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All REEs are metallic in nature and are typically discussed together due to their similar chemical and physical properties. Polishing  powders  and  glass  additives  as  a  polishing  agent  and  for  decolourisation  and removing impurities. The first stage is actual mining, where the ore is taken out of the ground from the mineral deposits.
The second stage is beneficiation which concentrates the ore minerals into a mineral concentrate. The third stage is hydrometallurgical processing, which extracts and concentrates the rare earths into a mixed chemical concentrate.
The  seventh  stage  is  manufacturing  the  alloys  into  devices  and  components  such  as permanent magnets. REO production was negligible and production from all other nations combined averaged approximately 7,100 tonnes per annum (see Figure 3). By 1980, however, through improving technology, China’s REO production grew to almost 5,000 tonnes per annum and tripled by 1986 to 15,000 tonnes per annum.
Adamas estimates that global HREO production increased very sharply between 2008 and 2012 owing to a surge of illegal mining in China brought on by a rise in global REO prices and an increase in domestic resource taxes that made illegal production in the nation more lucrative than ever. Adamas estimates that illegal TREO production in China peaked in 2012 and has since declined year-on- year on the back of increased efforts by Chinese officials to crackdown on illegal producers (Figure 6).
Adamas estimates that production from all other regions combined, being Malaysia, Brazil, and Vietnam, averaged 690 tonnes per annum from 2008 to 2014 stemming from primary REO mines in Brazil and Vietnam, and by-product production of mineral concentrates in Malaysia (see Figure 6). REEs are not exchange traded but are sold on private markets which can make their prices difficult to monitor.
Overall, 2015 was a negative year for rare earth prices although some sectors of the market began to show signs of a turnaround. Producers in China have cited weak prices, overcapacity issues, and excessive illegal production as the main hindrances to profit, spurring a number of producers to rationalize production or temporarily cease operations in a bid to draw-down inventories and increase prices. Most market commentators expect REE demand to increase, possibly considerably, in the medium term.
Adamas estimates that global TREO demand was approximately 125,000 tonnes in 2015 and will increase for individual REOs by 1 per cent. In December 2012, the German government hosted the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade. The Bonn Call for Action is divided into 10 principal actions, each of which is considered essential for strengthening radiation protection over the next decade.
Some of the actions proposed by the Bonn conference are outside of FDA’s role and authority. FDA staff are participating in drafting the International Commission on Radiological Protection’s (ICRP) guidance on justification in medicine. FDA, in cooperation with the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), has conducted the Nationwide Evaluation of X-Ray Trends (NEXT) surveys for many years. FDA has worked with the American College of Cardiology (ACC) to incorporate radiation dose data in procedure data submitted to the ACC’s National Cardiovascular Data Registry, and is working with the Society of Interventional Radiology to accomplish the same purpose. As part of FDA’s Initiative to Reduce Unnecessary Radiation Exposure from Medical Imaging, FDA worked with industry (the Medical Imaging and Technology Alliance [MITA]), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) to harmonize radiation dose data formats and encourage the automatic output of complete radiation dose reports from imaging devices through Radiation Dose Structured Reports.
FDA staff participate in AAPM Task Group 246 (Patient dose from diagnostic radiation) to develop methods for recording organ dose in structured reports from CT scanners and fluoroscopes. The agency is actively engaged with IEC and MITA to introduce safety features into the national and international standards for medical devices.
FDA held a public meeting in 2012 on Device Improvements for Pediatric X-Ray Imaging, and has continued to interact with industry and other stakeholders. The agency’s scientists are working with industry and other stakeholders to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of new technologies intended to reduce radiation exposure. FDA works actively with industry (MITA), state regulators (CRCPD), European regulators (Heads of the European Radiological protection Competent Authorities [HERCA]), and professional societies (AAPM, ACR, American Society for Radiation Oncology [ASTRO] and ACC) to facilitate communication among the various groups on matters related to medical device safety and radiation safety.
The FDA meets regularly with MITA to discuss matters of mutual interest and concern, and has an agreement with HERCA permitting discussion of matters of mutual interest. FDA has provided financial support and subject matter experts for an NCRP report, currently in preparation, on radiation protection in dentistry.
FDA participates in various professional organizations’ efforts in education and quality assurance for radiation therapy and nuclear medicine devices, including linear accelerators, brachytherapy devices, proton beams, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The agency is an active participant in the NEXT surveys, which collect radiation dose data for specific medical and dental imaging procedures in the United States.
The FDA and ACC have worked together to incorporate radiation dose data collection as part of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry.
FDA staff participated in IAEA’s ISEMIR (Information System on Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research) project to develop a global database on occupational exposure in interventional cardiology. FDA staff participated in the IAEA ISEMIR (Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research) project on interventional cardiology occupational exposures, the results of which were reported in IAEA TECDOC No. FDA participates in AAPM, ASTRO, and American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT) annual meetings and on specific subcommittees that evaluate safety concerns and appropriate use recommendations for radiation oncology. The FDA also has a reporting program, the Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun), through which it works with the clinical community to identify and solve problems with the use of medical devices.
