Survival rate of follicular cancer,herbal treatment for leg edema grading,edtech yrdsb international - Plans On 2016

Follicular thyroid cancer, which is a type of neoplasm involving the thyroid gland, resembles the normal thyroid in microscopic pattern.
Normally, the thyroid gland is sensitive to ionizing radiation effects which are a high risk for most thyroid cancer.
As mentioned earlier, this type of follicular thyroid cancer statistically happens mostly in women. Persons of the age of 40 years or above have been known to acquire this type of thyroid cancer. Even moderate exposure to radiation may increase the risk of acquiring this form of cancer.
The treatment of Follicular Thyroid Cancer deals with four options, which are surgical treatment, pharmacological treatment, radiation treatment and chemotherapy treatment. Lobectomy with isthmectomy that deals with the removal of the nodule or isthmus which is a part of the thyroid gland.
The next vital treatment option is the pharmacological treatment, which usually means thyroid hormonal replacement treatment.
This treatment will aid in the removal or decrease the risk for recurrence of cancer as well as destruction of either the remnant ablation or the remaining cancerous thyroid cells. Generally, the prognosis or survival rate of persons diagnosed with follicular thyroid cancer is good.
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Knut Bjoro Smeland (born 1982) is a doctor in specialist training in oncology and a PhD candidate at the National Resource Center for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, Oslo University Hospital. The author has completed the ICMJE form and declares the following conflicts of interest: she has received travel-funding from Roche and Mundi Pharma. Anne Kirsti Blystad (born 1962) is a medical doctor and senior consultant at the Division for Lymphoma.
Unn Merete Fagerli (born 1962) holds a PhD and is a senior consultant for lymphoma tumours at the Department of Oncology. Oystein Fluge (born 1961) is a medical doctor and senior consultant at the Department of Oncology. Alexander Fossa (born 1968) is a medical doctor and senior consultant at the Division for Lymphoma. Arne Kolstad (born 1958) is a medical doctor, senior consultant at the Division for Lymphoma and head of the Immunotherapy Research Group at Oslo University Hospital, the Norwegian Radium Hospital.
Bjorn Ostenstad (born 1955) is a medical doctor and senior consultant at the Division for Lymphoma. Harald Holte (born 1951) is a medical doctor, senior consultant, expert adviser at the Division for Lymphoma and head of the Lymphoma Research Group at the Department of Oncology.
BACKGROUND High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support (HDT) has been a treatment option for lymphomas in Norway for 25 years.
METHOD All lymphoma patients ? 18 years who received HDT in Norway in the period 1987?–?2008 are included.
RESULTS Altogether 726 lymphoma patients received HDT in Norway in the period 1987?–?2008, with an annual average of 0.72 per 100 000 inhabitants.
High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support (HDT) is a very intensive, highly specialised and resource-intensive therapy. This study is part of a national multicentre study in which a broad spectrum of late effects following HDT for lymphoma in Norway is being studied.
Data for population base by health region are retrieved from Statistics Norway’s annual population census and number of HDT therapies per 100 000 inhabitants is entered. Survival is described using Kaplan-Meier curves, and univariate analysis with log-rank test is used to describe differences between groups. The project was approved in 2011 by the Norwegian Regional Ethics Committee South East (ref. For the country as a whole, an average of 0.73 patients per 100 000 inhabitants per year were treated in the whole period (1987?– 2008). Figure 1  Number of lymphoma patients treated with high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support (HDT) per 100 000 inhabitants per year belonging to each of the health regions, calculated based on place of residence at time of diagnosis.
In the period 1987?–?95 an average of 12.0 patients per year received HDT at the Norwegian Radium Hospital. Figure 1 shows the annual treatment activity per 100 000 inhabitants, based on the health region in which the patient was resident at the time of diagnosis. Table 1 shows number of patients, age and gender distribution and the total diagnoses distributed among the various hospitals.
Table 1  Number of lymphoma patients treated with high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support (HDT) in Norway, by hospital. There was a steady increase in the number of patients who received HDT for lymphoma from 1987 until a maximum was reached in 2004. In the first few years the patient selection was stringent, and only young and otherwise healthy patients were considered for HDT.
Overall the Radium Hospital of Norway has performed HDT on the greatest number of lymphoma patients.



For Norway as a whole, the number of HDT therapies for lymphoma has been 0.73 per 100 000, which is comparable to the treatment activity in Western Europe and the rest of Scandinavia (9). We found a five-year overall survival rate of 64??% following HDT for all lymphomas combined.
