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The term “edema” refers to the accumulation of large amount of fluid which causes swelling.
There may be considerable swelling on the legs or arms and sometimes on both the legs and arms. This condition can cause repeated infections on the extremities due to accumulation of fluid inside. The symptoms may range from mild to severe depending on the extent of fluid accumulation and there may be marked difference in movement of arms or legs from one person to another. Lymphedema can be caused by the improper functioning of lymph vessels or it can occur due to underlying disease. People undergoing radiation therapy or chemotherapy for cancer has high risk of getting their lymph nodes enlarged.
Bacterial or viral infection can restrict the free flow of lymph fluid causing swelling and inflammation.
Lymphedema can be caused by hereditary condition due to the abnormal development of lymph vessels.
The doctor will look for symptoms of swelling or inflammation of arms or legs or both indicating infection on the lymph nodes. He may use testing procedures like CT scan, MRI scan or Doppler ultrasound for examining the position of arms or legs and also for checking the extent of blockage. There is no proper treatment for lymphedema but you can always take efforts for managing the symptoms and to control pain. The affected arm or leg should be wrapped to encourage the lymph fluid to get discharged into the body. Wearing pneumatic compression or sleeve on the affected leg will give relief from pain or discomfort. People who have other disorders like diabetes, hypertension or heart problems will have to use combined therapy mentioned above for getting effective results. Surgery is the last option for draining the liquid inside the lymph nodes, if none of the above method responds. What Is DVT?Deep vein thrombosis is a blood clot that forms inside a vein, usually deep within your leg. One of the common, potentially serious bacterial skin infections is called cellulitis, which may spread rapidly; it appears as a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot and tender. Though cellulitis can occur anywhere on the body or face, skin on lower legs are most commonly affected. If cellulitis symptoms occur, seeking immediate medical attention is important because the spreading infection may rapidly turn life-threatening when leaving it untreated. When one or more types of bacteria enter trough a crack or break in the skin, cellulitis occurs. The most common location for cellulitis to occur is the legs, near the shins and ankles in particular, although it can occur anywhere on the body. The bacteria that start the infection can be transmitted by certain types of insect or spider bites. Broken blisters on the skin that can serve as potential entry points for bacterial invasion and infection are typically caused by these common viral diseases.
A person becomes more susceptible to infections such as cellulitis because of illnesses that result in weakening of the immune system.
The circulatory system becomes less effective at delivering blood with its infection-fighting white blood cells to some areas of the body as one ages. Increasing a person’s risk of bacterial infection, cracks in the skin can be caused by recurrent fungal infection of the feet or toes. Having diabetes impairs the immune system and increases the risk of infection, and it also increases the blood sugar level. A deeper, more serious infection of the inner layers of skin may be signaled by thus reddened skin or rash. The infection can spread to the deep layer of tissue called the fascial lining in rare cases.
A drug that's effective against both streptococci and staphylococci is usually prescribed, such as cephalexin.
Taking the medication as directed and finishing the entire course of medication is important even if the patient starts feeling better, no matter what type of antibiotic the doctor prescribes. Disclaimer : This site does not endorse or recommend any medical treatment, pharmaceuticals or brand names. This is where there is an irregular heartbeat that occurs in the upper chambers of the heart. As above, the clot can be carried round the blood stream causing a stroke or other blockages. If a patient has had a previous stroke they may be given Warfarin to reduce the chance of clots forming and decreasing the likelihood of another stroke.



