Problems of british education system,survival items for hiking near,dental first aid kit asda - .

Importance of Education in India & Why do we need to educate peopleIndia constitutes of 700,000 villages which play a major role in future development, economy of the country.
This paper sets out to consider problems and issues in educational reform in Zambia through an examination of the achievements and difficulties encountered in attempts to develop progressive and egalitarian change in the programmes of the Ministry of Education and Culture for children and adults, in agricultural extension and in workers' education. The political process in Zambia may be seen as an intra-elite and factional conflict for spoils controlled by the state between the political leadership and an emerging bourgeois elite rather than a broader class conflict in which the interests of villagers, for example, are consciously and effectively articulated5 . Zambia has relied heavily on the copper mining industry both before and after the achievement of Independence from the British in 1964. Due to the major structural imbalances in the economy, an estimated 40% of the population now live in the urban areas, on the line of rail and the Copperbelt. Zambia has a vast potential for increased agricultural production and in the foreseeable future it is only through rural regeneration involving subsistence and small-scale farmers that productive employment and self-employment and increased standards of living for the majority of the people may be achieved. Despite stated government intentions, expenditure in the agricultural sector has seldom exceeded 10% of total government expenditure annually.
The proposals and recommendations in the Ministry of Education's October 1977 document on Educational Reform12, which were adopted as official government policy in 1978, are to be understood in the context of the work of an educational reform group in the Ministry which was formed in 1973 and which produced a draft statement on educational reform published in 197613. In order to fulfil popular demand for education and the perceived need to produce a selected small number of relatively highly skilled personnel to man industry and the civil service, expansion took place but the colonial pyramidal structure was maintained16 as shown in the table below. Total enrolment in primary education expanded from 378,417 in 1964 (including 13,002 at Grade 8 which was dropped in 1966 and not included in the above table) to 872,392 in 1975 and in secondary education from 13,853 in 1964 to 73,049 in 1974.
This situation gives urban children the advantage in terms of their chances of progression to secondary school. The Adult Education section of the Ministry of Education provided second-chance formal education through a national programme of night-school classes, a correspondence unit based in Luanshya, supervised study groups and 5 adult education centres.
The demand for the programme was high and based on the hope that the formal certificate would lead back into the full-time system of education or the employment and further training. The adult education section did introduce some vocational programmes in, for example, home economics, typing, shop-keeping and commercial subjects, but the bulk of the programme remained formal. Government non-formal provision for young people is seen as a way in which primary school 7 leavers, and now secondary leavers, can learn useful skills for self-employment and in which their disappointed aspirations and their frustrations can, at least for a time, be contained.
The Zambia National Youth Service 1964-71 was succeeded by the Zambia National Service and these have been the major government programmes. The need for major educational reform emerged from both a technical and functional viewpoint and from one concerned with more egalitarian social, economic and educational institutions. The system is biased towards urban and better off groups in society and may be seen not as a national system but as a dual system producing benefits for the few and failure and rejection for the vast majority.
The reform group in 1974 were aware of both the technical and ideological aspects of the need for reform and worked on the assumption that Zambia was moving in the direction of a socialist transformation.
It is true that many aspects of the draft statement were too optimistic in terms of finance, management, the organisation of productive work, professional reactions and attitudes, teacher-supply, rotating in-takes, assessment procedures, volunteers and the role of the Party 25. The period and nature of the formal and officially sanctioned National Debate on the reforms did not include realistic opportunities for the mobilisation and development of popular support.27 Nevertheless as win be noted in the conclusion this does not account adequately for the longer-term and more critical nature of debate and participation which evolved. The written response was small and largely from elite groups who opposed the reforms recognising that the nature of the current system served their interests.28 The price of copper in 1977 was low and it was becoming clear that the President's lurch towards the left was not being maintained.
The October 1977 Educational Reform, published in 1978, has left the Zambian educational system little changed. In fact the Ministry of Education has given up its responsibility for unemployed school-leavers.
The implementation of the 1978 Reforms depends on expansion of a largely unchanged formal structure which would only delay by two years the increase in numbers of unemployed young people.
The lack of resources and increase in the number of children at primary school age are expanding the number of children not enrolled. The Inspectorate once again became very conscious of the problems facing teachers in the class-room in the form of over-enrolment, lack of suitable textbooks, absence of suitable class-room furniture and need for repairs and maintenance of school buildings. The quotation is from the 1979 Report and unfortunately the picture is no brighter at present.
The department of Continuing Education, established in 1979, despite the dedicated efforts of its staff, is quite unable to meet demand for more formal education and its attempts to diversify are frustrated by lack of funds and staffing. Responses from teachers cannot yet be assessed but it does jeopardise the study group programme as does lack of funds to print material at the Correspondence College. The financial situation is now so bad that in 1981 it was not possible to open Form I classes and it was not known what funds would be available for 1982. The Ministry of Youth and Sport established in 1979 now has the major responsibility for developing skills training programmes for school-leavers and the Commissioner for Youth has been moved from the Ministry of Education to this new Ministry.
The Ministry's position then in relation to its objectives, policies and practice is one of grave difficulty. The Ministry of Youth and Sport has taken over from the Ministry of Education and Culture the task of making grants to skills training schemes developed by voluntary agencies, local authorities and community groups. But the effectiveness of non-formal training is linked by young people to the prospects of obtaining work afterwards. The importance of rural regeneration and agricultural development to the Zambian economy and the well-being of the majority of the people cannot be overemphasised. Instead agricultural extension has been characterised by neglect, low priority and a continuing lack of human and financial resources. Workers tend to neglect small farmers and concentrate on emergent and richer farmers as they respond more readily to advice and have the resources to utilise it. The neglect of agricultural extensions taken together with low investment in the agricultural sector is an indication of the real priority given by government to rural development and the needs of the rural majority.
