Vermicomposting materials 7th,how to care for my hair after a keratin treatment,cost of education for nurse practitioner - Reviews

Our engineers prescribe to the K I S (keep it simple) method and have eliminated all but the necessary moving parts. Your choice of eclectic or hydraulic power units, automated covers, thermal couplers for temperature control, misting systems for moisture and temperature control, computer programming for monitoring multiple systems and larger commercial facilities.. To determine the correct size of machine an accurate survey of daily waste to be processed will be required. These are companies that share, with OSC the belief that vemicuture technology is the future for solid food waste disposal.
I know you want to start a worm bin and compost much of what you are currently landfilling. The number one chunk of misinformation out there which needs to be shot down in flames is that you need to purchase worms for an outdoor compost bin.
The spinning (sometimes called a barrel) or tumbler composter is a commercial gimmick to convince you that anyone, including small children or pets, can turn the whole pile at once in a few seconds. Backyard Ecosystem began as an expression of my determination to make a difference in our own backyard. It suddenly dawned on me this morning that I have yet to write anything about my vermicomposting trenches this season! This year has been an amazing growing season in comparison to last year (for both worms AND plants).
Some of you may recall that for the last couple of seasons, I have been growing tomatoes in the stretch of garden pictured above. Other plants growing in the beds adjacent to my trench windrows include zucchini (yellow and green), pumpkin, several varieties of pole beans, raspberries, and of course tomatoes! Given the fact that I had so many tomato plants in need of a home earlier in the season, I needed to get a bit more creative with my plantings, above and beyond simply putting lots of them in my regular trench garden beds.
Of course, I couldn’t go TOO crazy with this approach, since I still needed to access the beds to get worms, add new material etc, so I ended up spacing them about 10 feet or so apart. I’ve been pretty lazy with my approach to adding food waste during the last couple of months. Once the waste materials thaw out, they seem to all but vanish in a very short period of time!
Anyway, I will definitely write more about my trench beds a bit later in the season (to let everyone know how everything turned out) – hopefully this has been enough to provide everyone with a decent idea of what I’m up to thus far! I’m glad to see your addition of the compost close to the trench tomatoes is working.
One neat larvae i did identify because it was by my worms was a lady beetle larvae.Maybe it is a sign of better days ahead. Either that or she saw the massive collection of juicy raspberries that were growing on our side of the fence! As for the other neighbor (who actually shares a considerable stretch of fence-line), I like to think my practices have influenced the fertility of their beds running directly beside the fence, but all my trenches are basically on the other side of the yard so it’s not as much of an influence as it would be if they were on that side.
I am definitely pleased with how everything is turning out – I just hope it translates into a bountiful harvest! I harvested my first batch of wonderful vermicompost to put into my lasagna garden (google lasagna gardening, I think it would be a system that wouldmsupport composting worms really well and I’ve currently got an experiment running to see). I am curious how frequently you are adding manure to the bins and how deep the bins are now. We can get -30C daytime highs for weeks at a time here with no break, and have occasionally had -40C for daytime highs. As long as you can keep the bed from freezing completely solid you should be able to keep some red worms alive. I did not wet the false bottom – I knew there would be a LOT of water released from the food wastes.
I no longer receive materials from the restaurant (was only for one summer) but when I did, I definitely didn’t only use the materials that were ideal for the worms. There is certainly a good chance that the mix will get hot – especially when you are just setting up the system.
More worms,less watering,plant roots will easily travel to the trenches.What was i thinking? To start a windrow, spread a 12 to 18 inch layer of manure solids, with or without bedding, along one end of your available space. Remember the following: This plan is for farm-scale volumes of manure or other suitable organic material.
A hard or concrete surface is easier to work on, especially in wet weather, and may even be required to control runoff. STEP 2: EXTENDING THE WINDROW After the first windrow is established and layered to around 2 to 3 feet thick, it is time to extend the windrow. STEP 3: MAKING QUALITY CASTINGS Redworms tolerate a range of environmental conditions before suffering serious losses.
STEP 4: MOISTURE AND IRRIGATION Moisture is also critical to the well being of your working worms.
