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Abstract The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
AZOSPIRILLUM BIOFERTILIZERAgriculture are becoming an ecoenterprise totrichoderma harzianum bio fertilizer india shree. Coconut is one of the oldest crops grown in India and presently covers 1.5 million hectares in this country.
Some of the fundamentals of the book are product diversification in coconut, future of coconut oil, scope for product diversification, varieties of coconut, farming systems in coconut, organic farming of coconut, spices and herbs, establishment and maintenance of organic coconut plantations, production of organic spices, medicinal and aromatic plants along with coconut, crop improvement, green manuring in coconut garden organic recycling in coconut, soil moisture conservation in coconut garden, harvest and post harvest technology, integrated farming in coconut holdings for productivity improvement, machinery and processing of desiccated coconut, coconut processing sector in India, etc. Coconut plays an important role in the economic, social and cultural activities of millions of people in our country. A perennial crop like coconut, which is committed to the land for decades, utilizes the natural resources like light, water and nutrients only to a very limited extent due to the peculiarity of its rooting pattern and canopy structure.
The rooting pattern of coconut is such that only 25 percent of land area is effectively utilized.
Based on the growth habit of the palm and the amount of light transmitted through its canopy, the life span of coconut palm could he divided into three distinct phases from the point of view of intercropping (Fig.
A number of crops can be accommodated in the unutilized area enabling better use of natural resources. It has been observed that in the mid-Ivory Coast, young coconuts developed faster under intercropping conditions, in particular with well managed inter crops such as yam or cassava, whereas with the cover crop Pueraria, development slowed down, probably due to excessive water consumption. Increased palm density intercepts increased quantum of light reducing the quantum of light available underneath the palms and vice versa. Water availability depends on rainfall and irrigation, the water-holding capacity of the soil, soil depth and soil water table, evaporation from the soil and transpiration through the vegetation. The beneficial impact of species diversity on soil fertility can be maximized by integrating cattle, poultry, fish etc., in the system.
As coconuts and intercrops will compete for light, water and minerals, spacing between components crops is an important factor. Changes in the ecosystem under the coconut palms caused by intercropping may have positive as well as negative effects on pest and disease development in a plantation, such as in the case with pigeon pea, which can favour the development of the coconut leaf miner (Prometotheca cumingii) population. The desirable characters of crops to be grown under or between coconut palms are listed below. Crops should be selected according to their shade tolerance and amount of solar radiation available. Should not require harvesting or other operations that would damage the main crop or induce soil erosion or damage soil structure.
Crops should be selected according to the soil type, rainfall pattern, irrigation facilities and climatic conditions.
Perennial intercrops, such as cocoa, coffee, banana, small fruit trees, clove and other tree spices will show a positive cash flow only after a number of years.
Coconut oil, which comes under edible-industrial group, is used as a cooking oil, hair oil, massage oil and industrial oil. Coconut oil contains short and medium chain fatty acids which are important components present in natural sebum and good food for hair. A preliminary study conducted by the CPCRI, Kasaragod has revealed variations among the cultivars in fatty acid composition.
Coconut oil is also used extensively in popcorn popping because of its high temperature stability, long shelf life and bland flavour.
Cosmetic Oil: The natural flavour of coconut oil is due to the presence of volatile materials such as ketones and lactones. Coconut oil is relatively non-oily in character and mild to skin and is obtained in a higher state of refinement in its natural form.
Coconut oil is widely used as hair oil from traditional times, since it is believed to help growth of hair. Industrial Oil: Coconut oil forms an important raw material for the production of toilet soaps, liquid soaps, shaving cream and natural shampoos due to its high lauric acid content.
Coconut oil can be easily saponified even in cold condition due to the presence of low molecular weight fatty acids.
Coconut oil finds extensive use in the food industry due to its characteristics such as easy melting behaviour, resistance to oxidative rancidity, pleasing flavour and good digestibility.
Illuminant: the earliest times, coconut oil and similar vegetable oils have been used as lamp oil in households and temples. Fuel Extender: Coconut oil can be used has as extender to diesel and bunker type fuel oils. Process: Well dried copra with a moisture content not exceeding 6 percent is cleaned well from any foreign matter. The oil cake obtained as a by-product will find a ready market as a raw material for the extraction of remaining oil by solvent extraction method or as a cattle feed. Coconut oil contains amongst other glycerides those of the volatile acids-carproic, carprylic and capric, which on decomposition causes rancidity. Storing the oil in brown bottles was found to improve the stability and prolong its shelf-life. Centrifugal oil separators are used for purification, clarification and filtration of coconut oil. Quality Standards: The Bureau of Indian Standards and Agmark have prescribed quality standards for coconut oil. Manufacturers of coffee whiteners also prefer to use hydrogenated coconut oil in their formulations. Coconut oil is a source of oleo-chemicals such as fatty acids, glycerol, methyl esters, fatty alcohols, etc. The main oils and fats used in the oleochemicals industry are tallow oil, palm stearine, coconut oil, and palm kernel oil. Coconut fatty acid isopropyl ester: Oil with solvent properties and wetting capacity for aerosols, decorative cosmetics and hair care preparations. Coconut fatty acid monoethanolamide: Booster for detergents, foam stabilizer and thickening agent for shampoos and bubble baths, consistency factor for sticks.
