Signs and symptoms of pulmonary edema in pregnancy,how to reduce swelling in lower legs and ankles,causes for edwards syndrome ultrasound - .

The two main types of Pulmonary Oedema this essay will aim to evaluate are known as Interstitial and Alveolar Oedema.
Pulmonary Oedema, usually resulting from left sided heart failure, is fluid accumulation in the lungs which can happen due to inadequate functioning of the heart or circulatory system. The second is known as Interstitial Oedema which occurs initially when a build up of pressure pushes the fluid out of the alveoli and into the surrounding tissue. Heart failure is recognized as being the most common cause of the illness and the number of patients, mainly elderly, seems to be increasing.
This evidence suggests that Pulmonary Oedema is becoming more prevalent in the UK, also compelling healthcare professionals to recognize it as an illness generally associated with the elderly.
However, there are other causes of Pulmonary Oedema that would lead one to believe that it should not necessarily be an illness solely associated with the elderly.
There are many different symptoms of Pulmonary Oedema, and some may be easier to recognise than others. The main symptom of Pulmonary Oedema can be recognized if the patient is experiencing difficulty in breathing. The classic signs of Pulmonary Oedema can be the production of pink frothy phlegm, swelling of certain limbs such as the ankles or hands, anxiety, wheezing and restlessness. In conclusion, this essay has hopefully gathered a sufficient amount of evidence to suggest the condition is becoming more prevalent in the UK, and that increasing numbers of patients with the illness are predominantly associated with the elderly. Inasmuch, it can also occur as a result of inflicted social behaviour which can be implemented from any age group. Acute pulmonary edema (APE) is a medical emergency caused by leakage of water from the blood vessels into the lung tissue, making breathing difficult. The edema of the lung has the same pathophysiologic mechanism as any swelling in the body, occurring whenever there is water leakage from blood vessels into a tissue. Contrary to what one might imagine, our blood vessels tubes are not waterproof, they do have pores that allow the entry and exit of cells, bacteria, proteins and water. When the left side of the heart becomes weak, it finds it difficult to adequately pump blood to the rest of the body. In heart failure pulmonary edema develops slowly unless there is some factor triggering an acute worsening of heart function.
The acute myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, can be caused by pulmonary edema if there is a large area of the heart muscle on the left side of the heart, leading to sudden heart failure. The increase in pressure tends to be a frequent cause of acute pulmonary edema, especially in patients who already have some degree of heart failure. In normal situations the patient's heart with moderate heart failure may still be able to pump blood properly. Renal failure leads to accumulation of water and salt in the body, causing an increase in the volume of liquid within the vessels.
Some lung infections, particularly those of viral origin, may cause a frame of intense pulmonary inflammation, leading to increased permeability of vessels and subsequent leakage of fluid into the lung. The use of some drugs, such as heroin or cocaine, can cause severe pulmonary inflammation, leading to increased permeability of vessels and subsequent pulmonary edema.
Some patients with severe neurological injury, such as head trauma, brain surgery, convulsions, cerebral hemorrhage, etc.