The project was intended, in the context of decentralisation of planning and possible devolution of decision-making and funding, to train agricultural extension workers and other appropriate rural development workers in small-scale and local project planning. A flexible planning model, case-studies, background papers and training manuals were developed during the project, and evaluation showed that when used by experienced trainers and educators the methods and materials were acceptable and effective as in-service training.38 The programme does not present a mechanical new truth about planning and it respects the knowledge and rationality of the villagers. Phase II of the project was to train trainers, integrate the programme into normal in-service training and spread it to other provinces.
A Phase II of 'Agriplan' may not be justified in Zambia in that conditions are not appropriate and this once more illuminates the difficulties and limitations of educational and developmental reform which aim to benefit the rural poor.
Workers' education: the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions and the Presidents' Citizenship College. Before 1964 the trade union movement established itself as a powerful and independent force in the industrial sector.
After Independence the trade unions (there are now 18) organised on a national basis and formed the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions which established a Department of Workers' Education in 1968 at its Headquarters in Kitwe.
Other agencies, the Presidents' Citizenship College at Kabwe which opened in 1973, the Mindolo Ecumenical Foundation and the University of Zambia's Extra-Mural Department (now the Centre for Continuing Education) were also becoming active in workers' education.
The major advance in structuring workers' education was the development of a modular system at the PCC and pre entered by the International Labour Organisation expert, Philip Hopkins, to the Workshop of Trade Union Chairmen and General Secretaries in December 1973 which approved its general principles. Courses were not designed to meet the needs of various groups and types of worker-students. Stress was usually placed upon giving information, rather than on developing skills needed for further study and for effective action in trade unions and social affairs. The-modular system is designed for target groups in the lower paid, middle level leadership (branch officials, shop stewards, works councillors, workers' educators) and the top leadership. The quality of work is patchy, the educational needs of workers not being met are of course enormous and it is difficult to quantify achievements but the following factors are significant.
A major principle of the modular system from the basic to advanced levels is that workers' education is not only concerned with skills and role training in industrial relations but with general and social education and the analysis of industrial relations in a political and historical context. Training for workers' educators has produced an increase in quality in both methods and content. Since 1976 there has been a major increase in the number of elected officials who have previously undertaken training in the modular system, intermediate and advanced courses at the PCC and workers' education training.
Despite selection problems m the workers' education programme at the PCC it has been more effective than that employed for the political education unit at the college whose target groups include party cadres, councillors and civic leaders, local government administrators and staff in parastatal industries. Steps are now being taken to try and remedy this situation both at the PCC and at Freedom House (UNIP Headquarters). It has been perceived in Freedom House and elsewhere, whether or not the perception is entirely accurate, that the degree of effectiveness of workers' education may have contributed at least partially to the conflicts between the 'Party and its Government' and organised labour. It is felt possible that the tactics are to create a degree of confusion and disruption which win provide the Party and its Government with the opportunity to step in and attempt to take control of the labour movement.
If the college is to depend now largely on government funding, the development and growth of the modular system of workers' education may well be stunted. Progressive reform and development in the field of workers' education is then threatened by the nature of intra-elite conflict. In formal and non-formal education, in adult and child education, in agricultural extension and in workers' education the genuine attempts made to achieve reforms which benefit the poor have been largely frustrated. It can be argued that the work of the reformers was utopian, cut off from a popular base and that short-term failure may make reform more difficult to achieve in future. Certainly the failures and difficulties experienced indicate that the rhetoric of Zambian Humanism is an insufficient basis for progressive change in education. Ministry of Development Planning & National Guidance, 1971, Second National Development Plan, January 1972 - December 1976, Lusaka.
Office of National Development Planning, 1966, First National Development Plan 1966-70, Lusaka. Overseas Development Group, University of East Anglia ,1981, Agriplan Training System - Trainers Manual, Rome, UN. Overseas Development Group, University of East Anglia, 1981, Aspects of Agricultural Development in Central Province, Zambia, Rome, UN. Overseas Development Group, University of East Anglia, 1981, Training Manual Guidelines for Contributors, Norwich, ODG., University of East Anglia.
Various vocational programmes, for example, Trades, Nursing, Teacher Training, etc., leading to certificates.
Various programmes, for example, Agriculture, Technology, Commerce, Nursing, etc., leading usually to a diploma. More advanced exercises of A3 type, with stress on developing judgement and skills in communication and administration (General and Financial). It is unanimously agreed that National Unions should concentrate mainly upon the Basic Modules (Al, A2, A3, B1 and B2); and that the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions, President's Citizenship College and other agencies should share the work in modules A4, A5, A6, A7, B3 and B5. The Zambia Congress of Trade Unions has also stressed that great emphasis should be given to political education in Modules B2 and B4; and that Industrial Participatory Democracy should feature prominently in Modules B3 and B4.
Clarke, R., 1978, Policy and ideology in educational reform in Zambia 1974-78, unpublished MA. Ministry of Education 1976: Education for Development, Draft statement on educational reform, Lusaka.