The picture opposite show how a blood clot or an atherosclerotic clot may lead to a stroke occurring.
This is where an area of heart muscle is permanently damaged or dies due to an insufficient supply of oxygen.
Here due to a clot an area of heart muscle has died as the blood flow to it has been stopped.
This condition can happen in any part of the body but is more particular in feet, legs and ankles. The main function of this system is to circulate proteins and other nutrients throughout the body. It causes inflammation of the lymph nodes which would eventually restrict the movement of lymphatic fluid.
Many times, corrective surgery for cancer will involve the process of removal of lymph nodes from one part of the body for replacing it on the affected part. Any tumor or extra growth on the lymphatic system blocks the normal function of lymph vessels causing accumulation of fluid. For instance congenital lymphedema caused by Milroy’s disease is an inherited condition affecting the child by birth. Your doctor will examine the lymph nodes if you have undergone recent treatment for cancer or surgery that involves lymph nodes. Doing exercises like gentle stretching and relaxation can improve circulation.You can get help from physiotherapist who will teach you the right techniques. Apply suitable strokes on the leg so that the accumulated fluid gently moves into the body for draining. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Fever may accompany the changes in the skin, and the area of redness tends to expand over time.
Staphylococcus and streptococcus are the most common types of bacteria that cause cellulitis.
The most likely areas for bacteria to enter are disturbed areas of skin, like where one had recent surgery, dermatitis, athlete's foot, an ulcer, cuts or puncture wounds.
Entering the lymph nodes and the bloodstream and spreading throughout the body, the bacteria can spread rapidly once it becomes below the skin.
An example of a deep-layer infection is flesh-eating strep, which is called necrotizing fasciitis as well.
To ensure that the infection is responding to treatment, the patient will likely recheck with the doctor one to two days after starting an antibiotic. Such a blood clot could be formed in the leg (as shown in the diagram opposite) and travelled up to the lung where it is now lodged.
A stroke is where there is a loss of brain function due the loss of blood circulation to an area of the brain.
This insufficient supply is usually caused by a clot blocking one of the coronary arteries (These are the main blood vessels that bring blood and hence oxygen to the heart).
It also does the work of collection of virus, bacteria and other waste materials from the body which is then filtered out through lymphocytes.
Similarly Meige’s disease is also inherited disorder which begins in adolescent age causing swelling of arms and limbs. The built up pressure on the sleeve will gently move the accumulated fluid into the body thereby reducing swelling. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Cellulitis may affect the tissue underlying the skin and can spread to the lymph nodes and bloodstream, or it may affect only the skin's surface.
On the top of the reddened skin, small red spots may appear, and small blisters may form and burst in less common cases. The occurrence of a more serious staphylococcus infection called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing. A person may become more vulnerable to infections when taking immune-suppressing drugs, such as cyclosporine or prednisone. Potentially leading to chronic ulcers of the feet, decreased circulation of blood to a person’s lower extremities may be the result of diabetes. This leftover blood in the chamber is very dangerous as it can form a clot that could enter circulation.
This loss of circulation is usually caused by a clot that has formed elsewhere in the body and then travelled up to the arteries of the brain hence leading to a stroke.
Any blockage in the lymphatic system can prevent the lymph fluid from draining which leads to storage of large volume of lymphatic fluid. Actually the waste products and other bacteria live in the lymph nodes before getting expelled.


Alternatively you can use compression garments or stockings for applying pressure on the legs or arms.
Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. Those immune-suppressing drugs are used to help prevent rejection in people who receive organ transplants, and to treat a variety of illnesses.
This condition happens during the course of cancer treatment which damages the lymph nodes from functioning well. However, the patient may need to be hospitalized and receive antibiotics intravenously if signs and symptoms don't clear up, are extensive, or if the patient has a high fever. So are redness and tenderness or pain in the area of the clot.But you won't always have these. It can cause trouble breathing, low blood pressure, fainting, a faster heart rate, chest pain, and coughing up blood. What Causes DVT?Anything that damages the inner lining of a vein may cause DVT -- surgery, an injury, or your immune system. If your blood is thick or flows slowly, it's more likely to form a clot, especially in a vein that's already damaged. People who have certain genetic disorders or more estrogen in their system are more at risk for blood clots, too.
Hormone TherapyLike pregnancy, birth control pills and some treatments for postmenopausal symptoms raise the amount of estrogen in a woman's blood. Studies show long-distance travel, a trip that lasts more than 4 hours, doubles the risk of developing DVT. When you're in a cramped seat and don't move around, your blood flow slows.  Get a DiagnosisYour doctor will check you for signs of DVT.
He may also ask about your medical history, medications you're taking, medical problems of close relatives, and things that put you at risk. They can't break up a clot you already have, but they will give your body time to dissolve one on its own.
Side Effects of Blood ThinnersPeople who take these may get bruises often or bleed more easily. And you'll need to go to a lab regularly to get your blood checked to make sure you've got the right amount of the drug in your body.
You don't have to do that for newer medications, but they make it harder to stop bleeding if you have an accident.Let your doctor know if you bleed a lot from minor injuries. Internal BleedingBlood thinners can also make it easier to bleed inside your body, where you can't see it.
Bleeding in your belly can cause pain, vomit that's red or looks like coffee grounds, and bright red or black stools. Bleeding in your brain can cause severe headaches, vision changes, unnatural movements, and confusion.
Vena Cava FilterIf you can't take blood thinners or they aren't working, your doctor may recommend putting a filter into your biggest vein, called the vena cava. It won't stop new clots from forming or cure DVT, but it can help prevent a dangerous pulmonary embolism.
They can cause sudden, severe bleeding, so doctors use them only in emergencies -- to dissolve a life-threatening blood clot in your lung, for example.
Compression StockingsThese special socks put gentle pressure on your legs to keep your blood moving. They can help prevent clots from forming as well as reduce swelling and relieve discomfort in a leg where a clot has already formed. You can get compression stockings over the counter, but your doctor will need to write a prescription for ones with more pressure.
Keep Your Feet UpWhen you can, sit with your feet resting off the floor to raise your legs. Long-Term EffectsOnce a blood clot is gone, DVT sometimes leaves behind an unpleasant reminder.
These symptoms, known as post-thrombotic syndrome, sometimes show up as much as a year after the clot. Step away for a bit.Regular exercise also helps keep you at a healthy weight, and that lowers your risk, too. Travel TipsWhen you travel for more than 4 hours, avoid tight clothing and drink plenty of water. Try clenching and releasing your calves and thighs, or lifting and lowering your heels with your toes on the floor.



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