Coconut fatty acid diethanolamide: Foam and viscosity increasing component with super fatting and emulsifying characteristics for shampoos, bubble bath and dish washing agents.
Coconut fatty acid polyethanolamide: Additive for dish washing agents, co-emulsifier for cleaning agents and metal working agents. Coconut amine ethoxylate: Raw material for wetting, emulsifying and cleaning agents especially for acid media, liquefiers for concrete, corrosion inhibitors. Lauric acid hexyl ester: Especially for aerosol preparation, good spreading properties, low viscosity. Lauric acid monoethanolamide: Foam stabilizer and super fatting agent for toiletry soaps, shampoos and bubble baths, fixative agent for perfume in soaps. Sodium lauryl sulphate: Emulsifier, foaming agent for toothpastes, bath preparation in powder form, emulsifier for mouth wash and wetting agent in tablets. Lithium lauryl sulphate: Base with good dispersing properties and gentle foam for shampoos and foam baths. Ammonium lauryl sulphate: Shampoo base, fine foam structure, good cold water solubility for cleansing agents, dish washing agents. Sodium lauryl sulphate (C12, recrystallized): Pure SLS foaming agent for tooth paste and mouth washes. Magnesium lauryl ether sulphate: Base for manufacture of liquid shampoos and bath preparations.
Sodium lauryl ether sulpahte: Base for manufacture of liquid shampoos, bubble bath, high quality dish washing agents, light foam fire fighting concentrates. Sodium lauryl ether phosphate: Wetting agents, floatation auxiliaries, special wetting agents for hot copper baths containing cyanides. Amphoteric coconut alkyl dimethylammonium: For liquid shampoos and shower baths, especially baby and special shampoos, also base for cationic shampoos.
Lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride: Highly effective bactericide and fungicide for disinfectants.
Lauryl trimethyl ammonium chloride: Wetting agents, antistatic agents, bactericide, conditioner for hair care. The coconut oil cake obtained from mechanized rotary mill contains 10-12 per cent oil and that obtained from expeller mill contains 7-9 per cent oil.
In a study conducted by the erstwhile Central Coconut Research Station, Kasaragod it was found that coconut oil cake can be stored upto a period of six months without much deterioration provided it is stored in a dry godown.
Manufacture of virgin coconut oil by partially mechanized method: Coconut kernel is grated using a rotary grater. Desiccated Coconut is the disintegrated and dehydrated coconut meat used as a substitute to grated coconut in food preparations.
DC Standards: Three grades of DC have been specified in the Indian Standards Specifications, namely fine, medium and coarse.
DC requires controlled drying rates, otherwise oozing of oil renders the product unacceptable. In a study conducted by the erstwhile Central Coconut Research Station on the shelf life of DC, it was found that in order to obtain good keeping quality; the shredded coconut should be dried to less than 2 per cent moisture, preferably below 1 per cent. In a study conducted by the erstwhile Coconut Research Station, Kasaragod, it was found that the immature nuts give an unsatisfactory product with poor colour and keeping quality. Traditionally, coconut milk is prepared at home by grating the coconut meat and then pressing the grated meat through a piece of cloth by adding water. The technology for manufacturing coconut cream has been developed by the Regional Research Laboratory Thiruvananthapuram under a sponsored project of the Board. The residue obtained after the extraction of milk is dried in a hot air dryer to 3 per cent moisture level.
Quality and yield of coconut milk is affected by several factors such as processing technology, varietal differences, coconut maturity, meat particle size, processing temperature and extraction pressure.
Coconut jam, coconut syrup, coconut honey, sweetened condensed coconut milk, coconut candy, etc. Process: The process consists of deshelling, paring, disintegrating, squeezing milk, formulating, homogenizing, pasteurizing and spray drying.
The technology for the manufacture of spray dried coconut milk powder has been developed by the CFTRI, Mysore under a sponsored project of the Coconut Development Board.
Though coconut is grown primarily for its oil and food values, about 5% of the total production is harvested as tender coconuts for use as a beverage especially in some of the major cosmopolitan regions.
Integrated processing technology calls for ensuring marketability of a wide variety of by-products besides the oil, which include, coconut milk beverage, coconut honey, coconut proteins, condensed coconut milk, coconut cream, etc., all of them being novel products without any consumer acquaintance. Coconut water, available during factory processing of the nuts has at present no industrial or edible use but it can be converted into useful products with some potential. Infectious Risk Assessment of Unsafe Handling Practices and Management of Clinical Solid Waste. Found across much of the tropic and subtropical area, the coconut is known for its great versatility as seen in the many domestic, commercial, and industrial uses of its different parts. Therefore, there is scope for exploiting the unutilized natural resources in a coconut garden so as to enhance the income of coconut farmer. Cultivation of other crops under coconut brings additional income and employment opportunities.