STEP 5: WINDROW COVER A suitable compost cover, placed over the active windrow, is critical to preserving valuable nutrients in the vermicompost.
Covering the windrows of finished castings prior to use also retains nutrients and helps prevent weeds from spreading.
Because the worms concentrate in the freshest, most active windrow, after 2 to 6 months the first windrow and each subsequent windrow will become ready to use. The primary focus of the plan uses a proven method to save farmers both time and money without compromising the quality of the final end product. To create a windrow, spread a 1-foot layer of manure with bedding across one end of the available space you?re working with. Once the first windrow is established and layered at least 2 feet thick, the next step is to increase the length of the windrow. To optimize ideal conditions for compost decomposition and converting compost to vermicompost (worm castings) using Red Worms, four variables should be monitored closely; temperature, moisture levels, oxygen and soil pH balance.
Earthworms consume large quantities of organic material equivalent their own body weight every 24 hours. As you become familiar with the KISS process, you?ll be an eyewitness to the methods Red Worms use to convert your compost to earthworm castings. Always give each windrow a little longer time before harvesting to ensure the worms have thoroughly broken down the vermicompost. While your worms are hard at work for you, monitoring the amount of moisture in the air will impact their ability to work even harder.
If you have the irrigation system set on a timer, it will enable you to be consistent with watering and controlling the amount of moisture windrows receive. If your windrows are in an exposed environment, it?s strongly recommended you use plastic tarps or a similar fabric to divert rainwater runoff and prevent leaching. Even after the worms have left their castings, it?s wise to cover the casting and prevent any loss of nutrients from exposure to rain or the exposed environment. There are numerous companies you can contact which sell tarps and fabric covers specifically for composting, which can be used for vermicomposting.
Learning the science of vermicomposting can be one of the wisest investments you make with your organic compost.
IntroductionVermicasting, also called vermicomposting, is the processing of organic wastes through earthworms (Figure 1).
Vermicasting can be done on a small scale by homeowners with household organic wastes, on a large-scale by farmers with manure or by the food industry using organic wastes such as fruit and vegetable cull materials. Vermicast nutrient content varies with earthworm feed type, but feeding waste to earthworms does cause nitrogen mineralization, followed by phosphorous and sulphur mineralization after egestion.
Pathogen levels are low in vermicast, which is considered a Type A biosolid when excreted by earthworms. Earthworms 101Earthworms are epigeic (surface dwellers), endogeic (burrow up to 15 cm deep) or anecic (burrow vertical channels, about 1 m deep).
As organic matter passes through the earthworm gut, it is mineralized into ammonium (later nitrified) and other plant nutrients. The ideal feed for earthworms is food or animal waste and fresh, green, plant waste, rich in nitrogen or precomposted (for up to 2 weeks to make it easier to digest). Earthworms have eye-cells on their skin that trigger pain when exposed to any light but blue light, keeping them underground during daylight. For appropriate drainage and aeration, container walls, bottom and side walls must be made of a perforated material. Earthworms will not fall through this size of hole but they can burrow through this size of hole to get to fresh wastes if need be.
Waste materials should have a moisture content of 75% (field capacity), never more than 85%. To prevent anaerobic conditions (lack of oxygen), which can result in fermentation and heat build-up, design the vermicasting bin, raised bed or windrow pile to keep the waste layer at a thickness of 30 cm (1 ft) or less. Active aeration, mixing and temperature control of such a thin layer of waste occurs through the burrowing action of the earthworms.
Odorous gases (volatile organic compounds) and heat are produced during fermentation, which can occur in poorly aerated (anaerobic) organic materials. In a continuous-flow vermicaster, fresh waste is added at one end of the process, while finished vermicast is collected from the other.
