the falsity of a part the whole formulation of his evidence, when he adds material of his own . On the whole, book illustrations tend to be well preserved and to survive, yet not one of the thirty known manuscripts of Gervasea€™s Otia imperialia contains a map. According to Armin Wolf, underlying both Gervasea€™s Otia imperialia and the Ebstorf map is the ancient Greek theory of microcosm and macrocosm, according to which each human being embodied the world, while the world took the form of a gigantic man.
Bagrow, Leo, History of Cartography, Plate XXII (Gog and Magog confined by Alexander the Great, feasting human flesh and drinking blood; The Garden of Paradise with Adam and Eve), Plate XXIII (Lower Saxony, showing the region where the map was made).
SchnelbA¶gl, Fritz, Dokumente zur NA?rnberger Kartographie (NA?rnberg: Selbstverlag der Stadtbibliothek, 1966), 45 (German lands, Francia orientalis). Delumeau, Jean, History of Paradise: The Garden of Eden in Myth and Tradition, University of Illinois Press, 2000, 288 pp.
Dumrese, Hans, EinfA?hrung in die Betrachtung der Ebstorfer Weltkarte (LA?neburg: Peters, 1954).
Hoogvliet, M., a€?The Mystery of the Makers, Did Nuns Make the Ebstorf Map?a€?, Mercatora€™s World, Volume 1, Number 6, pp. Ohnsorge, W., a€?Zur Datierung der Ebstorfer Weltkarte,a€? Niedersaechsisches Jahrbuch fA?r Landesgeschicgte 13 (1961), 158-185. Ruge, Walter, a€?Alteres kartographisches Material in deutschen Bibliotheken,a€? Nachrichten der K.
SchnelbA¶gl, Fritz, Dokumente zur NA?rnberger Kartographie (NA?rnberg: Selbstverlag der Stadtbibliothek, 1966), 44. Staszewski, J., a€?Polska i Baltyk na mapie swiata z Ebsdorfua€? [Poland and the Baltic Sea on the Mappa Mundi of Ensdorf], Zeszyty Geograficzne Wyzszej Szkoly Pedagogicznej w Gdansku 4 (1962). Uhden, Richard, a€?Die A¤ltesten Verfahren der Erdkreisteilung,a€? Petermanns Mitteilungen, 1930, 126.
Uhden, Richard, a€?Zur Herkunft und Systematik der mittelalterlichen Weltkarten,a€? Geographishe Zeitschrift. Woodward, David, a€?Reality, Symbolism, Time, and Space in Medieval World Maps,a€? Annals of the Association of American Geographers 75 (1985), pp. DESCRIPTION: The world maps made by the European Church Fathers were a legacy taken over from the ancient world, and they were gradually expanded and adapted in accordance with the texts which they accompanied.
Maps gradually came to stand on their own as independent works, instead of mere supplements to texts. Among the first maps in Christian Europe to reveal a new character are those by Pietro Vesconte (fl. These maps of Italy use the coastal outline from portolan charts as the basis for a general map of the area, showing mountains, rivers and inland towns. The world map included in this volume was made by Vesconte who used his knowledge of sea charts in the crafting of this work. Pietro Vesconte, in his mappamundi drawn for Marino Sanudoa€™s Secreta fidelium crucis, tried to combine the two types into one image.
The Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts, with (in the east) the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, are no longer an unrecognizable pattern of shapes that can be identified only by names attached to them; instead they are drawn just as in a normal portolan chart.
The map however cannot be considered as a T-O type but akin to the Ptolemaic model of the world, having been rotated 90 degrees.
Northern Europe is show as a densely populated area with many legends of towns and provinces. The flat-bottomed circular sea enveloped by mountains is named Mare Caspiu [the Caspian Sea]. The unnamed mountain range running between the Black Sea and the arrow-like Caspian Sea can only be the Caucasus Mountain range. To the left of the red inscription Asia there is a vertically standing rectangle resting on the mountain range, bearing the label Archa Noe [Noaha€™s Ark]. To the west of Armenia, south of the Black Sea the region is divided into various strips of land starting at the top with Persida, Asia Minor and followed by Bitia [Bithynia]. Africa occupies most of the southern hemisphere and does bear the basic geographical features such as the Gulf of Guinea and the Cape despite its inaccurate shape.