Office of the President, 1979, Third National Development Plan 1979-83, National Commission for Development Planning, Lusaka; p. Progression rates represent the number of Grade 5 classes in 1976 compared with the number of Grade 4 classes in 1975. Ministry of Education, 1977, Education for development: summary of contributions to the national debate on education reform (3 volumes), Lusaka. Bodemeyer, R., 1981, Problems of de-centralisation in Zambia, Institute for African Studies, University of Zambia, Lusaka, 1981. President's Citizenship College 1981, National workshop for political education programme planners, Political Education Unit, PCC., Kabwe' p. Saxby, J., 1980, The politics of education in Zambia, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, pp. Youngpreneur, empowers young people for success, students make plans and take action to think entrepreneurial. Latest News: Newman School of Boston students founded Edyoucated, an online education review site. Youngpreneur is a pioneer in the field of business for children and youth entrepreneurship. In this section we review different Youngpreneur programs and kids businesses including; the projects, products, and services they create. The issue of schooling is, for most expat families, one of the most important parts of the relocation plan. It is fairly easy to manage the education needs of younger children, especially for what we believe to be a short term transfer. Critical areas of your education timeline will vary according to the age and needs of your children. For ages 4-11, the school calendar dates and entry requirements are critical to planning a smooth transition. Usually, state schools will require proof of citizenship and local residence, a health record (including health and vaccination records in some areas), and an education history or school transcript from previous schools. Private schools are often a popular choice amongst expats for their entry flexibility, familiarity with international and expat children, and the use of internationally recognized assessment strategies, however you need to consider whether you can afford the fees long term, especially if the assignment policy moves to local payroll.
State schools have a greater variance in standards, curricula and assessment practices, but at the younger age, exploring a range of education strategies is not only possible, but often one of the cited benefits of expat life. You may be fooled into thinking that once your child is in college, you have nothing more to worry about, but there are potential residency issues that need to be considered.
Most home locations have rules of parental residence for a specific period prior to college admission to qualify for resident fees – falling outside these could mean you have to pay international student rates even in your home nations. Similarly, if your assignment ends before your child finishes college in your host location, they will need to apply for an independent sudent visa, and again, international fees may apply. Lastly, if your child reaches the legal adult age, they may no longer be considered a dependent, and again may need to apply for a student visa, and potentially incur different fees. The other issue is that of employment authorization if your child does not want to attend college. Shepherding children through school, college and beyond is a challenge at the best of times  (especially when they need help with their trigonometry homework), and there are always going to be obstacles to navigate. Even though she’s of a young age, her education is a major factor in our decision-making process.
Anyone UK expats who have children in the US public school system but wanting them to go to University in the UK, be aware that many UK universities will not recognise US high school qualifications.
Infact, recently Kapil Sibal told British Media that it is seeking $400 billion from Government to pump in Indian Education System. Some of the findings of the report are quite startling, especially the standard of Education in Government schools. Around 40% of all rural children in Std 5 in India are at least three grade levels behind based on their level of learning. From 2007 to 2009, for children in government schools in Std 5, the ability to do division problems has actually declined from 41% to 36%.
Dear sir education me progress and human resource ke liye primary education se hi learning process ko khatm kariye.,,,,,,,, profetoinal course 8 se hi start ho. Am accept your reports because in government school kids don’t have all facility so government will take some decision to govenment school kids.
The paper is illustrative of relationships between educational and social and economic change and dilemmas facing educators wishing to institute reforms which benefit the poor in a largely unfavourable political and economic situation.
The agricultural sector has been neglected so that sustained self-sufficiency in food for the whole population has not been achieved. Evidence since 1975, including the fate of the 1976 Draft Statement on Educational Reform6 does not demonstrate movement in a socialist direction. The copper industry provided export earnings, a relatively high average per capita income, purchasing power for the employed urban population and civil servants and the capacity to import food and consumer goods. Urban migration continues but there is no possibility that either modern sector of the economy or the urban informal sector8, which is in my view approaching saturation point, can productively absorb more than a small proportion of the current labour force or the annual output of primary school leavers who cannot gain a place in secondary school, which is now approaching 130,000 per annum.
That policy has been to provide a cheap and consistent food supply to the towns and mine-workers at the expense of rural incomes. It has now been recognised that the economic crisis has 'brought to the fore the basic fact that the country's economic malaise is far deeper than what can be attributed to the collapse of copper prices'11, and that the country's entire development strategy and social and economic priorities required reorientation. The 1976 draft is a radical document which aimed to change in significant ways the hierarchical, pyramidal and inegalitarian formal educational structure. Urban Zambian middle-class parents also take advantage of 50 schools which used to be fee paying, known as 'ex-scheduled' schools, and of private educational facilities19 In 1975 only 23% of Primary 7 leavers gained places in secondary school. Adults and school leavers unable to find places in schools may study from Grade 1 Primary up to Form III Secondary and in some centres 'O' level courses.



The enrolment target of 60,000 was exceeded by 5,716 in 1975 and again the programme favoured the urban areas.
For many students the certificates gained have not led to employment and frustration is the result.
It is regarded as existing for the 'failures' of the formal school system and is very much a second choice for leavers who wish to continue their formal education.
They have involved agricultural and craft-training for employment and self-employment, political education and military training.
It was clear that piecemeal changes in the syllabus, expansion and improved teacher training, even if funds were available, could not rid the educational system of its effect of producing large numbers of primary and secondary school leavers with aspirations for jobs in the modern sector which were not available. Fragmented formal and non-formal adult and youth education, characterised by lack of staff and resources, cannot make a major impact on the problems created and reinforce the dual nature of the system.
The President had given encouragement and his endorsement to the purposes of the reformers. Central to the scheme were the objectives of the integration of work and study and the provision of ten years' compulsory basic education for an which was a commitment made in UNIP's 1974 Manifesto. In this sense some local participants redefined the nature of the exercise in their own terms. There were also changes in personnel in the Ministry of Education which favoured more conservative educational approaches.