Altogether 411 lymphoma patients were alive following HDT at the start of 2011, and these represent a group of cancer survivors who have undergone very intensive treatment. Cancer in Norway 2010 – cancer incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence in Norway 2012. Nasjonalt handlingsprogram med retningslinjer for diagnostikk, behandling og oppfolging av maligne lymfomer nr. Received 13 November 2012, first revision submitted 22 February 2013, approved 25 June 2013.
I dette feltet kan du skrive inn kommentarer til det faglige eller meningsb?rende innholdet i artikkelen. Genetics are one of the high risk factors, which are seen through the form of having an abnormal oncogene and a family history of either goiters or precancerous polyps.
It is a systemic type of therapy, which is delivered via the bloodstream to aid in the halting and destruction of the cancer cell progression. Den ble sist oppdatert i 2004, har mange sikkerhetshull og følger ikke moderne nettstandarder. Kiserud (born 1966) holds a PhD and is a senior consultant in oncology and a postdoctoral fellow at the National Resource Center for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, Oslo University Hospital. Lauritzsen (born 1959) is a medical doctor and senior consultant at the Division for Lymphoma. He is the expert adviser on HDT at St Olavs Hospital and former board member of the Norwegian Lymphoma Group. He is head of the National Resource Center for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, Oslo University Hospital.
He is head of research at the Division of Cancer, Surgery and Transplantation, and participated in the introduction of HDT at the Norwegian Radium Hospital. The purpose of the article was to describe the use of the therapy for lymphomas for the country as a whole and by health region, and to reveal the overall survival rate. The use of the treatment varied according to the patients’ place of residence at the time of diagnosis, and was most frequently used for patients belonging to Northern Norway Health Region. All lymphoma patients above 18 years of age who have received the treatment up to and including 31 December 2008 are included. Comparisons between the health regions were made based on the patients’ county of residence at the time of diagnosis. For the survival analyses, observation time is calculated as the time from HDT until death or until 31 December 2011. Early mortality is defined as death within 100 days following the high-dose therapy, and comparison between lymphoma groups is analysed using Pearson’s chi-square test. Of these, 465 were men (64??%), and median age at treatment was 48 years (range 18?–?69 years).
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (23??%) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (21??%) were the most frequently occurring lymphoma types, followed by T-cell lymphomas (13??%), transformed lymphomas (12??%) and indolent lymphomas (12??%).
Up to and including 1995, HDT was only performed at the Norwegian Radium Hospital, except for two patients at the University Hospital of North Norway who received the treatment in 1995. Altogether 411 (58??%) of the 726 patients were alive as of 31 December 2011, with five-year and ten-year overall survival of 64??% (95??% CI 60?–?67??%) and 55??% (95??% CI 51?–?59??%) respectively. In the last few years the figure has remained relatively stable, or perhaps shown a slight decrease. With increasing experience, improved supportive therapy, and last but not least, progress such as stem-cell harvesting from blood rather than bone marrow, it has been possible to achieve reduced treatment-related morbidity and mortality, as well as lower costs (8). It was the only treating hospital in the period 1987?–?95 and had 60??% of all HDT patients following the regionalisation in 1996.
When adjusted for the population base, the highest number of lymphoma patients who have received HDT are resident in the Northern Norway Health Region, followed by the South-Eastern Norway Health Region, the Western Norway Health Region and the Central Norway Health Region.
This corresponds to previously published studies, in which treatment-related mortality of 1?–?10??% for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (8, 10, 11) and 4?–?10??% for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (8, 12, 13) was reported. In an American single-centre study published in 2012, five-year survival for Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of 59??% and 62??%, respectively, was found (14). Hoydosebehandling med autolog stamcellestotte ved lymfom – fra utprovende til standard behandling. Rituximab in the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma–a critical evaluation of randomized controlled trials.
Early treatment-related mortality in adult autologous stem cell transplant recipients: a nation-wide survey of 1482 transplanted patients.
Dose intensification with autologous bone-marrow transplantation in relapsed and resistant Hodgkin’s disease: results of a BNLI randomised trial. Aggressive conventional chemotherapy compared with high-dose chemotherapy with autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation for relapsed chemosensitive Hodgkin’s disease: a randomised trial.
Autologous bone marrow transplantation as compared with salvage chemotherapy in relapses of chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Early consolidation by myeloablative radiochemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation in first remission significantly prolongs progression-free survival in mantle-cell lymphoma: results of a prospective randomized trial of the European MCL Network.
Conditional survival and cause-specific mortality after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematological malignancies.