Intercropping may be resumed when enough light penetrates the canopy to allow for growing of another crop. Increased shading of the soil by intercropping and the natural mulch from fallen leaves of intercrops, may stabilize soil temperature and considerably reduce the loss if water by evaporation under a combination of cocoa and coconut. One advantage of multiple cropping systems is greater total uptake of nutrients from the soil.
In the integrated farming system, it is possible to enhance the fertility status of the soil without resorting to the use of chemical fertilizers.
In densely planted coconut plantations, intercropping should be restricted and only shade-tolerant crops are to be grown. Such crops, requiring more capital and time but less labour once planted, will be more appropriate for larger holdings, whereas the small holder may be more interested in immediate returns, especially when fertilizers are being used. Medium chain triglycerides are generally used as occlusive agents because they lower evaporative loss of water from the skin. The hybrids in general had lower concentration of saturated fatty acids and correspondingly low ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid concentrations. Coconut oil is preferred to be used as hair oil due to its low viscosity and pleasant aroma.
Coconut oil soaps are known for its excellent lathering property even in hard and saline water. Coconut oil soap is reported to be appreciably active against typhoid bacillus at ordinary temperature.
Coconut oil is preferred as a source of fat in the preparations of filled milk, infant milk powder, ice-cream, and confectionery and bakery products. Coconut oil had been the chief ingredient of margarine in Western Europe and the USA in the very past.
Coconut oil is well suited for the purpose since it does not leave a smoky flame if used in open lamps with wicks.
In a trial conducted in the Philippines, it was found that upto 20% coconut oil can be mixed with 80% diesel oil for running the electric generating plants and upto 30% coconut oil could be used for running motor vehicles. Addition of either common salt (1%) tamarind (2%) or citric acid (500 ppm) to coconut oil enhances its shelf life considerably. Clarification of oil enables easy and quick separation of solids, moisture, fine sludge, etc. The process of refining of coconut oil involves three steps - neutralization, bleaching and deodourisation. ISI stipulates that coconut oil for edible purpose should be free from added colouring or flavoring substances or mineral oil. The double bonds of unsaturated glycerides are eliminated by hydrogenation resulting in a product with higher melting point. It is produced by the reaction of coconut fatty acids and methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst in the presence of heat to speed up the reaction process.
It is reported that refined, bleached and deodorized oil (RBD) may add 8 percent to the value of crude oil, but fatty acids add 30 percent and fatty alcohols 50 percent value. The increase in acidity of coconut oil cake can be considerably checked if the moisture content of the cake is kept low.
The pelleted cake is moved through a slow moving band conveyor and hexane is sprayed into the cake. The deshelled coconut kernels in the form of round balls are pared using scrapers to remove the testa. To keep the product below 2 per cent moisture level, the RH of the surrounding air should be below 50 per cent and hence the necessity of absolute moisture proof containers which will prevent ingest of moisture from outside.
The confectionery and bakery units are the main consumers of desiccated coconut in the organized sector. This is an instant product which can either be used directly or diluted with water to make various preparations such as curries, sweets, desserts, puddings, etc.
A low cost technology for the manufacture of coconut cream has also been developed by the RRL. The residue forms a base for making coconut burfi, coconut cookies, curries and chutney powders. 12 month old mature nuts produce high yield while use of immature nuts not only lead to low milk yield but also cause clogging of the screw press.
The coconut milk obtained by squeezing the kernel in the screw press is standardized with the additives mainly maltodextrin and sodium casseinate to improve the fluidity of the final product. Almost 60% of the mature nuts production ends up in the households for use in culinary preparations. Partially defatted coconut containing only about 50-60% of the oil present in the nut has also been developed as a substitute to desiccated coconut for use in bakery and confectionery industry but the product is yet to gain universal acceptance though economically it has some advantage.



The venetian structure of the coconut crown and the orientation of leaves allow part of the incident solar radiation to pass through the canopy and fall on the ground.
In some cases, growing banana is also practiced by some of the farmers, depending upon the space and light available for such understoreyed crops. The age of the palms at which intercropping can be resumed depends very much on the spacing of coconut palms, the variety of coconuts grown, and the shade tolerance of the intercrop.
Studying the efficiency of crops under shade is therefore an additional area of investigation that may be useful in determining optimal management of multi-storeyed and high density multi-species cropping systems. However, water consumption through transpiration could increase when intercrops are grown under coconuts. However, increased uptake of nutrients in the system is the result of better utilization of light and water confounding with the better utilization of available nutrients by the component crops.
Here, the system is kept productive and resilient by maximizing the complementary and synergistic effects of the components involved. In very densely planted plantations the palms that do not yield satisfactorily have to be cut down, but it is often very difficult to convince a farmer of the need to cut bearing palms, even if they produce only a few nuts. Availability of local labour and management skills are factors to be considered while selecting the crop combinations in a system. This is believed to give substantial health benefits when used as a dietary fat because of their rapid utilization for energy. The unique feature of coconut oil is its low unsaturation low viscosity, water white colour and unsaponifiable matter consisting of phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene.