The Reform recommends that skills training for the unemployed be co-ordinated by the Commissioner for Youth.
The 1978 Reform by maintaining the pyramidal structure intact and advocating piecemeal and incremental changes has not made an impact in either the inefficiencies of the system or the school-leaver problem.
Total enrolment was down to 33,559 in 1980 and of these only 737 were in commercial and domestic science courses. The College should have moved to purpose-built premises in Lusaka but staff housing is unavailable. The Adult Education Association of Zambia is assisting by forming branches which employ teachers to run courses where the Ministry has no funds. The Ministry estimated in 1980 that there were 900,000 youths, the majority of them primary school leavers, who were not being catered for and to this number has to be added those who were illiterate and semi-literate. Apart from finance it also lacks staff with the necessary teaching skills and it has to develop its own staff training programme.
In 1979, 46 projects were counted in Zambia.33 Most were of recent origin and the majority were begun by Christian agencies on the line of rail.
Agricultural extension workers in the field are the main link between the farmer and government marketing, farming requisites and credit services.
There are still only 1,481 officers in the service at national, provincial and camp levels. But the quality and level of dedication of many members of staff is such that real improvements could be achieved if reallocation of priorities and resources, and decentralisation of decision-making in line with stated government objectives were made.
The training material and methods were to be developed in the field with Zambian workers and aimed at assisting them to identify, prepare and present, together with local farmers, detailed and viable project plans which might attract funding.
But it appears that basic assumptions on decentralisation of decision-making and funding may prove to be incorrect. The project certainly had its own weaknesses but its lack of success may also demonstrate the real intentions and values of government development strategies.
The movement was heavily involved in political activity and education directed towards the goal of independence.
The Department, together with the individual unions, began to develop a more systematic and structured educational programme for unionists at all levels.
The Zambian Government, through the Ministry of Labour and Social Services, and the Zambia Federation of Employers also showed an interest in workers' education as a result of their concern for an orderly system of industrial relations.
By February 1974 the system had been revised and developed by meetings of full-time trade union educators and the Workers' Education Consultation, and received the full support of the ZCTU. The modules range from two-day seminars to courses lasting several weeks for more advanced work and provide a progressive and linked sequence of study.
Much remains to be done for the low-paid worker, for the development of quality and consistency in workers' education and in research.
Each skill module is matched by a political economy module and, particularly after the 1981 revisions, these are usually taught together.
In December 1981 there was a lack of clarity as to the functions of the Industrial Participatory Democracy Unit which is in the Prime Minister's office but headed by a Member of the Central Committee of the Party.
In this difficult political situation the continuation of the modular system of workers' education is under threat for both political and financial reasons. The College's objectives are to educate citizens in participatory democracy, humanism and political, social and economic problems.
In addition it is now difficult to obtain international funding for workers' education as this now has to be channelled through and approved by the Ministry of Labour and Social Services. There is evidence to suggest that the perceived effectiveness of workers' education has contributed to this threat in the sense that it is seen to be strengthening the union position in intra-elite conflict and so has become, at least in the short-term, a potential casualty of conflict. It can also be argued that the proposed 1976 educational reforms were not radical in that it was unrealistic to expect corresponding social and economic change so that the reforms, providing for basic practical education, production and work, would merely assist in adjusting villagers and the urban unemployed to their dominated and exploited position in society.45 Lack of popular support, apart from the shortage of effective mechanisms for popular participation, indicates the ideological effectiveness of the present educational system in that there is evidence that many villagers and school-leavers ask only for greater access to an unchanged structure which they do not perceive to be unfair. The problems and difficulties of action directed towards changing educational structures and programmes have resulted in a clearer understanding of the nature of power in Zambian society.
How to prepare and use teaching aids, such as audio-visual aids, case studies, role-plays, etc.
In our program students hone their observation skills, tap into their talents, and unlock their creativity to identify problems and solutions. We explore the insights of students, the real-life experiences they gain, and the lessons they learn in the process.
One group is developing a one-of-a-kind education review site for parents that allows school to school direct comparison. What we don’t foresee is that many assignments are extended or new postings offered, and what was originally meant to be an interim plan is stretching out for far longer than is ideal. The ideal strategy is to discuss them directly with the school Principal, Headteacher or counselor, to clarify which requirements are mandatory, and where there is flexibility. They vary by country, state and district, and can involve everything from waiting lists, three day enrolments and considerable amount of documentation, to simply arriving at the school on the start date. Private schools are less focused on residence, but some have other entry criteria, including religion or spoken language. There is still a great deal of variety in terms of curriculum, examination strategies and college admission requirements, but it becomes increasingly more difficult to move between them without losing ground. Depending on the curriculum your child follows, there may be specific academic courses, attainment levels, or additional extra-curricular requirements for graduation. Internationally,  the grade level at which assessment begins and ends, the combination of subject requirements and types of assessments for college entry, the dates of course selection and the importance of standardized national tests are very different.
The most effective way of getting accurate information and a clear understanding is to contact the school, college or an international school advisory service directly.
How will the length of the assignment affect your residency rights in your home and host location? There is no guarantee that they will be allowed to work, and may have to return to your home country to seek employment. These are ones that I know of from my own experience, and those of people I know – all within the mainstream education system. What about the areas we haven’t discussed, like specialized learning needs, religious schools or boarding schools?
We have friends whose young children have gone from the German school system to the UK one and it has taken them approx. Since Congress has come into power, and more specifically Kapil Sibal has become the HR minister, many new path breaking initiatives have been announced. Kapil Sibal and although we are making progress on Education front, it is clear from the report that India still has a very long way to go before we can say that we are a good educated society.