From Rouben Galichiana€™s Countries South of the Caucasus in Medieval Maps: Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan the text surrounding the map provides explanatory comments about various provinces and their features.
The map sees the first mention of the name Georgia, though there is a reference to Colchis (or Abkhazia), indicating that the latter may not yet have been entirely annexed with the kingdom of Georgia. The chronicle compiled by the Minorite friar Paulinus dates from about the same time (ca.1320). Besides his world map, the most interesting of the medieval maps of Palestine was also drawn by Vesconte in about 1320. Fine example of this rare portolan map of the World, the earliest surviving printed evidence of Pietro Vescontea€™s world map created circa 1311, generally considered to be one of the earliest surviving examples of a modern map of the world. This mappamundi is, in essence, a portolano of the Mediterranean world combined with work of pre-portolan type in remoter regions. Its basic form also conforms to fundamental medieval conceptions of geography, in that it is oriented with East at the top and shows Jerusalem at the center of the World.
The present printed version of the map shown above appeared in Germany in the early 17th century. Vescontea€™s portolan of the eastern Mediterranean (1311), is the oldest known signed and dated map.
Twenty-three surviving examples of Sanudoa€™s manuscript work are known to exist, all of which date from the 14th Century.
Vescontea€™s most important sea chart atlases were produced in 1313, 1318, 1321 and 1322 and are kept in Bibliotheque National de France, Rel.
Vesconte world map, 1320, 35 cm diameter, oriented with East at the topa€?British Library, Additional MS. This world map is painted using colors fairly typical of the medieval period.A  The oceans, seas and rivers are in green, the saw-tooth mountains in brown, the major cities represented by crowns and castles are in red, and the landmasses are in white. Vesconte world map, 1320, 35 cm diameter, oriented with East at the topBritish Library, Additional MS. Ignatius of Loyola, who after being wounded in a battle, experienced a religious conversion and composed the Spiritual Exercises to closely follow Christ.
The fresco was created by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc after 1743.
The Psalms consist of 150 ancient songs, grouped together to form one of the Old Testament books of the Bible. In addition, its map is a unique representation of the world, in an age when foreign travel was difficult and hazardous, and the art of map-making - in the modern sense - in its infancy.
But within this overall structure, the map demonstrates an interest in more local places: the countries of the British Isles are discernable in the lower left quadrant, and despite the very limited space available one can make out rivers such as the Thames and Severn, and London is marked with a gold dot.
A map such as this was not intended, like a modern atlas, to guide someone in their travels from one place to another, but to show important places in an overall scheme. It tells us much about 13th century English men and womena€™s knowledge of the world around them, and about their understanding of their place within it.
The heads of Adam and Eve appear within the enclosure, which seems to be marked off with lofty and symmetrical mountains. In 1888 the map was restored at the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin, and the 30 goatskins on which the map was painted were taken apart.
Photographs taken at the time of the 1888 restoration have not survived, but Ernst Sommerbrodt reproduced them in 1891 as an atlas of collotypes (Lichtdruck), half the size of the original (the volume measures 48 by 64 centimeters and contains 25 collotype plates).
It may possibly have been used as an altar piece at one time, a€?no doubt intended both for instruction and for pious meditation upon the endless miracles wrought by Goda€?.

Can this depiction be attributed to Adam of Bremena€™s reference to Finland as a terram feminarum - the land of the women? According to Van Duzer, this sea serpent derives from Honorius Augustodunensis, Imago mundi 1.12, who mentions huge serpents in India that can eat stags and swim across the ocean.
Not only are the rivers Elbe and Weser shown, but also included are their smaller tributaries, the Ilmenau, the Leine with its tributary the Innerste, the Aller with the Oker and even the tiny Gosea€”all correctly ordered. Gervasea€™s book not only contains a description of the whole earth (tocius orbis descriptio), but also, and most importantly in the present context, it appears to have been the latest work of all those used in the compilation of the Ebstorf map. This seems to imply that the map was no miniature within the book, but a separate map accompanying it.