Depending on the cause, the picture of pulmonary edema may develop slowly or suddenly, the latter called acute pulmonary edema. In patients accumulating fluid in the lungs slowly and gradually, the symptoms of pulmonary edema begin with intolerance to exertion, fatigue (even at rest), shortness of breath when lying down, no need to use at least two pillows to sleep, swelling in the feet and ankles and wheezing.
If this same patient described above presents a factor of decompensation of their heart failure, such as a heart attack, a hypertensive crisis or even a serious infection, heart suddenly becomes unable to adequately pump blood to the body, and there is a framework of acute fluid retention in the lungs. The first step in the treatment of acute pulmonary edema is to provide oxygen to the patient. If the patient does not urinate or does not respond adequately to diuretics, the option is the urgent hemodialysis, a method capable of removing up to a quart of water from the lungs in just 20-30 minutes. This particular field of study has been chosen and this essay will aim to analyse and evaluate the condition, as well as briefly identifying which kind of patient the illness is generally associated with . Heart failure is recognised as one of the most common causes of the illness and this essay will also aim to gather and analyse evidence to support this claim. It can be a result of cardiac disorders and can appear as a chronic condition or develop quickly, rapidly becoming fatal (Springhouse 2003). The first, known as Alveolar Oedema, is a condition in which the alveoli of the lung become filled with fluid, and can therefore appear opaque to x-rays. This can be caused by Multi trauma, illicit drug use particularly cocaine, and from a Haemorrhage to the subarachnoid space of the brain. This claim is supported by McDonagh et al (1997) cited by Coady (2002:41) who claimed that heart failure is predominantly a disease of the elderly and in the UK, prevalence of symptomatic heart failure increases with age to about 10 percent in those aged over seventy five years and it continues to rise.
Such causes could be pneumonia, head injury, mercury poisoning or even near drowning as these causes can occur in people of any age.
In the case of Alveolar Oedema the patient may be showing external signs of Pulmonary Oedema, but due to the condition being opaque to x-rays medical professionals may find it difficult to diagnose from evidence based on internal symptoms especially if the condition is in its early stages and no infections or noticeable lung damage has been induced. Depending on the stage of development of the condition; breathing difficulties may vary in accordance with severity. Atozdiseases (2007) claim that in a severe attack patients may also turn bluish as there is an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood. The information presented shows that Pulmonary Oedema can generally be a condition associated with elderly patients, usually induced from inadequate cardiac or respiratory function. This essay has hopefully given a clear insight into the symptomatic changes the body can go through, as well as looking at the main causes of Alveolar and Interstitial Pulmonary Oedema. When the pressure gets too high within the vessels of the lung, water blood tends to "turn into serum" through pores, accumulating within lung tissue, mainly in the alveoli, which are the structures that perform gas exchange. Some diseases, which will be explained below, cause an increase in the pores of blood vessels, making them more permeable, which facilitates the outflow of water. We describe simplified cardiopulmonary circulation for this mechanism so that it is easily understandable. After nourishing all tissues, blood, now low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide, it returns to the right side of the heart where it is immediately pumped toward the lungs. As the left side of the heart is responsible for pumping blood from the lungs and when the heart pump fails, there is a jam, causing an accumulation of blood in the pulmonary vessels.
If much of the heart muscle dies, the heart becomes unable to pump blood properly, causing this retention in the lungs.


However, just a sudden elevation in blood pressure is enough for an increase in resistance to blood flow, requiring further work of the heart muscle.
In some cases, especially if the patient does not urinate in appropriate volumes, the quantity of liquid trapped in the vessels becomes so large that it starts to overflow, causing edema and pulmonary edema. The cause is unknown, but it is believed that there are changes in the pulmonary microvasculature favoring fluid leakage at high altitudes. This frame is typical in patients with heart failure who have gradual worsening of heart function and progressive pulmonary congestion. In this case the symptoms of acute pulmonary edema are severe: shortness of breath, feeling of drowning, agitation, cough with frothy secretions, inability to lie down and tachycardia (racing heart). The acute pulmonary edema is a medical emergency and if not treated in time, will definitely lead to cardiac arrest. Usually the patient arrives at the emergency department in hypoxemia, or with low levels of blood oxygenation. This claim is also supported the statement that if it is left untreated it can lead to coma or even death. In this circumstance, treatment can be delayed if the external symptoms are not recognized and it is the fluid inside the alveoli septa that usually fills the airspace.
If this is present for a long time the patient may become more susceptible to infection as well as sustaining acute injury to the lung.
If the patient is repositioned upright breathing can become more manageable, it does not resolve the condition completely but can help manage comfort levels if only temporarily. In the lungs the blood is oxygenated again and returns to the left side of the heart, where it will be pumped into the rest of the body, restarting the process. This congestion causes an increase in blood pressure in pulmonary vessels, favoring leakage of water. Some patients do not have a heart able to work against high blood pressure, which leads to pulmonary congestion. If the heart valve does not open properly, blood cannot be drained there through, causing congestion.
The edema arises from changes in pulmonary hemodynamics, with increased pressure and permeability in the pulmonary vessels.
In some cases pulmonary edema is so severe and oxygenation is so low, that the patient needs to be intubated and connected to a mechanical ventilator to stay alive. Lowered blood pressure is also important to facilitate the work of the heart, so usually vasodilators are used.
It is the same fluid accumulation that can prevent oxygen from filling the alveoli, and in turn can also stop the oxygen from being absorbed into the bloodstream. Some of the common causes for this condition are usually inhalation of toxic gases, severe infection, aspiration or even multiple blood transfusions.



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