Figure 4 was created using simulation software and shows how much waste is consumed over time, how much volume the waste and earthworm casts take up and how crowded the worms are over time. At Day 0, all earthworms are in Bin 1 (blue) where waste is added daily and entirely consumed by Day 16. A throughput system (Figure 3) would be similar to two superimposed bins, except that earthworms would continuously transition from finished vermicast at the bottom to fresh waste at the top. Example Bin Design for Two-Person HouseholdFigure 5 shows a solid container housing two smaller containers built of 4-mm mesh screen, which are propped up to allow air to circulate underneath while keeping waste particles and earthworms inside. ConclusionA properly designed vermicasting system will process organic waste into vermicast in 22?30 days. SummaryThe potential of composting to turn on-farm waste materials into a farm resource makes it an attractive proposition.



The passage of soil through earthworms promotes bacterial and actinomycetes growth; actinomycetes thrive well in the presence of worms and their content in worm casts is over six times more than in the original soil. The material is placed in the boxes and should be sufficiently loose for the worms to burrow and should be able to retain moisture. A series of pits (the number depending on available space) are dug approximately 3 m x 4 m x 1 m deep, with sloping sides. One or two spots on the heap are then well watered and worms from the breeding boxes are place on top; the worms immediately burrow down into the damp soil. Worm troughs in a row: The first and most common is cement troughs, two feet wide and six feet long, much like livestock watering troughs, used to raise worms and create worm compost. Our in-house staff is available for information on Vermiculture, Agricultural Techniques related to Horticultural and greenhouse applications. The population will propagate and maintain ample populations to process the organic feedstock.
An entire community in England has rallied around this simple idea and changed their world. Earth Day is coming up and everyone wants to save the planet, so why haven’t you done it already?
Remember, I am not harvesting vermicompost from these beds – I am allowing plants to grow nearby and access the compost directly. They are not really associated with my trench beds at all, but I have little doubt that they are still benefiting from the overall fertility of my yard these days.
My sandbox raised bed garden is actually almost entirely dedicated to tomato plants this year, but I do have a few asparagus plants in there now as well. I thought it would be interesting to see what happened if I literally planted some of them right in the trench itself, and on the lawn side.
As mentioned, a lot of manure has been added to these beds (and I have little doubt that the tomatoes have been benefiting from that), but I have also been adding a fair amount of food waste and grass clippings directly in behind each trench tomato plant. Rather than bothering to make up a nice batch of homemade manure, I’ve simply tossed my bags of food waste (and shredded cardboard) into my deep freezer for awhile, and the frozen waste ball has then buried behind the plants. I suspect there are quite a lot more critters apart from worms benefiting from the addition of this stuff!
Even if some of the N gets bound up, I suspect there is plenty more that will remain available to the plants. I have my own worm bin and I plan on doing a vermi trench next season so I have a number of questions to ask.
I recommend that you set it up and leave it to sit for at least one to two weeks (monitoring temps). The length can vary depending on the availability of gently sloping space, ease of material handling, or other factors.
Inoculate the windrow with high-quality redworms?Eisenia fetida (from a breeding or active pile).
Add the next layers of manure along one side, directly next to and against, the first windrow.
Nonetheless, providing the optimum conditions for worm health and growth can assure maximum decomposition and transformation of organic wastes.
Their active burrowing habits naturally aerate the windrows, providing good control of odors.
Rather than nutrients leaching out and possibly contaminating ground or surface waters, they should be retained in the vermicompost in ways that are valuable for plants. Worm castings are far more valuable to farmers, landscapers and home gardeners than raw manure. During wet weather, you should have a surface that can easily divert water runoff, to aid in maintaining an optimal moisture level for your worm population. They expend energy turning the soil, which, in effect will aerate the windrows and minimize odor buildup. Remember each windrow has a different time frame as to when the worm castings are ready for harvest can be processed. If possible, we encourage farmers to use a misting irrigation system that runs through the entire windrow. Remember to always keep the soil moist, but don?t over water it to where the bottom of the windrow becomes soggy.
Doing so will also preserve nutrients in the vermicompost, ensuring an optimal climate for worms. Worms will always create the best castings when they have an ideal environment to thrive in.
Following the KISS plan ensures you?re following a proven process that?s used by farmers, gardeners and industry experts from around the world. Red wigglers (Eisenia fetida) eat organic wastes, such as vegetable peelings, then excrete vermicasts. Epigeic earthworms such as Eisenia fetida (red wigglers) are the best adapted to ingest organic wastes.