Raymond, a€?New light on some medieval maps,a€? The Geographical Journal, London, XV (1900), pp.
RA¶mische Reisewege an der Hand der Tabula Peutingeriana (Stuttgart: Strechker und SchrA¶der, 1916), XXXVIII. Miller, Die Ebstorfkarte] Petermanns Mitteilungen, Gotha, XLVI (1900), Literaturbericht, pp. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu GA¶ttingen, Philologisch-historische Klasse, GA¶ttingen, 1904, Heft I, 3.
The arguments for Gervase of Tilburya€™s being the mapmaker are based on the name a€?Gervasea€?, which was an uncommon name in Northern Germany at the time, and on some similarities between the world views of the mapmaker and Gervase of Tilbury. Gog and Magog are shown on the Ebstorf map as cannibals; they are pictured in the midst of a northeastern area walled-off by mountains through which a passage, named Porte Caspie, leads. Noah's Ark is shown perched on top of the twin peaks of Ararat and Noah is depicted with open arms welcoming the white dove, which has returned with an olive branch in its beak. The impressions of the world, therefore, recorded by the scientific attitude of Ptolemy and those in the Ebstorf map, both lie, though at different depths, in the twilight zone between experience and dream. The commentaries and learned notes (scholia) added to the texts formed the basis of further alterations to the maps.
They became an essential part of the collections in monastic libraries, in whose catalogues we commonly find, from the ninth century onward, at least one such independent map.
A A copy was also offered to the King of France, to whom Sanuto desired to commit the military and political leadership of the new crusade.
On this copy he even drew rosettes, which are standard feature in the portolan sea charts but are scarcely used outside the sea chart tradition. The maps were in fact long thought to be the work of Marino Sanuto [also spelled a€?Sanudoa€?] himself.
Notwithstanding its raison da€™etre (urging the European rulers to organize a new crusade) it stands bereft of any religious content.
Norwegia is a peninsula and Anglia, Scotia and Hybernia are shown as islands in the North Sea. Situated between this and the Black Sea [Mare Pontos] there is another arrow-like lake, which bears the legend a€?marea€? only. At its intersection with the second mountain range the vignette of a large gate reads Porte Forree [Iron Gates, the name given to the Caspian Gates by the Persians, Turks, Armenians and others]. The eastern end of this mountain range is called Montes Caspii [Caspian Mountains] while towards its western extremity it is identified as Taurisius or Taurus mountain range.
Calcedonia, Licaonia, Galatia, Lidia and Frigia minor [Phrygia], Cilicia lies to the south of this region, over the mountains and between the two vignettes of castles. The Nile River has its source in unspecified mountains and flows northwards to the Mediterranean flowing through Egyprus, past numerous castellated towns located on its shores. At the top right of the map, lines two to five and twelve to fourteen from the top describe the peoples, features and location of Armenia. It too contains a world map and a map of Palestine, which closely resemble the work of Pietro Vesconte.
Vescontea€™s map, in its earliest form, survives in a 14th century manuscript work by Marino Sanudo, which was reproduced for the first time in print in Johann Bongarsa€™ Orientalium expeditionum historia. A The ocean surrounds the known landmasses of the world, while the outer parts are largely conjectural. A Notably, this map, along with Vescontea€™s other work, features the first broadly accurate conceptions of the Mediterranean and Black Seas.
A It was produced as part of the greater intellectual movement that flourished in Europe, and in Germany in particular, roughly from 1450 to 1650, during which scholars, heavily influenced by the enlightened ethic of Humanism, sought to acquire, preserve and learn from the most progressive elements of Classical and Medieval thought.
As evident on the present map, Vesconte was the first mapmaker to accurately maps the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and his depiction of Great Britain was a marked improvement over his predecessors.