Besides, its germicidal property and rapid penetration into the skin make coconut oil an ideal body oil. Coconut oil when used for hair without chemical modification, results in several important physical effects. Coconut oil by itself is rarely used alone in the manufacture of soap except in the cottage sector.
Lauric acid from coconut oil is converted into lauryl alchol and then to sodium lauryl ether sulfate which is the main ingredient of synthetic shampoo.
Coconut oil when used for surface spray for biscuits gives a glossy appearance and provides a moisture barrier.
Margarine is made normally by mixing hard fats with liquid oils to get the required consistency and hardness appropriate to temperate zone climate. It is reported that in Thailand coconut oil with kerosene is blended in a ratio 20:1 by the farmers to power their trucks and tractors.
It is rather due to the direct oxidation of free fatty acids by the oxygen of air and it is accentuated by exposure to light. The refined coconut is used in the manufacture of biscuits, chocolates and other confectionery items, ice-creams, pharmaceutical products, nail polish, perfumed hair oil and paints. Hydrogenation of coconut oil produces only a slight change in consistency and melting point of coconut oil. After solvent extraction, only 1 to 2.5 per cent oil will remain in the cake, which will be having a shelf life of about 6 months under normal storage condition. Storing the cake in alkathene lined gunny bags prevents the absorption of moisture by the cake thereby improving the shelf life. In the traditional method the milk extracted from grated coconut kernel is boiled to get oil. The pared kernel balls are then cut open to drain off the water and then washed thoroughly in fresh water to remove the invert sugars from the inner surface of the kernel.
There are grades such as extra fine; medium, granular cut, macaroons, flakes, chips, long thread and rice cut in the international market. Shredded coconut can be effectively fluidized and dried in a Vibro Fluidized Bed Dryer which enhances the quality of DC. Though there is not much difference in the quality of the product produced from 11 or 12 months old nuts, mature nuts should be preferred to get higher yield. It offers additional advantage such as less storage space, enhanced shelf life and reduced packaging cost.
Approximately one third of the annual production is used by the processing industry for the manufacture of coconut oil.
Coconut water is also processed into vinegar type of products after fortifying with sugar and fermentation with yeast and acetobacter. All parts of coconut tree is useful in one way or other and the crop profoundly influences the socio economic security of millions of farm families. Under favourable conditions, as many as 4000 to 7000 roots are found in the middle aged palms. The environment in irrigated coconut plantations favours luxuriant growth of grass and other vegetation throughout the year due to favourable microclimate of high humidity and favourable soil temperature. If low light intensity is limiting yield, the potential response to fertilizer application will also be limited, so that measuring light may be useful basis for nutrient management of intercrops. Studies at CPCRI have shown that high level of productivity could be achieved in a coconut-based agroecosystem with a lower level of fertilizer input. When new plantations are to be established, wider spacings are recommended, allowing scope for raising a wider range of intercrops. Thus, creating a better natural balance, crops that harbor the same pests or diseases that also attack coconuts should be avoided. The peculiarity in the composition of the fatty acids of coconut oil is of special significance and therefore, it is widely used in various industrial applications.
Application of coconut oil on the skin is expected to help fixation of vitamin D in the body. It may form 20-40 per cent of the charge for washing soaps and 15 to 20 per cent of the charge for toilet soaps. The composition of the formulae used in margarine preparation depends to a large extent on the relative prices of the various ingredients. Fuel filters have to be changed in shorter time, when coconut oil blended with kerosene is used as fuel. After proper cooking, the cooked material is fed into the expeller continuously and pressed twice. From the above primary chemicals various oleo-chemical derivatives or down stream chemicals such as alkanolamides, medium chain triglycerides, etc. It is reported that biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable and free of sulphur and carcinogenous benzene. The most important qualities of coconut oil cake as observed by the farmers are its palatability to the animals and better results in terms of milk production as well as the improved quality of butter and ghee.
This cake as such is used as cattle feed or mixed with various ingredients to manufacture mixed cattle feed. The major factor that influences the growth of mould in coconut oil cake is its moisture content. Coconut protein possesses a high biological value and contains most of the essential amino acids in fair amounts.
Of late, the traditional method has been partially mechanized using a bridge press and mechanical grater.
There are three grades for DC under Agmark Grade Designations, namely Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3. If the harvested nuts are stored for a period of one month, it is easier to remove the kernel from the shell after the nuts are opened. Processed and packed coconut milk has a shelf life of six months and one opened it should be stored in refrigerator for subsequent use. The reported marketing of a product named coconut salad, made from coconut water through fermentation could not be sustained for long as this product is no more available currently.
Vermicompost is obtained from a wide variety of organic waste including residual sludge; when sewage sludge is managed with vermicomposting techniques, the resulting product supplies nutriments, more stable organic matter and works as a soil conditioner. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, becoming the edible coconut flesh.
About 74 percent of these roots produced by a palm under good management do not go beyond 2 m lateral distance (Fig.
The light interception in a cropping system influences the growth, productivity and biomass production of the component crops. Hence, it is worth to have intercrops in such conditions rather than to invest labour in clearing grass and other vegetations. When palms grow old, after about 50 years, a gradual reduction of the canopies may occur and more light will penetrate.