Just to give you an example – Only 36% of class V students can actually do division problems correctly. 73% of these children are enrolled in government schools and 21.8 % are enrolled in private schools. In states like Kerala, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Nagaland, 90% or more children attend school on a given day. In Bihar and Uttar Pradesh enrolment is close to 95%, but more than 40% children were absent on day of the visit. I have tried to explain about the importance of rural education in India and what are the results if we educate them. I have covered the Main factors effecting rural education in Tamilnadu adn possible solutions to them. In Zambia the situation is characterised by the domination of elite groups who either perceive that they have a vested interest in maintaining in their present form those functions of the educational system which relate to social selection and the legitimisation of poverty or whose consciousness and interests, due to their previous experience of education and the benefits they have obtained from it, may not permit them to consider alternatives seriously. Due to the decline in the world-market price, government revenue from the dominant copper-mining industry is low.
However, the vast majority of the population (now an estimated 5.6 million) have benefited little from the income generated in the mining industry and if benefits were to be more widely distributed major changes in the structure of the economy and a reallocation of resources to the agricultural and rural sectors were required. Of major interest to adult educators is that the draft saw adult and continuing education as an essential full and equal partner with child education and that it dealt with education as a whole, i.e. Despite this rate of growth and the fact that by 1975 approximately 86% of those between the ages of 7 to 14 were in primary education there were major causes for concern.
77,000 young people were thus added, in 1975 alone, to those potentially seeking employment. The minimum age was reduced in 1972 from sixteen to fifteen years to allow Grade 7 leavers to enrol (Enrolment in Grade 1 should take place at the age of 7.) In 1975 there were 67 full-time professional staff in the adult education section and approximately 4,000 part-time teachers who were mainly primary and secondary school teachers. It had been intended to run down lower primary classes in favour of more upper primary, junior secondary and 'O' level courses but demand for lower primary persisted.
Despite this, demand is massive and the Section has been unable with its small budget to meet it. The main thrust of government policy has been to expand the formal sector so that the intention has been to develop large and cheap non-formal programmes, involving the voluntary sector and charitable organisations. The programmes have suffered from a lack of effective teachers and trainers and of effective follow-up work which would assist young people in their attempts to establish themselves. The expansion of secondary and tertiary education is partly due to the manpower-planning approach and graduates of this part of the educational system could expect jobs and relative wealth in the modern private, parastatal and government sectors. The popular demand for formal education was met by the attempt to continually expand the system, which only succeeded in delaying the problems of unemployment and this attempt, by 1974, was becoming increasingly difficult financially. The 1976 statement on Education Reform was based on optimistic assumptions that the Party would be committed to transforming economic structures and systems of production and reward. It tackled the education structure as a whole and while selection clearly remains the structure is much less pyramidal23. The pyramidal structure is maintained and the attempt to reach nine years' basic education for all is not likely to be achieved in the foreseeable future due to the lack of finance for the expansion of either basic or secondary education. A senior ministry official remarked in 1981 that the educational system was 'grinding down, halted or going backwards'.
Although the major objectives and priorities of the Association do not involve the organisation of formal classes, such is the demand that they are pressured into taking this task on. It accepted that this was its target group and took the view that unless something drastic was done to mobilise resources to cope with the situation an explosion of dissatisfied and neglected youths was inevitable. Their work would be of major importance to a strategy for rural development on a broad front and for tackling increasing rural poverty.
Their social status is low and staff are usually poorly paid, badly housed and undertrained.
Plans were to be based on local needs, purposes and interests and on local decision-making. Dominant political and bureaucratic interests and the weight of present centralised sectoral and departmental structures all work against the decentralisation and flexibility required by 'Agriplan'.39 The short-term interests of powerful elite groups are not served by genuine decentralisation of planning and the reallocation of scarce revenue to small projects which benefit the poor. It was also involved in creating awareness among workers of the objectives, benefits and organisation of trade unions. Various attempts have been made to develop co-ordination in the field.41 The informal Workers' Education Consultation played a part in this from 197442 and although this body is still in existence the most effective co-ordination has recently been through the joint co-ordination committee of the ZCTU and PCC formed in 1981 as the major agencies concerned with workers' education.
Individual unions have taken the main responsibility for the basic and shorter modules, the ZCTU in mobile seminars have developed the work on intermediate modules and the PCC and ZCTU have worked together on the more advanced programmes. After being tested for seven years the conclusion is that the system is popular and effective. Its terms of reference are not clear and, together with the Prices and Incomes Commission, leaves the Ministry of Labour and Social Services in an ambiguous position.
It provides education for trade unionists, co-operators, political cadres, managers, community development and social workers. Any funds intended for the ZCTU will receive very careful scrutiny and this situation may serve to discourage possible donors.
The fact that the attempts have been mad, indicates the quality, perception and commitment of many Zambian educators at all levels. For some educators and members of the public the reasons for failure are now a part of critical consciousness and education is seen in its political context. Problems of rural development productivity, inflation and National Income and Prices Policy. J., 1982 (forthcoming), 'A field evaluation report on 'Agriplan' - an in-service training programme in small-scale agricultural project planning for agricultural officers in Zambia', International Journal of Lifelong Education, Vol.
A typical transcript might require evidence of study of maths, English, science and art, community service to be awarded the High School diploma. After the age of 12, you need to start considering college location (whether home or host nation, or a third location) and the entry requirements.
