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Almost 85% of patients with SLE experience problems associated with abnormalities in the blood.
Patients who have APS have a very incidence of blood clots, which most often occur in the deep veins in the legs.
This picture shows a red and swollen thigh and leg caused by a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins in the groin (iliofemoral veins).
The effects on blood vessels have also been associated with confusion, headaches, and seizures. Patients with APS who become pregnant have a high incidence of pregnancy loss, especially in the late term.
Not all patients with APS carry both of the autoantibodies, and they can also wax and wane and so have varying effects.
The risk for cardiovascular disease, heart attack, and stroke is much higher than average in younger women with SLE.
Inflammation of the membrane lining the lung (pleurisy) is the most common problem, which can cause shortness of breath and coughing. A very serious and rare condition called pulmonary hypertension occurs when high pressure develops as a result of damage to the blood vessels of the lungs. The kidneys are a crucial battleground in SLE because it is here that the debris left over from the immune attacks is most likely to be deposited. Nearly all patients with SLE report some symptoms relating to problems that occur in the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the spinal cord and the brain. The most serious CNS disorder is inflammation of the blood vessels in the brain (vasculitis), which occurs in 10% of patients with SLE. About 45% of patients with SLE suffer gastrointestinal problems, including nausea, weight loss, mild abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
Inflamed blood vessels in the eye can reduce blood supply to the retina, resulting in degeneration of nerve cells and a risk of hemorrhage in the retina.
In one study, 40% of patients with SLE quit work within 4 years of diagnosis, and many had to modify their work conditions.
Women with lupus who conceive face high-risk pregnancies that increase the risks for themselves and their babies. Women with lupus are 20 times more likely to die during pregnancy than women without the disease. Despite these obstacles, many women with lupus have healthy pregnancies and deliver healthy babies. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
The discoloration of the fingers of the hands and toes while exposed to change of temperature like cold or hot and due to emotional event is called Raynaud’s disease.
NORTH HOLLYWOOD, CA - NOVEMBER 06: Musician Ginger Baker of Cream performs at the Rock \'N\' Roll Fantasy Camp at AMP Rehearsal Studios on November 6, 2015 in North Hollywood, California. Cream drummer Ginger Baker, 76, is currently recovering from open heart surgery and a fall, British tabloid The Mirror reports.
After he was diagnosed with serious heart problems, Baker had to cancel a tour in February with his band Air Force.
The vagina is the canal leading from the cervix (the opening of uterus) to the outside of the body.
Age and being exposed to the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) before birth affect a woman’s risk of vaginal cancer. Tests that examine the vagina and other organs in the pelvis are used to detect (find) and diagnose vaginal cancer. After vaginal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the vagina or to other parts of the body. CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body.
In vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN), abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the vagina. VAIN 1: Abnormal cells are found in the outermost one third of the tissue lining the vagina.
VAIN 2: Abnormal cells are found in the outermost two-thirds of the tissue lining the vagina. In stage II, cancer has spread through the wall of the vagina to the tissue around the vagina.
Stage IVB: Cancer has spread to parts of the body that are not near the vagina, such as the lung or bone. Laser surgery: A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor. Wide local excision: A surgical procedure that takes out the cancer and some of the healthy tissue around it. Lymph node dissection: A surgical procedure in which lymph nodes are removed and a sample of tissue is checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. Pelvic exenteration: Surgery to remove the lower colon, rectum, bladder, cervix, vagina, and ovaries. Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may be given radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.
Topical chemotherapy for squamous cell vaginal cancer may be applied to the vagina in a cream or lotion.
Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future.
Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. A combination of therapies that may include wide local excision with or without lymph node dissection and internal radiation therapy. Treatment of stage II vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Treatment of stage III vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Treatment of stage IVA vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Treatment of stage IVB vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Radiation therapy as palliative therapy, to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
Although no anticancer drugs have been shown to help patients with stage IVB vaginal cancer live longer, they are often treated with regimens used for cervical cancer. Although no anticancer drugs have been shown to help patients with recurrent vaginal cancer live longer, they are often treated with regimens used for cervical cancer.