In the Middle Ages (and down to the present day) they formed a fundamental part of Christian and Jewish worship, for ecclesiastics and lay-people alike; many people learned to read by being taught the Psalms. In fact medieval people knew that the world was not flat: a 13th century encyclopedia compares the way in which humans can walk around the surface of the globe to the way in which a fly can walk around an apple without falling off when it is upside-down at the bottom. The distortion of a€?reala€™ geography can be compared to the way in which modern maps of city subway systems - such as Harry Becka€™s London Underground map - radically re-arrange distances and placements to make a more comprehensible diagram.
Other saints in the calendar (such as the relatively obscure St Erkenwald, a seventh-century bishop of London) indicate that the book was probably made in London, and this is supported by the style of the illumination. In this dismembered form the map was stored out of public sight in the State Archives in Hanover until in 1943 when it was destroyed during a World War II air raid. Five years later, Konrad Miller published both a colored and a black-and-white lithograph based on a hand-drawn copy. As learned man undoubtedly acquainted with classical literature, Adam may have implied himself that these were indeed the same Amazons, as mentioned in the Alexander Romance.
There is also a legend divided among three islands in the Persian Gulf which reads: Tres insule, in quibus ydri marini vicinorum cubitorum existunt, that is, a€?Three islands, in which there are sea serpents twenty cubits long,a€? but there is no representation of the serpents. Such detailed local knowledge links the production of the map with the area of Ebstorf in general. An Examination of Cartography in Relation to Culture and Civilization (Prentice Hall, 1972), pp.
The editors of the Oxford Medieval Texts edition of Gervase of Tilburya€™s Otia Imperialia conclude that although their being the same man is an a€?attractive possibilitya€?, to accept it requires a€?too many improbable assumptionsa€?. The map also draws most lavishly of all upon Christian sources.A  The Scriptures, the Fathers of the Church, the holy legends, and all the other elements of this magnificent synopsis of early medieval cosmography are made to fit into the Christian horizon.
1072) in Northwest Europe.A  Other near contemporary sources include the maps and legends from the Imago Mundi of Honorius Augustodunensis (ca. The creatures are eating human body parts (recognizable as feet and hands) and drinking the blood flowing out of them; a footless, handless victim is also depicted. For modern man it may seem somewhat alienating that geography is the least important aspect on medieval maps, on which biblical and mythical narratives are embedded into an ahistorical world order.
Each of them bears noble witness, in its own great cultural epoch, to a great historical process with many ups and downs, to mana€™s growing awareness of the world around him. He was a Genoese cartographer and one of the earliest creators of portolan [nautical] charts. This is large propaganda volume, was written on vellum and includes many miniatures and vignettes of the Crusaders and their battles with the Saracens. The region of the Mediterranean, whose accurate portolan charts already existed, is depicted in true detail but the rest of the world is shown in very approximate form and shape.
Later, however, a copy of the Liber secretorum was discovered with the signature of Pietro Vesconte and the date 1320, and he is now considered the author of the maps in place of Sanuto, who was not known as a cartographer.
While much of his production is conventional, his world map for Sanudoa€™s crusader manuscript departs dramatically from earlier examples, seeking to combine the mathematical system and new land-shapes of the portolan charts with the contained, circular, Jerusalem-centered format of most mappaemundi. On this map we do not see mythical and Biblical creatures or other Christian features such as the Earthly Paradise or the rivers of Paradise and here, for the first time in medieval world maps the Red Sea is not colored red and does not standout.
This should in fact be the Caspian Sea, since to its south the legends read Caspia and Yrcania, two provinces located south of the Caspian Sea. For the first time in medieval western maps this passage, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been shown in as correct position, namely on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Two lines further down there is a description regarding Georgia beginning with: Kingdom of Georgia has a large white mountain at its east, and to its south lies Armenia.