Most importantly for your timeline, you need to clarify in advance the dates or timeframes that they all occur. Getting it wrong can potentially mean your child repeating an academic year, having to take additional classes during the summer, or retaking tests at a later date. While we think she’s a bit young to be at school, we know at some point we will be returning to the UK and she will need to slot back into the system.
We’re now in the US, where both of the children are a year ahead, simply because of how the school curriculum has followed on. Also, there is no water availability in 25% of government primary schools and 19% of upper primary schools. Video conferencing is one of the main future we can use in educating the students and parents.
There is a chronic shortage of foreign exchange, not assisted by the poor overall performance of secondary and import substitute industries. The rural-urban terms of trade10 have shifted against rural producers so that, for example, a rural producer had to produce and market three times more in 1979 than he did in 1965 to obtain the same urban goods. Technical and Vocational Training places require secondary Form III entry qualifications so their prospects for either employment or further training were bleak. The Correspondence Course Unit provides courses from Junior Secondary to 'O' level and material for supervised study groups. The programme indicates the continuing demand for more formal education as unemployment increases and as higher qualifications are demanded by employers. I think it worthwhile to include the following quotation as it accurately describes the basis and functions of non-formal education in Zambia.
The 50 Rural Reconstruction Centres developed from 1975 have proved both costly and unsuccessful and have recently been closed down. It was also becoming increasingly clear that the system dominated by its pyramidal nature, the selection process, examinations and its contribution to the formation of élites was not producing the wealth and increased employment on which manpower planning and human investment theories depend for their credibility. The selection system, where it was necessary to retain it, was to be based not on public examinations but on continuous assessment. By Term 1 of 1981 only 15,251 were enrolled in classes (of which 725 were in commercial and domestic science courses). These courses are mainly in the urban centres and once again the level of fees deters poorer students. Politically it was important to take measures which would make both the youths themselves and the community at large realise that efforts were being made to reduce unemployment through providing skills training programmes.
If however there were to be a large expansion of such schemes their usefulness to participants would disappear in that jobs or self-employment in the limited urban informal sector would not be available.


But the impact of agricultural extension has been limited and tends to benefit richer and emergent farmers. The service has not expanded (the Second National Development Plan 1972-76 had planned to have 2,672 extension staff by 1976) and there are few opportunities for promotion and m-service training. Unless projects come for funding in this way the involvement of subsistence and small-scale farmers in development and its benefits may continue to be minimal.
It is not a diluted curriculum in which content and learning become incidental and process, participation and enjoyment become central.
It therefore recommended more efficient selection procedures for the various target groups and a greater degree of co-ordination between the PCC and ZCTU in the implementation of programmes. The Department of Workers' Education in the ZCTU is very clear that it is concerned in its programmes not only with worker at his work-place but also with him or her as a member of the community in which he lives. There are four interdisciplinary academic units which service each other's programmes - the political education unit, the economic and social development unit, the co-operatives and agricultural marketing studies unit and the industrial relations unit. It also demonstrates that they have a relative autonomy and that despite current lack of success educators can continue to work for progressive change and that the values, nature and purposes of dominant interest groups may be revealed through their efforts. It is true that in unfavourable political and economic circumstances what appears to be progressive educational reform may well turn out to have reactionary effects serving dominant minority interest.
The work of the educational reformers actively creates, in varying degrees, a social awareness which is an integral and necessary part of processes of historical change which may benefit the Zambian majority.
L., 1981, The structure and social context of non-formal training in Lusaka, Manpower Research Report No. Beyond teaching business, the goal of our program is to empower students to think entrepreneurial by identifying opportunities and challenging assumptions.
These vary between districts, states, countries and curricula, and will require clarification with the awarding body. It meant that we had to decide between the kids permanently being the youngest in their year, vs repeating a considerable amount of lesson content to stay with their age group. The national ideology 'Zambian Humanism'1 is ambiguous in that it may provide legitimation for either the continuation of the colonial and capitalist structure in the form of a mixed economy together with more egalitarian provision of schooling, health and welfare services or, with the publication of Humanism in Zambia Part II in 19742 and The Watershed Speech in 19753, a lurch towards a socialist interpretation based on control by the state of the major means of production, decentralisation of power and participatory democracy in industry4 . Since 1975 low government revenue from copper has revealed, despite stated objectives in the First, Second and Third National Development Plans, the failure to diversify the economy and the lack of a serious attempt to regenerate the rural economy. Despite forecasts in the Third National Development Plan (1979) that 14,000 more wage jobs would be created annually it is likely that at least another 100,000 people will be added to the urban unemployed by the end of the plan period in December 1983. Rural impoverishment demonstrates that the Zambian economy has to be analysed as a whole and not as if the rural sector were independent of the 'modern' sector. This is important in that popular responses to the problems and outcomes of the formal system for children are to develop fragmented youth, adult and non-formal programmes. The push-out at Grade 4 primary in 1975-6 was 32.6% and this figure when broken down into provinces reflects economic and social disparities between urban and rural population. The impoverishment of the rural sector does not encourage them into self-employment in agriculture.
By 1975, 21,000 were enrolled and there were 7,000 Grade 7 leavers in supervised study groups receiving material from the Unit.