The FDA works actively to promote safety through activities such as participating in the revision of the ACR guidance document on safe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) practices and the revision of the ACR technical standard for management of the use of radiation in fluoroscopic procedures.
The FDA meets regularly with industry, state regulators, professional societies and other stakeholders to improve communication among all interested parties and advance radiation safety and awareness in healthcare.

The FDA said it has met with members of HERCA to develop a closer working relationship and promote convergence of regulatory efforts. FDA staff participate in meetings of professional associations of diagnostic radiologists, radiation oncologists, interventional cardiologists, medical physicists and health physicists to exchange information and foster cooperation among these specialists. The FDA consolidated its regulatory authority over radiology devices and radiation-emitting electronic products in late 2012.
FDA staff have participated in WHO’s Global Initiative on Radiation Safety in Health Care Settings since 2008, and serve on the Core Group of Experts.
FDA staff serve on WHO’s Core Group of Experts and as contributors to WHO’s document on Communicating Radiation Risks in Pediatric Imaging to Support a Risk Benefit Dialogue. FDA staff serve as members of NCRP scientific committees, ICRP working parties and WHO’s Global Initiative on Radiation Safety in Healthcare Settings, as well as consultants to the IAEA.
FDA staff are active participants in drafting NCRP reports on radiation protection in dentistry, evaluating and communicating radiation risks for research involving human subjects, and administrative policies for managing substantial dose procedures and tissue reactions from fluoroscopically-guided interventions. FDA staff participated in the revision of the Healing Arts portion of CRCPD’s Suggested State Regulations. FDA has developed and conducted a training course for FDA inspectors on special issues related to X-ray imaging devices. Toshiba’s Infinix 4DCT combines an Infinix Elite angiography system an Aquilion One Vision edition CT system. Sanctioned by the United Nations, the Global Defense Initiative has one goal: to eliminate multi-national terrorism in an effort to preserve freedom.
Veterinary technician - algonquin college, The veterinary technician program at algonquin college is accredited by the canadian veterinary medical association, the ontario association of veterinary technicians. With the exception of scandium, they generally occur within the same ore deposits, although the metal ratio differs considerably between different deposit types.
For instance, LEEs are used in polishing powders in the glass, electronics and optic industries. REE-based permanent magnets are currently perhaps the most important of these product-enabling applications. Key applications for permanent magnets include industrial motors, hard disc drives and automotive applications. Nickel metal hydride batteries are used extensively in portable tools and also in hybrid vehicles.
REEs are used to improve the mechanical characteristics of alloyed steel and in desulphurisation. REEs are an important constituent of tri-band phosphor lighting used in fluorescent tubes and lamps as well as LCD backlights for flat panel displays. From 1987 to 2000, China’s REO output grew steadily, reaching approximately 28,100 tonnes in 1992, 48,000 tonnes in 1995, and 83,500 tonnes in2000 (see Figure 3). REO production remained steady, averaging approximately 18,000 tonnes per annum from 1980 to the end of 1997 while production from most other nations collapsed in the early-90s due to increased availability of cheaper Chinese REOs. Over the same period Adamas estimates that global LREO production grew from 107,700 tonnes to 125,100 at a CAGR of 2.5 per cent.
However, Adamas estimates that illegal REO production in China is still very substantial, serving to undermine global prices for REOs, but forecasts a continued reduction in illegal production, strengthening the pricing power of China’s legitimate producers. REE prices are generally established independently by producers in China and the materials are spot traded between willing buyers and willing sellers.
This increase was caused largely by China reducing the supply of REOs available for export, causing concern among foreign end-users about possible supply shortages.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced its latest efforts in supporting the Bonn Call for Action, an international list of priorities for radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The meeting —sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the World Health Organization — resulted in a list of priorities for radiation protection in medicine for the next decade, called the Bonn Call for Action. The 2008-2009 survey of cardiac catheterization facilities resulted in publication of possible initial U.S. The goal is establishment of an infrastructure for development of national DRLs for the United States. These include CT Dose Check, access controls for CT devices, and a user quality control mode for fluoroscopy equipment, all of which were developed by industry with input from FDA.
The goals of this work are to ensure streamlined pathways to market, safe and effective new technologies and accurate information about product performance. FDA also assisted in the development of Image Gently’s online modules for vendor-specific instructions and training on proper use of certain CT scanner features. The agency has been an active participant in MITA’s development of CT and fluoroscopy safety standards, including National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standards XR-25, XR-26, XR-27 and XR-28.
Agency staff have served as co-authors of NCRP and ICRP documents on DRL use, radiation protection for fluoroscopy performed outside the radiology department and radiation protection in cardiology.
14 (Federal Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-ray Procedures, forthcoming), for which FDA made substantial contributions. Increase availability of improved global information on medical exposures and occupational exposures in medicine.