High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation versus chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for follicular lymphoma in adults. Gonadal function in male patients after treatment for malignant lymphomas, with emphasis on chemotherapy. It occurs most often in women above the age of 40 and especially those who have low intake of iodine.  It is an aggressive kind of cancer, which rarely occurs in children. The diagnosis of follicular thyroid cancer is based upon the finding of blood vessel invasion and pseudocapsule. The common radiological treatments used are radioactive iodine therapy and external radiation therapy.
In addition, it has a good prognosis especially when the person is younger than 40 years of age, without vascular invasion or perhaps extracapsular extension of the thyroid cancer.
Based on results from prospective studies, it has progressed from being an experimental form of treatment to becoming an established treatment for a number of indications (1).
The patients are identified through each hospital’s records of all HDT therapies, cross-checked against reports from HDT meetings, the clinical quality register for lymphoma at the Norwegian Radium Hospital and radiotherapy registers. This may be attributed in part to the fact that primary treatment for several lymphoma types has substantially improved in the past 10?–?15 years, which is reflected in the Cancer Registry of Norway’s survival figures for lymphoma (5). The therapy is thereby also relevant for older patients with more comorbidity, and HDT is currently offered to more elderly patients than in the first few years, as illustrated by the figures for the two periods – those treated in the period 1987?–?95 were 11 years younger (median) than those treated in the period 1996?–?2008.
Since we do not have complete details on causes of death for the whole population, in this study we have defined early mortality as death within 100 days following HDT, irrespective of cause of death. In other studies of specific lymphoma types, three-year survival varies between 55??% and 80??% (11?–?13, 15, 16).
According to national guidelines, these patients should be followed up with regular controls (17). In addition, looking at a high magnification through the microscope may reveal abortive follicles demonstrating atypia of follicular type of epithelium. The main difference between the two is that the radioactive iodine therapy is a pill that is taken internally. In the first years (1987?–?95) it was performed only at the Norwegian Radium Hospital in clinical studies.
In addition, the data collected are double-checked through a retrospective review of patient notes. Altogether 108 patients (15??%) were treated in the period 1987?–?95 when the high-dose treatment consisted of total body irradiation and high-dose cyclophosphamide and was only performed at the Norwegian Radium Hospital. The main reason for this is most likely the introduction of rituximab (anti-CD20 antibody), which has resulted in fewer and later relapses of all types of B-cell lymphomas (6). One reason may be that it is a matter of discussion whether and when in the course of the disease HDT should be offered for particular lymphoma types, for example transformed lymphomas and follicular lymphomas, in relation to other treatment options. This will therefore also include early lymphoma-related mortality in addition to direct, treatment-related mortality. We know from earlier studies, both Norwegian and international, that certain groups of lymphoma patients have an elevated risk of developing late effects after treatment, such as hormonal dysfunctions, cardiovascular diseases, second cancers and chronic fatigue (18?–?21).
Also, it is a noninvasive type of cancer, which may spread to nearby organs like the lungs, brain, skin, bladder or liver and bones. Ten-year overall survival was 55??% (95??% CI 51?–?59??%), and Hodgkin’s lymphoma had the best survival of the lymphoma groups (p = 0.01).
Following recommendation by an expert group appointed by the Norwegian Board of Health Supervision, the treatment was regionalised in 1996 and has since been performed in all four health regions (on a national level has not been produced until now.We have investigated how many lymphoma patients who have received HDT in Norway as a whole, by lymphoma type and by hospital, based on place of residence and time of diagnosis. In the period 1995?–?2008 altogether 618 (85??%) received HDT with BEAM (carmustine (BCNU), etoposide, cytarabine (Ara-C) and melphalan) as a high-dose regimen. The primary treatment of Burkitt’s lymphoma over these 25 years has improved greatly, so that these patients now seldom need HDT (7).
Most of the patients had relapsed lymphoma or a disease that was resistant to conventional treatment, so that the prognosis was poor without HDT. The prevalence of and risk factors for late effects have not been specifically investigated in lymphoma patients who have received HDT.
Median age for HDT in the first period was 39 years, and in the period 1996?–?2008 it was 50 years.
This is now being investigated in a national follow-up study in which all the 411 patients who are alive following HDT are also being offered a comprehensive medical control.
The prognosis is based on variety of factors like response of treatment given, early diagnosis, which leads to good prognosis, age, gender and management of the disease condition.
In some clinical situations no benefit has been shown for HDT compared to less toxic cancer treatment (1). According to experts, there is a five to ten year survival rate for persons with follicular thyroid cancer that is based on cancer survival statistics. In refining the treatment, emphasis is now being placed on improved induction therapy to increase the remission rates before the HDT, in order for more people to undergo this treatment and hopefully reduce later relapse (1). The cancer survival statistics should be cautiously interpreted; for this kind of statistic is being measured every interval of five years.



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