There are indications that the total water consumption of an intercropping mixture may not differ very much from that of a monoculture.
There is a good scope for effective recycling of crop residues and other wastes from a coconut based farming system unit for self-sustenance. Where sun-loving annual intercrops are to be grown, coconuts could be planted in E-W rows 15 m apart or more.
Where coconut suffers from bud rot, caused by Phytophtora palmivora, it is not advisable to intercrop with cocoa, which is very susceptible to this fungus. The natural coconut oil could safely be used as baby oil and the thin film left on the infant's body will act as a protection to the skin. Relatively more carbon residue was found in injection nozzle and the cylinder head when coconut oil blend was used.
The combined oil from the first and the second pressing is collected in a tank provided separately. Acid value is, therefore, a measure of the degree of hydrolysis of the oil which may be due to rancidity or ferment action.
Drying copra to a moisture content of less than 6 percent and regulating the moisture content of the oil below 0.2 percent level prevents the quality deterioration during storage and handling. Since, coconut oil has the lowest level of unsaturated fatty acid among all edible vegetable oils, the cost of hydrogenation is much less than all the other oils. It has been reported that out of the 25 per cent crude protein content in the cake, 80 per cent is by-pass protein, which helps in better milk production particularly in high yielding animals. The ground mass is blanched with live steam for about 20 minutes to bring down the microbiological count.
The quality of desiccated coconut produced largely depends on maintenance of hygiene in different stages of processing and the temperature of drying.
In the study, it was however observed that there is no difference in quality of the product from stored and freshly harvested nuts, though the yield was 2 to 3 per cent higher in the former. According to the APCC standards, if the fat content is higher than 20 per cent, the product is called coconut cream and if the fat content is less than 20 per cent the product is called coconut milk. Coconut oil is produced mostly by expeller processing and to a limited extent by solvent extraction and used both for edible as well as industrial purposes. Besides the nut, coconut tree also yields neera, a sweet juice obtained by taping the unopened spadix. The present bibliographic review underscores its importance via the use of diverse sorts of organic waste to reincorpórate them into the environment.
This book is very beneficial for agriculturist, researchers, professionals, entrepreneurs, agriculture universities etc.
Although the full yield potential-cannot be realized in many crops under the system as much as that obtained under monocropping system, the reduced yield itself is indicative of their adaptability to low light profiles. Coconut can be intercropped when palms are still young and leaves are still growing upright. But in a well managed plantation, growing under favourable conditions this state may come many years later. In Sri Lanka, experimental evidence showed that there would be no severe competition for soil moisture between coconuts and the intercrops if the annual rainfall is over 1900 mm. The nutrient interactions in a typical coconut-based mixed farming homestead garden in Kerala is given in Fig. Where shade-tolerant crops such as cocoa are to be grown, the coconut palms may be planted in N-S rows, 9 to 12 m apart.
In ayurveda coconut oil is a preferred base for making preparations for skin diseases of children. Marico Industries, Mumbai has firmly established the protective effect of coconut oil on hair damage in growing process when it is used as pre-wash conditioner.
The fatty acids of coconut oil can be fractionated to obtain industrially important products which have varied applications in many industries.
In a study, it was found that when coconut oil cake stored at 79 per cent relative humidity, no mould attack was evident even after three months of storage. In this process, the coconut kernel is made into a viscous slurry from which coconut milk is separated by pressing the slurry. The residue obtained during the extraction of milk is dried and used for making sweets, chutney powder, etc. Special hygienic precautions are to be taken in DC manufacturing since coconut is a good nutrient base for growth of diverse micro-organisms. In storage studies on DC, it was found that at above 5 per cent moisture level, the product is susceptible to attack by mould and on storage it becomes rancid and brown. Based on the fat content, the coconut cream is again classified into concentrated coconut cream, high fat coconut cream, medium fat coconut cream and low fat coconut cream, while the coconut milk is classified into high fat coconut milk, medium fat coconut milk and low fat coconut milk. Food additives such as emulsifiers and stabilizers are added to the milk to obtain a stable consistency and texture.
The oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking and frying; coconut oil is also widely used in soaps and cosmetics.
Age, spacing, soil fertility, varietal characteristics, leaf area and time of the day influence the light penetration through the canopy.
Once the leaves start hanging down to the ground, about three or four years after planting, inter crops could be grown depending upon the space and light availability for the understoreyed crop which in turn depends on spacing and management of the plantation. But even some competition for water might be acceptable, as long as the combined income from the farming system is higher than that from pure stand of coconut. Even though linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid, its excessive intake is reported to cause increased level of free radical damage in the body. Coconut oil being natural oil is superior to liquid paraffins of petroleum origin which is used to mix with coconut oil to manufacture non-sticky hair oil. It was solved by installing a heating unit to pre heat fuel before pumping to combustion chamber. The results suggest that the critical water content of coconut oil cake at which it can be stored free from moulds is its equilibrium moisture content at 79 per cent RH. The hot air drier is provided with a drying chamber consisting of a series of trays, which hold the feed. The technology for the manufacture of desiccated coconut is available with the CFTRI, Mysore.