FDA staff participate actively in a number of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organization (WHO) projects that are intended to provide information on patient and occupational exposures in medicine. More recently, FDA has begun to participate in ROSSI (Radiation Oncology Stakeholder’s Safety Initiative). FDA currently reviews Medical Device Reports (MDR) of adverse events related to medical devices, including radiology devices.

More than 200 hospitals provide voluntary reports of safety issues related to medical devices. FDA and HERCA have signed both a Memorandum of Understanding and a Confidential Disclosure Agreement to aid in these efforts. Programs were reorganized to bring together staff and functions related to premarket review, adverse event analysis, compliance and enforcement work and outreach efforts within a single office and division of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. One of the goals of this initiative is to raise awareness of the safe use of radiation in medicine among health authorities, health policy makers, healthcare providers, patients and public.
FDA staff are also active participants in drafting ICRP documents on occupational protection issues in fluoroscopically guided procedures and diagnostic reference levels for diagnostic and interventional imaging. Sessions include a general equipment overview, a description of FDA mandatory and voluntary consensus standards and tips on issues to focus on in an X-ray equipment manufacturer inspection.
Despite the name, REEs are not particularly rare, they are relatively evenly distributed in the Earth’s crust but do not often form sufficient concentrations for it to be economic to extract them.
Emerging and growing markets for permanent magnets are expected to be hybrid and electric vehicles and wind turbines. Adamas also estimates that Australian TREO production grew from 2,200 tonnes in 2008 to 7,191 tonnes in 2014 as Lynas Corp.
The meeting was attended by 536 participants from 77 countries and 16 organizations, including FDA. As a regulatory agency, FDA shares in the responsibility for strengthening radiation protection of patients and health workers with other national and international agencies, researchers, educators, medical institutions, professional societies and individual practitioners.
The following list of selected actions and sub-actions highlights areas where FDA is participating actively to implement the Bonn Call for Action. 14 (Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures), which discusses justification extensively and recommends the use of clinical decision support technology. FDA staff have contributed to National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report No. In a coordinated effort with HERCA, MITA and COCIR (the European Coordination Committee of the Radiological, Electromedical and Healthcare IT Industry), the FDA is attempting to avoid duplication of effort in interactions between regulators and industry. They are also active participants in the development of other NCRP and ICRP documents on radiation protection in medicine. FDA staff have also participated in developing several ICRP documents that provide recommendations on reducing occupational exposures. The agency is currently in discussions with MITA regarding the upcoming RT-2 standards that will address interoperability, quality assurance and certifications for radiation oncology. Many MDR submissions are required by regulation, but FDA encourages voluntary submission of these reports as well.
Both MDR reports and MedSun submissions are included in FDA’s Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, which can be searched by the public. While this report’s intended audience is federal facilities, the recommendations represent safety practices important to all facilities. The reorganization streamlined operations and helped improve awareness of issues related to these devices in order to make better informed decisions across the lifecycle of this equipment.
This discovery revolutionised magnet- based technologies such as electric motors and turbines. Adamas forecasts that in 2020, global TREO demand will conservatively amount to approximately 150,750 tonnes.
All parties are important in identifying, advocating for and implementing solutions to improve radiation usage in medicine and strengthen radiation protection.
172 on DRLs, and are also participating actively in drafting ICRP guidance on DRL development and use. These documents are intended to educate health professionals in radiation protection and radiation management in medical and dental imaging.
These MDRs describe adverse events associated with, among others, fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, radiation therapy devices — including linear accelerators, proton beam and brachytherapy devices — and nuclear medicine systems, including SPECT and PET systems.
Problems are more readily identified and solutions are more rapidly implemented as a result of the new structure. REE phosphors for lighting and displays are another key application, enabling technologies such as compact fluorescent lamps and LCD screens.
ERCON also believes that while further gains in terms of material efficiency are clearly possible, they will require intensified R&D efforts and are unlikely to lead to advancements that could significantly slow demand for REEs in the near term. Global TREO demand growth is forecast to be driven heavily by strong demand growth for neodymium oxide, praseodymium oxide, dysprosium oxide, lanthanum oxide, and others from 2015 through to the end of the decade, with the permanent magnet and fuel cracking catalyst sectors the key drivers. Manufacturers may use conformance to these standards as a way to demonstrate device safety. Our current focus is assessing how to best manage adverse event reviews and incorporate a variety of sources of internal and external data into a signal management program. India produced approximately 2,800 tonnes of TREO annually from 2008 to 2014, primarily in the form of REO-containing mineral concentrates produced as by-products of heavy mineral mining operations, and Russia produced an average of 2,400 tonnes of TREO per annum in the form of mineral concentrates from the Murmansk region (see Figure 6).
According to estimates by Curtin University and IMCOA, REE demand is projected to increase by more than 20 per cent. Both Chinese domestic and Chinese FOB prices reached multi-year lows in 2015, challenging the prof itability of China’s major producers.

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