Some differences in detail occur; for example, though both the Vatican copy and the Paris copy have two Caspian Seas, in the Vatican copy they are the same shape, while in the Paris copy the western Caspian corresponds to the later form of the Catalan maps. 1450): it illustrated a book by Marino Sanuto that urged a new crusade to re-conquer the Holy Land, now entirely lost to the Christians. A True to the medieval conception of the world, the landmasses are about equally balanced between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. A These scholars sought to go ad fontes, or a€?to the original sourcea€™ of the knowledge, or as close to it as possible.
Vescontea€?s world maps were circular in format and oriented with East to the top, although most of the fabulous elements so common to early world maps have been omitted, Prester John, the mythical Christian king occasionally located in Ethiopia, does manage to appear on Vescontea€™s map and has been a€?re-locateda€? to India. The Psalms were often written out separately from the rest of the Bible, often preceded by a calendar of the Churcha€™s feast-days, and followed by various types of prayers; such a book is known as a Psalter. Despite this, the world was conventionally represented as a flat circle, oriented with the East at the top (a€?to orienta€™ something literally means to make it face east). It has also been proposed that the map is a miniature version of one that is known to have been painted on the wall of the Kinga€™s bed-chamber in the Palace of Westminster. The colored version accompanies Konrad Miller, Mappaemundi, Die altesten Weltkarten, Heft 5: Die Ebstorfkarte.
Even more significantly, the map contains a vignette of the church and the graves of the martyrs of Ebstorf (Ebbekestorp), which ties it specifically to that small nunnery in particular. One manifestation, large and immediately evident, is the depiction of Christa€™s head, feet and hands at top and bottom, and left and right of the eartha€™s circumference. Whereas the Ebstorf map measured 3.57 meters [12 feet] in diameter, the mural map in the church of Saint-Silvain at Chalivoy-Milon, Cher, France, dating from the second quarter of the 12th century, was six meters in diameter. 1129) and various tales of the 11th and 12th centuries such as that of the island discovered by St. According to the caption, Alexander enclosed two wild nations, Gog and Magog, who will be the companions of Antichrist.
As fanciful as many depictions and the abstracted land mass may appear at first, some very tangible information can be deduced by pursuing an interdisciplinary ethnographic, archaeological and historical approach, demonstrating that not every fanciful adornment is in fact a chimaera of a bored silver-haired monk. He operated primarily out of Venice, and greatly influenced Italian and Catalan mapmaking throughout the 14th and 15th centuries. One of the paintings on folio 7r is that of the Crusader forces meeting King Leo of Armenia (Cilician Armenia) and the prisoners of the Armenian king. As mentioned above, Sanutoa€™s work was written to induce the kings of Europe to undertake another crusade against the Turks, and so the following maps accompanied it: a world map, maps of the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, the western coast of Europe and Palestine, plans of Jerusalem, and Ptolemais [Acre and Antioch].
In this map, the influence of the portolan charts can be seen at a glance: in contrast with the amorphous forms of Asia and southern Africa (familiar in many other medieval mappaemundi), the Mediterranean world is instantly recognizable and proportionate, clearly copied directly from the outlines of a portolan chart.
In fact the map has rather more Islamic religious content, such as in Arabia, the Islamic religious centers of Mecca [Mecha] and Baghdad [Baldac], all shown red. The river Tanay [Tanais = Don] is shown flowing from a northern mountain range into the Sea of Azov. It follows that the true identity of the flat-bottomed sea above should have been the Sea of Aral, situated in western central Asia, with Bactria shown on its shores. In southwest Asia the following toponyms stand out Arabia (red), Mecha [Mecca red], Baldac [Baghdad. Cartographically, however, it was far more sophisticated than Hardinga€™s map, though more than a century older.
A The Arabian peninsula, Black Sea and Caspian Sea are in a recognizable form, and the name Georgia appears above the Caucus Mountains.
A As is the case with the antecedent of the present map, most of these sources existed only in manuscript form, available in a single or with very few examples. The upper part of the circle is occupied by Asia, and the lower half divided into two quarters for Europe and Africa. In fact, most modern scholars agree on the mapa€™s origin in Ebstorf, or at least for its having been made for Ebstorf, although the monastery of St Michael at LA?neburg (Rosien, Jaitner), not far away, and Hildesheim (DrA¶gereit), have also been suggested.