For this purpose, permitted emulsifiers and stabilizers are mixed with hot water separately and mixed thoroughly.
The importance of this text is to be found in the need to use vermicompost amendments from the use of sewage sludge to be transformed into fertilizer and be utilized in the growth of plants, thus turning it into an alternative in agricultural soils and a solution for its final end. The clear liquid coconut water within is a refreshing drink and can be processed to create alcohol. Ecological conditions influence palm development substantially; therefore, only local conditions can determine at what age of the palm mixed cropping with trees is possible, or not. In areas with a severe dry season, intercrops that can be harvested at the end of the rainy seasons might be preferred. It is reported that lauric acid in coconut oil is used by the body to make the same disease-fighting fatty acid derivative-monolaurin, that babies make from the lauric acid they get from their mother's milk.
The acid value of coconut oil of fair white quality produced in large mills from good quality copra ranges from 0.5 to 4, the average not exceeding 2.
The Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Thiruvanathapuram, Kerala has developed a technology to manufacture partially defatted desiccated coconut and high grade oil. No browning was noticed in samples with 2 per cent moisture level stored for 36 weeks and with one per cent moisture stored for 52 weeks at room temperature.


It is added to the coconut milk and then subjected to emulsification using a mechanical impeller emulsifier.
The husks and leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating. The diffused sunlight facilitates growing a number of shade tolerant crops in the interspaces. Light transmission differs between locations and is more intense in the center of a square than near the stem of the palm.
Crops such as banana, tomato, cucurbits, crucifers and others may harbour inoculum sources of the leaf stripe disease of young coconut palms, caused by the Pseudomonas-Erwinia complex. The monoglyceride monolaurin is the substance that keeps infants from getting viral or bacterial or protozoal infections.
Oil obtained from dark or smoked copra of inferior quality shows higher figures of about 15 to 20. While the moisture, protein and ash content of the solid endosperm of kernel decreases as the nuts mature, the amount of oil increases. After separation of cream containing most of the fats from the milk, it can either be dried into powder or packed as such in asceptic packs. Hygienic conditions in the processing plants are to be maintained by carefully monitoring water quality, hygiene of personnel employed, processing machinery sanitation and critical evaluation of processing conditions to establish Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point in coconut processing. The nature and amount of sunlight transmitted through coconut canopy and falling on the ground shows temporal as well as spatial variations. However, lot of research work is yet to be carried out in the realm of efficient utilization of water under coconut based farming systems.
Maximum oil content is found in the 12th and 13th months and gradually decreases with further maturity. The cream is stirred vigorously to get virgin coconut oil by a process called phase inversion.
The angle of the sun rays influences the amount of light passing through the coconut canopy. Such is the case with certain dwarf trees that harbour weaving ants that forage in the coconut crown, predating on insect pests and their eggs. The virgin coconut oil is considered superior for use as hair oil and baby oil because of its pleasing aroma and purity. The pasteurized coconut cream is hot filled in cans using a mechanical volumetric filling machine followed by steam exhausting. The distribution of light at different positions in the canopy zone of coconut varies much because of the non-random distribution of leaves. Coconut kernel is consumed as a culinary ingredient throughout the country eventhough its regular use is restricted to the traditional growing tracts in the country . Bacteriasome of nursery and azospirillum inoculation, the bacteriumbacteria to legume crops production. As a result of cross pollination in the tails, a wide range of variations occur within the same variety. This causes differences in the growth and yield of intercrops at different positions of the plantation floor. Where weeds may be the host plants of the causal agents of certain diseases, elimination of those weeds by growing intercrops may reduce disease incidence in coconuts. La lombriz de tierra descompone la materia orgánica y genera un producto que se denomina vermicomposta.
La vermicomposta se obtiene a partir de una gran variedad de residuos orgánicos incluyendo a los lodos residuales. The sunlight reduction in the Laguna variety was significantly higher than for all other eight cultivars, due to such characteristics as leaf length, number of leaflets and length of petioles. A commercial unit to process 10,000 nuts may produce about 2500 kg coconut cream with 500 kg residue as the end product. They recommend that in the development or selection of cultivars suitable for intercropping, those with fewer leaflets and shorter leaves and petioles should be given consideration.
The pH of freshly extracted coconut milk is about 6 and is thus categorized as low acid food. Thus, the processing conditions and safety precautions are very critical for the quality of the product. India accounts for the 18% of total coconut production in the world and it is the third largest coconut producing country in the world. Por otra parte la lombriz de tierra participa como agente que bioacumula metales pesados y reducen los niveles de toxicidad en el ambiente, por lo que este organismo además de elaborar vermicomposta es considerado un agente que bioacumula metales del ambiente. Coconut processing adds value, and a number of products like coconut oil, desiccated coconut, coir fibre, pith, mattresses, desiccated coconut (DC), coconut cream, coconut milk, spray dried coconut milk powder, coconut shell products, shell charcoal, shell powder, virgin coconut oil are obtained. Coconut oil for edible purposes is now being claimed to be the second best edible oil in the world, after Olive oil. Bacillus megaterium, bio quality biofertilizers- azospirillum, rhizobium, azotobacter chroococcum. Vermicompost requires a good balance of C and N that is beneficial for the worm (in biomass, reproduction and reduction of mortality rates). There is a broad spectrum of organic waste in the diet of the worm that comes from animals, vegetables, alimentary, textile, winemaking industries and sewage sludge (SS) (Gupta and Garg, 2008). A good management of SS has to undertake techniques that work as compost amendment for soil (Quincha and Carmona, 2004). The product from vermicompost is useful for regeneration of soils, energy as liquids and combustible gases (López, 1994).