The reforms aimed to develop productive skins, assumed that there would be productive social and economic roles for all graduates, and built in continuing education and worker's education opportunities. The integration of work and study is not emphasised and production activities are to be seen as serving educational purposes. Even if they could manage more contact, adequate teaching and learning materials would not be available. The five Adult Education Centres are renamed Centres for Continuing Education and a new one has opened in Kapata. It is a major understatement to say that it has not yet proved possible to mobilise resources on the scale required. At present then the social control function of non-formal education visualised by the Ministry of Youth and Sport is ineffective in that the small number of non-formal programmes make its impact marginal. A major reason, apart from the lack of staff and resources, has been the unrealistic belief that merely by training farmers significant increases in agricultural production and income for rural people would be achieved. Despite its shortcomings the 'Agriplan' project (February 1979-December 1981) may be utilised as one test of government's real intentions and priorities. It would seem that the basic strategy in agriculture is still to provide food security for the towns and to this end agreements are being made with foreign donors to establish large-scale state farms in each of Zambia's provinces. The Centre for Continuing Education and the Ministry of Labour and Social Services have, with the ZCTU, provided provincial seminars on the 1971 Industrial Relations Act43 and the PCC now has a six month certificate course on Industrial Relations, Personnel Management and Trade Union studies.
It is concerned to emphasise that, while they do not exclude approaches designed to achieve short-term solutions, educational programmes are designed to develop critical and independent judgement which will enable effective participation in management and social affairs at every level of the decision-making process. It is also feared that amendments to legislation may provide the Minister of Labour and Social Services with the power to remove elected leaders who are not in his own judgement carrying out the proper and normal functions of a trade union and to replace them with his own nominees. The Friedrich Ebert Foundation has provided major funding for the College since it opened in 1973 but is now pulling out.
This should emphasise to educators the importance of theory and political analysis in developing appropriate strategies and tactics for reform. As students progress through our program, students grow increasingly comfortable seeing problems through the lens of possibility.
Most people we have spoken to tend to chose a school system, whether British, American, or whatever, and locate a school in the country they move to that can offer the same curriculum. As we are in the world of technology, education is very important for the betterment of the system.From the past 25 years we are saying that India is a developing country and we haven't progressed much in this regard.
The exploitative potential of state capitalism in the interests of elite groups is insufficiently recognised and moves towards industrial democracy may be part of an attempt by the ruling party, the United National Independence Party, to decapitate the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions and its member unions and integrate or co-opt labour leadership into the party bureaucracy.
Western economic development theories in the 1960s, including the human capital and manpower planning approaches to educational policies and investment, influenced government thinking and decisions.
These programmes can be useful for some individuals and groups but only scratch the surface of problems created by rural and urban poverty and the structure and nature of the formal educational system.
The progression rate from secondary Form III to Form IV was 50% and some of these leavers in 1975 were also beginning to experience difficulties in obtaining employment or further training. The Supervised Study Groups were established in 1972 for students unable to gain secondary places either in day-school or night-school. They accepted that the Ministry of Education has a continuing responsibility for people who have left full-time education and for people who have never been in the system. There is now no money to pay supervisors and full-time teachers are being asked to supervise free of charge.
Ministry objectives are to reduce youth unemployment through their direct participation in agricultural production schemes, agricultural settlements, small-scale industries and skills training. In the unlikely event of a massive expansion of non-formal education the social control function would be severely mitigated by the lack of available subsequent employment.
Training alone cannot change the fact of poverty, poor producer prices, structural constraints and lack of credit, transport and marketing facilities.
Of major significance is the programme for workers' educators developed at the PCC which is in progressive three-week stages and this has been effective in improving the quality of much workers' education in individual unions and the ZCTU. A senior union official remarked in November 1981 that there was no doubt that workers' education had progressed in that 'many workers now know their rights as trade union members but they know more about their rights as citizens'. Labour leaders are concerned not to arrive at the Tanzanian model where organised labour is a wing of the Party and officials appointed by the Party. It has also provided funding for trade unionists to attend the longer intermediate and advanced courses at the college.
In relation to the 'National Debate' on the 1976 reforms, I would argue that, whatever the problems of the official exercise it has stimulated an expressive process of critical debate and reflection which was not anticipated at the official level. One of the major factor for this is due to lack literacy, which inturn resulted in poor governance.
These emphasised that economic development on a broad front could be achieved by developing the 'modern' sector which would generate 'spread' effects ultimately benefiting the whole economy and population in terms of income and employment.
Non-formal and youth programmes merely added on to an unreformed central formal system may only try to treat some of the massive number of casualties which continue to be produced. The groups meet in schools, welfare and church halls with a supervisor who is often an unemployed Form V school-leaver. There was to be a comprehensive system of part-time education for workers and continuing education was to be a genuine partner of compulsory education as the 'second main arm of the national education system' and 'one of the chief instruments for raising the social, cultural and technical levels of the people of Zambia'24.
Controls on profit-making private schools are relaxed and these are mushrooming at present with little control from the Inspectorate.
Plans are going ahead for changes in the curriculum which aim to integrate productive skills into the mainly academic programme. The initial emphasis has been on the planning of 50 community based skills training centres, one in each district, at an estimated cost of K2,800,000.
It has to be concluded that non-formal education for school-leavers in the absence of genuine economic change in favour of the poor is likely to have only cosmetic effects. If we average ten to a household it means that he or she is concerned with the needs, purposes and well-being of 6,000 people. Even if the state farms are successful they will not provide a significant increase in employment or food security for the rural poor and to the extent that they take up manpower and finance the degree of neglect of the small farmer will be increased. Only six out of the 18 unions do not now have full-time educators and all have part-time educators. It is felt that in times of dispute this arrangement would leave employers and government with no effective or official representatives of labour to talk to and with whom the necessary negotiations and bargaining could take place.
This view must necessarily be proposed in tentative terms but has been confirmed by discussion with people involved and the same view applies to those involved in agricultural extension and workers' education.