The second is a small vignette at the center of the map that shows Christa€™s body rising from the dead and emerging from the tomb in Jerusalem. Some consider him as the first professional cartographer to sign and date his works regularly. The king himself is shown surrounded by symbols of various rulers neighboring Cilicia, namely the Lion in the north (Mongols), the Wolf in the west (the Turks), the Serpent in the south and the Leopard in the east. Even more striking is the network of lines that are drawn in a sixteen-point wind-rose that encircles the whole earth.
For the first time in western medieval cartography, the region of Georgia appears entitled as such. These differences of detail between the maps in contemporaneous manuscripts of Marino Sanuto and Paulinus can only be explained by assuming that two scribes copied Vescontea€™s map, adding to it from different sources.

The ocean surrounds the whole of the known world, the outer parts of which are represented by conjecture. A SomeA idea is also shown of the great continental rivers of the north, such as the Don, Volga, Vistula, Oxus and Syr Daria. A The great achievement of this period was to preserve and liberate this knowledge through the printing press. An essay in illustration of the Hereford Mappa Mundi (Amsterdam: Meridian, 1969), Introduction. An essay in illustration of the Hereford Mappa Mundi (Amsterdam: Meridian), 1969, Introduction, description of map nr 7.
Miller transcribed and discussed the texts within the circle of the map proper, but not those outside it. Particularly in the northern fringes of the Baltic Sea several places along the shore received female names, which were commonly understood as taboo by superstitious seafarers. For those who argue for an early date (Uhden, Rosien, DrA¶gereit, Wolf, Schaller, Hucker), the connection between the map and the English-born Gervase of Tilbury is crucial. Compared with the few similar representations of Christ on world maps, the Ebstorf map is unique in positioning Christa€™s body not outside the world (as on the Hereford map #226) or behind (as on the two sides of the Psalter map (#223) in London, and in a fresco in the cloister of the Campo Santo, Pisa), but within the world, at its four edges. It was originally a€?founda€? about 1160 and, after a fire, was a€?refounda€? between 1175 and 1209 at a Benedictine nunnery that was transformed into a Lutheran convent during the Reformation. He uses an exact copy of one of the rhumb-line networks that covered half of a portolan chart to grid the space of the entire world, rather than just one part as in the portolan charts.
The region of Albania, which should have been near Georgia, is shifted to the upper left corner of the map, near the surrounding ocean, which is outside the area cowered by the detail map. The rivers and mountains were drawn in with less precision and they differ somewhat in the seven surviving copies of the book. The authorship of Marino Sanudo is not definitively established and the original manuscript map has also been attributed to Pietro Vesconte. A The portolan tradition was perhaps the most technically advanced element of medieval geography, and early modern scholars held it in high esteem. Then, in 1930, Augustus Kropp created a hand-colored set of Sommerbrodta€™s plates that is still preserved in the School of Agriculture Ebstorf. Those who prefer to see the map as a later construction (most recently Wilke and Kugler) dispute Gervasea€™s authorship. As Gervase himself put it: a€?Finally, man is called a world [In summa homo mundus appellatur]. The travel reports of Christian seafarers mentioning a a€?land of the womena€? may have been associated by clergymen with Amazons. Isidore of Seville attempted to do with mere words, to describe the sum total of accumulated knowledge about mana€™s habitat, the world, resulting in a comprehensive pictorial encyclopedia, albeit through the rather narrow focus of a religious context.
The grid, however, no longer holds any indexical significance outside of the small corner of the map that has been drawn from the portolan charts. This may seem to us an entirely normal and rational way to set out a map, but in the 14th century it represented an enormous conceptual leap, and confirms that Vesconte was a man of skill and imagination. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. However, its real historical value lies in other areas and, viewed in terms of the cartographera€™s intent, this map does demonstrate genuine historical value. And the Greek calls man a microcosm, that is, a miniature world [Et graecus hominem microcosmum hoc est minorem mundum appellabat]a€™.