Earthworms weigh about 0.2 g and require oxygen and water, both exchanged through their skin.
The grinding effect of its gizzard and the effect of its gut muscle movement result in the formation of casts. They will try to leave any material if it does not meet their feed requirements, but if a light is shining at the surface of the material, they will stay where they are.
Left: Stacked bin system simplifies separating finished vermicast from the earthworms and fresh waste. Many commercially available vermicasting bins have a few holes at the bottom for drainage, but this is not enough.
Instead, consider using a layer of finished vermicast on the bin bottom for the start-up period because worms will burrow through it, resulting in good aeration and drainage. Regular watering, or automatic sprinkling in the case of large scale systems, is usually needed. This thickness allows air to passively diffuse into the material, aided by the canals burrowed by earthworms.
The process is odourless but does not generate heat on its own, so one option is to place the bin indoors. In a batch system, the waste is inoculated with earthworms, which then process the entire quantity of waste into vermicast. This can happen at opposite ends or opposite heights of a windrow, bin or raised bed (Figure 2). What happens in a typical two-bin system, over time, determines its optimum dimensions, the required starting amount of earthworms, the amount of starting medium required for the earthworms to burrow in and the bin cycle time. This is where the unconsumed waste area tapers off in the graph.At Day 16, Bin 2 (brown) is placed on top of Bin 1. As shown inFigure 4, the cycle includes points in time where a second bin is added on top of the first and where earthworms finish migrating out of the first bin into the second, allowing finished vermicast to be collected. Based on the graph in Figure 4, 5 L of vermicast could be removed from a throughput system only five days into the process, then about 1 L per day after, assuming an ideal earthworm stocking density. Once earthworms transform the contents of the first container, a second one containing 6?10 L of fresh, moist organic material is placed on top of it.
Volume of wastes (consumed and unconsumed) in litres (left side of graph) and earthworm density in earthworms per 0.1 L (right side of graph) over a 1-month period in a two-bin household vermicasting system. Composting offers several benefits such as enhanced soil fertility and soil health, thereby increased agricultural productivity, improved soil biodiversity, reduced ecological risks and a better environment. Earthworms can consume practically all kinds of organic matter and they can eat their own body weight per day; thus, for example, one kilogram of worms can consume one kilogram of residues every day. The introduction of worms into a compost heap has been found to mix the materials, aerate the heap and hasten decomposition.
The worms are reared and multiplied from a commercially-obtained breeder stock in shallow wooden boxes stored in a shed. The proportions of the different materials will vary according to the nature of the material but a final protein content of about 15% should be aimed at. Bamboo poles are laid in a parallel row on the pit floor and covered with a lattice of wood strips. To harvest the worms from the boxes, two-thirds of the box is emptied into a new box lined with banana leaf or old newspaper. I’ve included a shot taken back in June, showing the same garden zone shown in the first two photos above (taken this morning). I also thought it would be fun to grow some corn along to fence so as to add some depth to my all-natural privacy fence! Not too surprisingly, these plants seem to be doing quite a bit better than the other ones (of the same variety) being grown next to the trench, but in the actual garden.
What’s interesting is that she has not hacked them back at all (as I would have expected). For awhile there I was adding manure quite regularly (maybe every couple of weeks or so?) but it’s been a little while since I added a decent amount. Once the main mass of material has cooled off you should have to worry too much about future heating, since the worms will likely have a cooler zone to retreat to (and you may also be adding less material thus reducing the risk).
I simply moved everything from that bin over to the trenches (I had a pretty substantial trench system though – you could get away with adding fewer worms if you were simply trying this out).
The plan suggests easy, appropriate technology to manage environmental factors and control quality. If heat treatment is needed to control pathogens or weeds, simply pre-compost the material before feeding it to the worms. Leaving each windrow for a little longer time before harvesting assures the vermicompost will be more broken down, more stable, and have more worm castings present.
Various types of tarps or fabrics could be used to shed excess rainfall and prevent leaching, while maintaining aerobic conditions.