The former feeds on leaves, dead roots, plant residues and animal scats on the ground surface; the latter only consumes large amounts of organic soil and is located under the surface.
The epigeal live on the surface and feed on organic matter and detritus, an instance of them are E.
The anecie live in vertical burrows, an instance of them is Lumbricus terrestris (Sharma et al, 2005). Distributor of oreochromis niloticus aquaculture procedure is the bacteria from organic fertilizer.
They do not have a skeleton and are hermaphrodite; their gonads are located in a specific manner with variations according to their taxa (Edwards and Bohlen, 1996).
The maturity of the worm is reached at 90 days and when mating, two worms make ventral contract in opposing directions and adhere at the clitellum, which is located in the fore third and the contact sends sperm to the other worm in order to fecundate (García, 2006). The clitellum is a thickened area and the region where two to five cocoons are produced weekly, they might produce from one to seven individuals that undergo an incubation process in the soil, where they develop from a juvenile stage to maturity or adulthood (Sharma et al, 2005). Its body has spines called bristles or setae, which have a ringed appearance, these are separated by grooves called septa and in the fore end there is the mouth called prostomium and at the rear end there is the anus, located in the last segment called periproctal (Cuevas, 2005). Proteins are the most abundant form of N in organisms and are the main constituent of every life form (Paul and Clark, 1996).
The contents of C and N have to be adequate dosages to perform a good process (Ndegwa and Thompsom, 2000); if there is too much C, it becomes slow, and if there is more N, it creates bad odors and produces a viscous mixture (Rodriguez and Cordova, 2006). In table 2 we describe the sort of source, organic residue, and the cares necessary to produce compost and vermicompost. A good selection of food in quantity and quality (N source) determines the good development of earthworms as for biomass, fertility and mortality rate (Lowe and Butt, 2005). The worm chooses the sort of food based on its enzymatic activity, works by Prabna and collaborators (2007) measured the enzymatic activity of cellulose in two worm species, E.
Other studies report a biomass increase of 250% in the case of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipie, Mart. Towards certain manufacturing, exporting and yieldacetobacter diazotrophicus, azospirillum culture ammonium.
Other studies mention mixtures of residues from textile industry and bird feces (40% textiles, 60% bird feces) that favor the development and reproduction of E.
These parameters regulate all the biological activities of the worm; temperature helps manipulate the lifecycle of the worm (Lowe and Butt, 2005), the optimal temperature for the development of E. In an acid environment, the worm secretes calcium carbonate to neutralize the acidity of the environment and so avoid mortality (Dekker, 2002). Nowadays the General Law of Prevention and Integral Management of Residues does not consider a specific regulation that analyzes a regulation to produce composts, however the Mexican Norm of humus, worm, specifications and testing methods {Norma Mexicana de humus, lombriz, especificaciones y métodos de prueba, SAGARPA, 2007) takes into account the characterization of the most important parameters that shall be considered to sell composts (table 3). The sale of vermicompost must be certified and supported by laboratories that indicate that said product can be used as a soil improver or organic fertilizer. HA are amorphous mixtures of heavy molecular weight, black in color and it is the main constituent of humic substances (Porta et al, 2003). The total acidity of HA determines the addition of carboxylic and phenolic groups (Masini et al, 1998). In Mexico there is a variety of manures, namely: bovine, from fowl, pigs, rabbits and goats. Bovine manure is one of the residues that contain good levels of N and some 3 thousand tons a week are produced (Luévano and Velasquez, 2001). In Table 5 we show studies that employ different sorts of organic residues as ameliorations, where bovine manure and K fétida species are the most reported, as this species presents a broad adaptation to the environment (Suthar, 2009b).
In the frame of sustainable development, the use of organic products with high content of stabilized OM and nutriments that increase the quality of depleted agricultural soils is required (Cuevas and Walter, 2004).
In the United States and Europe SS are subject to composting techniques to reduce pollution from this sludge, under programs and environmental policies that order to recycle them and dispose of them in the soil (Smith, 2009). In Mexico there are no precise figures for this process, yet the pioneering studies on vermicomposting of SS date back to the end of the 1970's (Cardoso, 2002). Although plenty of information on the use of SS has been generated in different countries, the valuing of their use as organic fertilizer in Mexico has been both scantly explored and documented (Salcedo et al., 2007). These experiences in the agricultural sphere are oriented to the culture of organic fertilizers use, since the countryside is still invaded by chemical fertilizers that cause soil degradation. The use of SS composted by worms will favor the reduction of pollution, fostering the reuse and recycling of solid organic residues that are generated on a daily basis both in the countryside and the city (López, 1994). The management of SS must consider there is a metal transit via the trophic chain of the worm, which may pose a risk and the probability that the metal moves toward other organisms, such as birds (Suthar, 2008).