On the other hand, charges of cannibalism leveled against the Jews of Fulda in 1235 provide a vivid backdrop to the cannibalism on the Ebstorf map suggesting that the identification of Gog and Magog with Jews was not merely literary, but spilled over into real life.
His work falls within the period 1310-30; the name a€?Perrino Vescontea€™, which appears on one atlas and one chart, may be his own, using a diminutive form, or that of another member of his family. The rest is a strange hybrid that would have provided little navigational assistance to any traveler.
Where he (or Sanuto) got the necessary information, the list locating the towns, we do not know; both this and the grid may derive from Arab sources, and a more remote connection with grid-based maps in China is not impossible.
A While the present printed edition of the map is uncommon, it is nevertheless responsible for creating and maintaining the scholarly awareness of this important map throughout Europe and beyond.
From wherever Gervase obtained his knowledge of the ancient Greek theory of microcosm-macrocosma€”a possible source would have been Isidorea€™s De rerum naturaa€”the points are that Gervase reiterated it in his book, clearly identifying himself with it, and that the Ebstorf map is the only mappamundi known that followed it. Vesconte was one of the few people in Europe before 1400 to see the potential of cartography and to apply its techniques with imagination.
The rhumb lines claim for this new map a kind of symbolic empirical authority, when in actuality the points on the rhumb-circle do little more than indicate the positions of the winds (much like the circular wind-faces depicted along the edges of the world in a work like the Psalter map, #223 Book II). The first post-war reconstructions were made between 1951 and 1953 by the artist Rudolf Wieneke, who produced four identical copies, each a close replica of the original, all executed on the same kind of material (vellum) with the same dimensions and shape, and in the same colors (insofar as these could be identified) as the original mappamundi. Other medieval mapmakers would also have read Isidorea€™s text, but none portrayed the earth as the body of Christ. As can be seen in the world maps he drew around 1320 he introduced a heretofore unseen accuracy in the outline of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean and Black Sea, probably because they were taken from the portolan [nautical] charts.
What the map actually shows varies little from a traditional mappamundi; what has changed is its implied claim to be modern and accurate in a different sense. Two of the reconstructions are on public display, one in the convent of Ebstorf, the other in the Museum des FA?rstentums LA?neburg.
Another parallel between Gervasea€™s Otia imperialia and the Ebstorf map is worth pointing out. We may suspect that his influence lay behind the maps of Italy in the Great Chronology by Paolino Veneto during the years of 1306 to 1321 that was copied at Naples not long after, for other maps in the same manuscript are related to maps from Vescontea€™s workshop that illustrate Marino Sanudoa€™s book calling for a new crusade.
Vescontea€™s map offers a glimpse of the currency that empirical geometry carried at this transitional moment.
Finally, in 2007, Hartmut Kugler and his colleagues published a half-sized version of the map in the form of 61 segments in an atlas, together with a transcription of all the Latin texts on the map, a German translation, and a comprehensive commentary. In the Otia imperialia, the passages referring to the concept of microcosm and macrocosm are found in the first chapter of the first book, which deals with the creation of the world [De origine mundi et eius creatione et quot modis dicitur mundus].
Vesconte clearly saw in the geometry of the portolan charts an iconic, modern power that could be combined with the forms of a traditional world map to create a new kind of picture. As can be seen, a few sheets were already missing, therefore, in order to facilitate the mapa€™s preservation, it was re-divided into its separate sheets.
A He is best known for his lifelong attempts to revive the crusading spirit and movement.A  He wrote his great work is entitled Liber secretorem fidelum Crucis, sive de Recuperatio Terrae Sancta [Secret book of the loyalty to the Cross or the Recapture of the Holy Lands], also called Historia Hierosolymitana, Liber de expeditione Terrae Sanctae, and Opus Terrae Sanctae, the last being perhaps the proper title of the whole treatise as completed in three parts or a€?booksa€?.
The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.
The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later.
EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr.
Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid.
Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories.
The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem.
Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility.
Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities.
One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with. There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants.
Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments.
Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit.
The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months.
Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms.
Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.

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