Vermicompost provides rich organic matter which conserves water, supports a thriving ecosystems and ultimately results in faster growth with higher yields for most types of plants.
If you intend to create vermicompost for your home or small-scale testing, we recommended using composting bins.


Earthworms ingest waste then excrete casts ? dark, odourless, nutrient- and organically rich, soil mud granules that make an excellent soil conditioner. The slow-release granules structure of earthworm casts allows nutrients to be released relatively slowly in sync with plant needs.
Therefore, if the starting material is low in salt, the resulting vermicast will be as well. Vermicast is low in pathogens because earthworms consume fungi, and aerobic bacteria do not survive low oxygen levels in the gut.
Most pathogens are consumed in the earthworm gut, since earthworms feed on fungi, and pathogenic bacteria cannot survive in the low-oxygen environment inside the earthworm gut. If waste materials with elevated levels of water content are added, such as food waste (fruits and vegetables are about 90% moisture), watering is not necessary, and drainage will correct the moisture level if it exceeds 75%. If this is not possible, insulate bins and place them partly underground in a sheltered location to help temper outside temperature fluctuations. However, earthworms thrive in aerobic conditions, where fermentation and the resulting heat and odours do not occur.
Current industrial vermicasting machinery features mechanized beds where two adjacent moving surfaces cause finished vermicast at the bottom of the bed to fall through its perforated surface, as fresh waste is added at the top. Finished vermicast is harvested from a closable opening at the bottom of the bag, while fresh waste is added through an opening at top.
Bin 2 is partially filled with fresh waste and starting medium, side-by-side, on its 4-mm screened floor in order to attract earthworms from Bin 1 below to burrow up into Bin 2.
Online calculators are available to determine time and bin volume requirement for any daily rate of waste. Earthworms are allowed to migrate up into the fresh waste before the lower bin of finished vermicast is removed, and the top bin takes its place.
Earthworm beddings commonly used in earthworm bins can be replaced with a screen or mesh raised bottom surface and enough finished vermicast to prevent excessive earthworm stocking density and provide proper drainage. Size and activity of the microbial biomass and N, S and P availability in EW casts derived from arable and pastoral soil and arable soil amended with pant residues.
Dynamics and relationships among microorganisms, C-organic and N-total during composting and vermicomposting. While traditional composting procedures take as long as 4-8 months to produce finished compost, rapid composting methods offer possibilities for reducing the processing period up to three weeks. The excreta or castings of the worms are rich in nitrate, available forms of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Turning the heaps is not necessary if earthworms are present to do the mixing and aeration.
The boxes are approximately 45 cm x 60 cm x 20 cm and have drainage holes; they are stored on shelves in rows and tiers. This provides the necessary drainage as the worms cannot survive in a waterlogged environment.
The original box can now be provided with fresh bedding material and those worms remaining will again multiply.
In these beds, the only feedstock for the worms is manure, which is aged for about one week before being added to the trough.
Everything underlying the movement toward greening our cites over the last several decades. Or you know that composting is one of the easiest things you can do to save the world, but don’t know how to get started. Perhaps you could do something similar to me and dedicate a certain stretch as your winter composting bed. Worm tend to reproduce very quickly in the trench system if it is set up and maintained well. The KISS plan is based on several years of research and experience in vermiculture and vermicomposting. Continue adding the fresh manure alongside until you have formed a second complete windrow.
Every week add additional manure alongside the first windrow until you?ve formed a new second windrow.
Depending on the size of the windrow and the environment worms grow in, it can take up to six months for castings to be ready for harvest. Earthworm casts are a ready-to-use fertilizer that can be used at a higher rate of application than compost, since nutrients are released at rates that growing plants prefer. Low pathogen levels could also be due to the fact that vermicasting does not build up heat, which allows disease-suppressing organisms to survive the vermicasting process and outcompete pathogens. A thin layer of waste helps prevent compaction of the bottom of the waste pile, which might cause poor aeration, fermentation and heat, all of which repel earthworms.