The inadequacy of such theories in terms of the needs and interests of the vast majority of the population is exposed by the Zambian experience and the fact of increasing poverty. Worse than this, they may distract attention from the causes of grinding poverty and the horror and desperation of ruined young lives. Progression rates in 1975 were approximately 50% between Form I and II and between Forms II and III. In contrast to the 1976 statement, private provision is encouraged as a means of supplementing state provision. Funds made available in 1980 were K10,000 and in 1981 K30,000 although these figures may be supplemented by grants from non-governmental organisations. This role was emphasised by Honeybone and Marter36 in their evaluation study of Farm Institutes and Farmers' Training Centres. Cut-backs in government expenditure have meant that Farm Institutes and Farmers Training Centres are operating at well below 50% capacity. Most of them have undertaken at least three stages of workers' educator training and press their individual unions to develop their educational programmes.
In December 1981 there was also concern that amendments to legislation left workers' education out of the list of proper and normal functions of trade unions on which money could be expended. There is then financial and political pressure on the college to reduce its workers' education programme and increase and reorientate its political education programme. An active process has begun and will continue to develop in unpredictable ways presenting a critique of policy. Education will allow us to to have a society with social justice and a society which is free of economic disparity. Recently I visited a place called kollimalai a hill station a part of our research programme. The Third National Development Plan admits that past experience in Zambia demonstrates that substantial rates of growth in the GDP has led neither to significant increases in employment nor to a 'trickle-down' of benefits to the poorest and that performance in these areas has been 'pathetic'7.
They may also demonstrate that the government is concerned about these problems and contribute to the processes of 'cooling out' expectations and the legitimation of 'failure'.
The Adult Section in the Ministry was to be upgraded to become a Department of Continuing Education which would supervise and have the power to co-ordinate all continuing education programmes with other ministries and agencies. There is no mention of achieving a socialist society which was made explicit in the 1976 statement. Ironically, a search has been made for technical and craft teachers who after Independence were retrained as academic and classroom teachers.
People at various levels have and are creating their own meanings and interpretations in a way which cannot be controlled or contained.
It also demonstrates the dysfunctional and inegalitarian nature of an expanded educational system tied to the selection requirements of the modern sector of the economy. The 1976 draft statement at least tackles these questions by proposing reforms in the formal structure for children with continuing education as main and linked components of the whole system.
Curricula and certification were to reflect adult interests and needs and a co-ordinated and flexible system of distance, correspondence and face-to-face teaching was to be developed. The Adult Education section of the Ministry is largely restricted to second-chance formal education and while the name has been changed to the Department of Continuing Education its role as a main and integrated arm of the educational system has been discarded.
The department has little transport and very small amounts of petrol although there are presently attempts being made to distribute motorcycles donated by Sweden. Emmanuel Cholobesa, who has his own political standing and who has been a major source of strength for the independence and long term interests of the college, has not assisted the situation. And it is in this creative process that the purposes of adult education must be rooted if educators are not to be the ciphers of official policy. The nature of development and educational theory adopted reflects the interests of dominant urban minority groups wishing to maintain their social and economic positions and political influence. The Department was also to supervise a National Literacy Council which was to conduct a Literacy campaign. Its role in developing a formal and vocational system of education together with other ministries and agencies for all out-of-school youth and workers is abandoned. It would also appear that technical skills are not fully integrated into the secondary curriculum in that it appears possible to gain the new Zambian School Certificate without taking examinations in practical subjects. As the system has changed, majority of Indian rural majority of population are carrying out their livlihood by agriculture and daily labour, and there are no regular (caste based works) works due to modernisation. These groups include the political leadership, the civil service, the small but emergent bourgeoisie and elements in the trade unions. The failure of the 1976 draft statement is an indication of the nature of class power in Zambian society and of the relationships between educational reform and central social and economic forces.
The poor cousin image of adult education was to be transformed in terms of policy and practice. Education became a very important aspect and giving education in rural India has also become a problem due to various reasons. This transformation was linked to necessary changes in the central formal system of education to form an integrated structure in which adult education was no longer perceived as something to be added on and asked to cope with drop-outs and casualties. Education perspective is responsible for judging the nature of methodologies, curriculum so that they satisfy the purpose they are meant for. It deals with the relations between the basic stake holders of rural education in India.Everyone the people who are thinking on the lines of economy, governance & policy, technology has to ultimately give their solutions which will improve things like quality of education, quantity of people being educated, which results in better teacher-parent-student interaction, so whatever it might be the discussions, improvements they must be satisfied in education perspective. Even if everyone is successful in their respective areas if it is not successful in education perspective it's of no use. Most of us inspire only in our school life, we will look for role model , we will have a great energy level.
I hope if we capitalize the students and their creativity in a right way then we can able to build a greater future for our nation and also for our planet.
An estimated 774 million adults – two-thirds of whom are women – lack basic literacy skills and the majority of them are rural.
The majority of illiterate children, youth and adults live in rural areas and are involved in ensuring food for themselves and the wider community while lacking equal access to quality basic education. Those most likely to drop out of school or to not attend at all are often girls and those from poorer households living in rural areas.Education In India is the process of getting knowledge and clarity of toughs in gives us lot of experience to shape up in our life.
I am interested in educating people education gives solution most of the problem in the society, I am particularly interested in school education because it is the place we can change the people and lot of time is there to make their dream true . They have the flexibility to change themselves.Finding the loopholes in today’s educational system is very essential in order to come up with a proper structural methodology and everyone should realize that the ultimate aim of education is not employability but knowledge and everything will come your way once knowledge is achieved, people should understand the problems, put in ideas and work together then alone a change which we all want to see is possible!!



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