Physician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database.
This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of vaginal cancer.
The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board.
A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. Many women have to put up with the irritable and self-described "unsightly" issue of cankles (peripheral edema, medically speaking) late in their pregnancies. Moms take note: Excessive swelling may be a sign of pre-eclampsia, a serious condition sometimes called toxemia, that includes high blood pressure and swelling. ComplicationsSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can cause systemic complications throughout the body.
Blood clotting, in turn, puts patients at higher risk for stroke and pulmonary embolism (clots in the lungs).
A rare blood complication of SLE that occurs primarily in Asians is called acute lupus hemophagocytic syndrome.
The immune response in SLE can cause chronic inflammation and other damaging effects that can cause significant injury to the arteries and tissues associated with the circulation and the heart.
If kidney injury develops, it almost always occurs within 10 years of the onset of SLE, rarely after that. CNS involvement is more likely to occur in the first year, usually during flare-ups in other organs. The immune system is indeed overactive in SLE, but it is also abnormal and reduces the ability to fight infections. Severe inflammation of the intestinal tract occurs in less than 5% of patients and causes acute cramping, vomiting, diarrhea, and, rarely, intestinal perforation, which can be life-threatening. Significant factors that predicted job loss included high physical demands from the work itself, a more severe condition at the time of diagnosis, and lower educational levels.
Doctors strongly recommend that women wait to conceive until their disease state has been inactive for at least 6 months.
Antiphospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies can increase the risks for preeclampsia, miscarriage, and stillbirths.
Women with active disease may need to take low-dose corticosteroids, but women with inactive disease should avoid these drugs.
Women with lupus have a 6 times greater risk for developing deep vein thrombosis (blood clots) than women without the disease. Blood infections (sepsis), pneumonia, and urinary tract infections are more common in pregnant women with lupus. Women with lupus are three times more likely than healthy women to develop preeclampsia (pregnancy-related high blood pressure), which can be potentially life threatening. Women with SLE have an increased risk of having a pre-term birth, stillbirth, or Caesarean section. To increase the odds of a successful pregnancy, it is important for women to plan carefully before becoming pregnant. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Abnormal spasm of the blood vessels causes less amount of blood supply in the tissues and eventually turns blue after becoming white due to lack of oxygen supply in that area. Albeit a rather disoriented and unintelligible conversation, he was at least awake and aware.
The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. Squamous cell vaginal cancer spreads slowly and usually stays near the vagina, but may spread to the lungs, liver, or bone. Adenocarcinoma is more likely than squamous cell cancer to spread to the lungs and lymph nodes. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
A doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and presses on the lower abdomen with the other hand. If a Pap test shows abnormal cells in the vagina, a biopsy may be done during a colposcopy. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body. A cystoscope (a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing) is inserted through the urethra into the bladder.
A ureteroscope (a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing) is inserted through the urethra into the ureter.
Cancer cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body. For example, if vaginal cancer spreads to the lung, the cancer cells in the lung are actually vaginal cancer cells. When abnormal cells are found throughout the tissue lining, it is called carcinoma in situ. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. Skin grafting is a surgical procedure in which skin is moved from one part of the body to another. Treatment given after the surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.
See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine.
These Boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer. If you want to use an image from a PDQ summary and you are not using the whole summary, you must get permission from the owner. As a mother-to-be spends more time on her feet and the bodily fluids continue to multiply, the evidence of thicker legs and ankles often becomes evident. My first child, a week late and didn't realize something was wrong until I had my post op check up. This is a specific set of conditions related to the presence of autoantibodies called lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin.
In such cases, blood clotting is impaired, which causes bruising and bleeding from the skin, nose, gums, or intestines.


Patients with SLE often neutropenia, but the condition is usually harmless unless the reductions are so severe that they leave the patient vulnerable to infections.
It is generally of short duration and characterized by fever and a sudden drop in blood cells and platelets.
In addition, SLE treatments (particularly corticosteroids) affect cholesterol, weight, and other factors that can also affect the heart.
About 50% of patients with SLE exhibit inflammation of the kidneys (called lupus nephritis).This condition occurs in different forms and can vary from mild to severe.
Central nervous system symptoms are usually mild, but there is little effective treatment available for them. Patients are not only prone to the ordinary streptococcal and staphylococcal infections, but they are also susceptible to fungal and parasitic infections (called opportunistic infections), which are common in people with weakened immune systems.
Fluid retention and swelling can cause intestinal obstruction, which is much less serious but causes the same type of severe pain. Patients with SLE also commonly experience reductions in bone mass density (osteoporosis) and have a higher risk for fractures, whether or not they are taking corticosteroids (which can increase the risk for osteoporosis). Anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibodies can increase the risk for neonatal lupus erythematosus, a condition that can cause skin rash and liver and heart damage to the newborn baby. Steroids appear to pose a low risk for birth defects, but can increase a pregnant woman’s risks for gestational diabetes, high blood pressure, infection, and osteoporosis. The risk is highest for patients with antiphospholipid antibodies, active kidney disease, or high blood pressure. Women with lupus are 3 times more likely to need a transfusion during pregnancy than women without lupus. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium.
A rare type of adenocarcinoma is linked to being exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) before birth. A biopsy that removes only a small amount of tissue is usually done in the doctor’s office. A piece of healthy skin is taken from a part of the body that is usually hidden, such as the buttock or thigh, and used to repair or rebuild the area treated with surgery.
Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help cancer patients. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless the whole summary is shown and it is updated regularly. These autoantibodies react against fatty molecules called phospholipids, and so are called antiphospholipids. Rarely, lupus pneumonitis becomes chronic and causes scarring in the lungs, which reduces their ability to deliver oxygen to the blood. They also face an increased risk for urinary tract, herpes, salmonella, and yeast infections. Pregnant women with lupus should try to assemble an interdisciplinary health care team that includes a rheumatologist, high-risk obstetrician, and (for patients with kidney disease) a nephrologist. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites.
This happens due to the blood vessels spasm when exposed to heat or cold and its severity depends on the duration and frequency of the blood vessels.
Adenocarcinomas that are not linked with being exposed to DES are most common in women after menopause. A cone biopsy (removal of a larger, cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix and cervical canal) is usually done in the hospital. In a total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy, (a) the uterus plus one (unilateral) ovary and fallopian tube are removed; or (b) the uterus plus both (bilateral) ovaries and fallopian tubes are removed. When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. When we went to hawaii during my 6th month I had a hard time getting the swelling to go away at all. Their actions have complex effects that include causing narrowing and abnormalities of blood vessels. Corticosteroid and immunosuppressants, treatments used for SLE, also increase the risk for infections, thereby compounding the problem.
Certain medications (aspirin, heparin) and tests (fetal heart monitoring) may be needed to ensure a safe pregnancy. Methotrexate (Rheumatrex) and cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) should not be taken during pregnancy.
Some of these women develop a rare form of vaginal cancer called clear cell adenocarcinoma.
It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.
When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. In a radical hysterectomy, the uterus, cervix, both ovaries, both fallopian tubes, and nearby tissue are removed. The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard." Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.
Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
This is generally the original symptom for joint and skin disease and sometimes Rheumatoid arthritis. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.



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