It is important to know the contents of heavy metals in SS before being applied to agricultural soils due to their high risk and toxicity (Jamali et al, 2009).
The damage in the plant is determined by the sort of metal, availability and content (Sandoval et al, 2001).
The reduction of the phytotoxicity of Zn, Cu, and Ni in the plant tissue is improved if there is a fine texture and a pH of 6.8 (Smith, 2009).
Zn in excess favors the presence of yellow stripes and brown spots on the leaves; this metal moves fast into the plant tissue (Smith, 1996). Ni in excess provokes the appearance of brown spots on the leaves and white stripes along them. If Cd surpasses the permissible, brownish-reddish spots appear on the leaves and damage the stem (Pereira et al, 2003). Cr does not have adverse effects, yet if it is found as Cr (VI), it is highly toxic for plants (Smith, 1996).
Phytoavailability is corrected if the soil presents a slightly alkaline pH and the composted SS amendment is applied (Smith, 2009).
Pb poses a risk in child diets, causing serious problems of encephalitis and neuronal damages (Acarasquero et al, 2006). Pb shows a low availability in cultivations for human consumption and if SS is applied to cultivation soils there is an increase of 25000 mg of Pb kg-1 of soil. Chronic exposure to Cd and Cu generates changes in metabolism and decreases the production of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins in the worm (Shukla and Kumar, 2006; Prabna et al, 2007).
Vermiculture reduces the production costs of organic fertilizers and in the agricultural sector, requires experiences where new nonconventional sources of C and N are studied, such as SS, in which the biological, physical and chemical parts of the worm are known so that with the help from practitioners, can attack the problem from the productive and environmental viewpoint. Because of this, it is necessary to continue testing dosages and different mixtures, and apply them as an alternative in the short and middle terms in the agricultural and forest spheres in Mexico. In Mexico, the use of conventional organic residues from the agricultural sector (manure from bovines, horses, pigs, birds) have been successful in its application, however the use of nonconventional residues generated in the city and industry (residues from alimentary, textile, paper, winemaking industries and municipal sludge) have been very sporadically used.
So it is needed to continue working and testing these sorts of residues in benefit of the environment and meeting the environmental criterion as for the reduction of weight and volume, hence favoring the reduction of pollution in the planet.
Nitrogen mineralization of sewage sludge and composted poultry manure applied to willow in a greenhouse.
C to N ratio strongly affects population structure of Eisenia fétida in vermicomposting systems.
Eisenia fétida (Oligochaeta Lumbricidae) modifies the structure and physiological capabilities of microbial communities improving carbon mineralization during vermicomposting of pig manure. Detritivorous earthworms directly modify the structure, thus altering the functioning of a microdecomposer food web. Organic matter components and aggregates stability after the application of different amendments to a horticultural soil. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Iranian earthworms {Eisenia fétida) in the process of vermicomposting. Effects of vermicomposts and composts on plant growth in horticultural container media and soil.
The influence of humic acids derived from earthwoms-proced organics wastes on plant growth. Changes in soil N pools in response to earthworm population manipulations in agroecosystem with different N sources. Chemical, physical and biological compost and vermicompost characterization: A chemometric study. Humic acids isolated from earthworms compost enhance root elongation, lateral root emergence and plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity in maize roots.
Distribution of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Fe among selected tissues of the earthworm (Allolophora caliginoasa) and Eurasian Wordcok (Scolopax raticula). Sewage sludge compost fertilizer effects on maize yield and soil heavy metal concentration. 2001.Potencial of two epigeic and two anecie earthworm species in vermicommposting of water hyacinth. Vermistabilization of textile mill sludge with poultry dropping by an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. Sensitivity of life history parameters in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa to small changes in soil water potential.
Heavy metal accumulation in different varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in soil amended with domestic sewage sludge.
Dynamics of biological and chemical parameters during vermicomposting of solid textile mill sludge mixed with cow dun and agricultural residues. The role of different organic waste on zinc bioaccumulation by earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L.
Comparison of the effectiveness of composting and vermicomposting for the biological stabilization of cattle manure. Vermicomposting of industrially produce woodchips and sewage sludge utilizing Eisenia fétida. Cnterious Preparation and Characterization of Earthworm-composts in View of Animal Waste Recycling. Correlation Between Chemical, Thermal and FTIR Spectroscopic Analyses of Four Humic Acids from Earthworm-composted Animal Manure. Comparative efficacy of three epigeic earthworms under deciduous forest litters decomposition. Comparison of methodologies for determination of carboxylic and phenolic groups in humic acids. Effects of moisture content variation over kinetic reaction rate during vermicomposting process.



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