On a domestic scale, the same vertical continuous flow system is used in suspended bags (Figure 3) whereby the user can collect finished vermicast from a closable opening at the bottom of the bag. Containers can also be placed side by side, with wastes placed horizontally between the tops of the containers to entice worms to move to a new bin.
Adequate drainage and aeration prevent odours, flies or the migration of earthworms out of the waste. The ideal environment for the worms is a shallow pit and the right sort of worms are necessary. A bedding material is compounded from miscellaneous organic residues such as sawdust, cereal straw, rice husks, bagasse, cardboard and so on, and is moistened well with water.
At higher temperatures, the worms will aestivate and, at lower temperatures, they hibernate. The pit is then lined with a suitable material to keep the worms from escaping into the surrounding soil (although, with the abundant feed provided in the compost heap, this may not happen) and yet permit drainage of excess water. My understanding was that a lot of people in your neck of the woods don’t even bother with summer gardening – I bet you must have a nice spring and fall growing season though, right?
You could add some tarps etc, and perhaps even run some rope lights through it if you wanted to add a bit of extra oomph.
I started my worm bin about a month ago (for the third time) and finally got it wrking and its taking off very well. Add 3? layers of manure every week (up to 5? during winter months) to increase the depth of the windrow.
You can replicate these steps to create however many windrows you want, given the amount of space available.
As you become familiar with the KISS Plan, applying it on your farm, you?ll be able to anticipate the ideal times for harvesting castings.
Keep an air space of at least 5?10 cm depth (2?4 in.) below the screen floor for free drainage.
Vermicasting can be done on a domestic, farm or industrial scale in waste-processing facilities and could be sited near residential areas, minimizing waste and fertilizer transportation costs. Lumbricus rubellus (the red worm) and Eisenia foetida are thermo-tolerant and so particularly useful.
The wet mixture is stored for about one month, being covered with a damp sack to minimize evaporation, and is thoroughly mixed several times. In spite of their being able to eat the bedding material, the worms at this stage are fed regularly; for every kilogram of worms a kilogram of feed is given every 24 hours. The compost pit is left for a period of two months; ideally it should be shaded from hot sunshine and it must be kept moist. I hopefully plan on having atleast 3 to 5 worms bins by next summer and i’ll probably dump 3 of the bins in my worm trench. The worms will continue migrating laterally through the windrows, leaving rich vermicompost in their wake.
Earthworms could burrow through the 4-mm screening on the bottom of the bin, but they choose not to because there is no food there, just open air.
When added to plants, vermicast has been shown to improve resistance to disease, yield and protein content of plants relative to other commercial fertilizers.
Field worms Allolobophora caliginosa and night crawlers (Lumbricus terrestris) will attack organic matter from below but the latter do not thrive during active composting, being killed more easily than the others at high temperature. When fermentation is complete, chicken manure and green matter such as ipil ipil leaves or water hyacinth is added. The pit can now be filled with rural organic residues such as straw and other crop residues, animal manure, green weeds, leaves and so on.
Within two months, about 10 kg of castings will have been produced per kilogramme of worms. Add 2 to 3 inch layers of manure every week (3 to 6 inch layers in colder weather) to gradually increase the depth of the windrow.
As they do, they?ll leave behind a rich source of high quality castings called Vermicompost. European Night Crawlers (Dendrabaena venetaor Eisenia hortensis) are commercially produced as well and have been successfully used in most climates.
The feedstuffs used are again various and include chicken manure, ipil ipil, vegetable wastes and so on.
The pit is then excavated to anextent of about two-thirds to three-quarters and the bulk of the worms removed by hand or by sieving. At one farm, water hyacinth is grown specifically and used fresh (chopped up) as the sole source of feed. This leaves sufficient worms in the pit for further composting and the pit can be refilled with fresh organic residues.
Some form of protection against predators is necessary; predators can include birds, ants, leeches, rats, frogs and centipedes. The excess worms that have been harvested from the pit can be used in other pits, sold to other farmers for the same purpose, used or sold for use as animal feed supplement, used or sold for use as fish food or, if there is no social taboo, used in certain human food preparations.



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