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Some 20 million American adults have gallstones and gallstone complications account for as many as 10,000 deaths per year.
The symptoms of any condition are mainly related to the diseased organ’s location and its function. Another common symptom is right shoulder pain which may seem surprising since it is a distance away from the gallbladder. Ask a Doctor Online Now!Abdominal distension (swollen abdomen) may also occur with gallstones. Nausea is another common symptom of symptomatic gallstones and usually correlates with the pain. Jaundice and a low-grade fever are two other gallstones symptoms like nausea and vomiting which are non-specific. One of the best ways to confirm that you have gallstones is to undergo diagnostic investigations. Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis. Male dog neutering, otherwise known as sterilisation, "fixing", desexing, castration (castrating) or by its correct veterinary name: orchiectomy (also termed gonadectomy), is the surgical removal of a male dog's testicles for the purposes of canine population control, medical health benefit, genetic-disease control and behavioral modification. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. We have over 50 years of experience in developing products based on sound science, through a technology called Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) that has been used by medical professionals for years to rehabilitate injured muscles.
Attached to our belts are medical grade gelpads that sit directly on the user’s body. Use Slendertone as part of your regular fitness routine along with a healthy diet and you will really start to see a difference. Signals are sent to the nerves causing them to contract and relax the muscles and are similar to regular toning exercises.
At first the sensation might feel a little strange, when you’re on the lowest setting. The important thing to remember though, is Slendertone’s technology is both effective and safe.
We’ve told you how our EMS technology sends signals to the nerves to contract your muscles, but no doubt you still want to know: do ab belts actually work?
In a clinical study, 100% of Slendertone users reported firmer, tighter abs in just six weeks. Watch the video to the right and see what Dr John Porcari, lead author on these studies, has to say about why Slendertone products are so effective.
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Knowing how to tell what kind of worms your dog has and then to provide accurate de-worming will keep your dog pretty happy and healthy … along with yourself. The truth is, the only time parasites or dog worms become a serious problem for dogs is when the dog’s immunity system gets too low. They will lose weight everywhere but in their belly, which will appear bloated due to the growing amount of worms.
Diarrhea with bloody or mucous in their stools with occasional signs of the worms themselves.
The time the owner first notices the symptoms of dog worms until the first treatment begins can make a lot of difference in the health of the dog. Transferred to dogs by infected fleas, these broken off tapeworm segment will also be in the dog’s bedding, their favorite chair, and on the floor. The roundworm has a long sticky spaghetti-look to it and can be found in the dog’s vomit or stools,  considered the most frequent worm found in both dogs and cats.
Older dogs develop an acquired resistance to roundworms, yet carry the eggs in a dormant form. Puppies eight weeks or older produce mild vomiting or diarrhea due to roundworm infestation. Normally, all puppies at birth should be wormed routinely every two, four, six, and eight weeks of age  with the mother. I have never dealt with a dog with worms before, but have just noticed our dog has some in her stool.
Krystle – Cats or dogs or any mammal cannot pass tapeworms directly to another cat or dog. This is a tapeworm, and the segment is a small part of a large segmented worm that breaks apart. Tapeworms come from fleas … not necessary from your little chihuahua as it probably stays inside more than most due to its size, although I would check it very thoroughly. Personally, I would take a stool sample and your little pet to the vet for a professional opinion.
Usually feed stores, like Tractor Supply or Orschelins, have pet sections with medical products.
My german shepherd has been vomiting, and within his vomit are little rice looking creatures, how soon does he need to go to the vet, and how dangerous is the worm to his health? Little white worms that you can see are usually flatworms; however, young puppies usually have roundworms. A whipworm is about two to three inches long, threadlike with one end thicker than the other. There are meds that treat both whipworms and heartworms at the same time — Interceptor and Filaribits Plus. The eggs can last up to 5 years in the ground, so clean with bleach in a 1:32 dilution to disinfect.
My puppy his bout 11 weeks old had small flat pink lookin worm just one in his stool first time ive seen any. My 5 year old chocolate lab just had a segment of a tapeworm on his rectal area, so I immediately treated it with an OTC product. Keep cool and fresh water all day long, changing it two to three times a day to coax the dog to drink more fluids.
Comfortis, as a flea medication, attacks the nervous system of insects, causing a rapid death of adult fleas, usually found in the surroundings.
What is odd, is that this worm usually latches onto the junction area of the small and large intestine.
I would have both dogs vet-tested as your poodle has the same type of worm as the new puppy now so you can get them treated right away.
I HAVE A 10 WEEK OLD PUPPY AND I THINK SHE HAS TAPEWORMS I NOTICED THEM WHEN SHE WAS ASLEEP WITH ME IS THERE ANY WAY THEY CAN GO INTO A HUMAN BODY WHILE YOU’RE SLEEPING? Garlic and onions are powerful meds, making the animal less attractive to fleas and parasites, garlic affecting tapeworm the most.
Once your fleas are under control, contact me and I will send you dewormer that you need to give your puppy for three days, skip one months, repeat again. I'll show you what types of exercises actually burn belly fat much better and stimulate your fat-burning hormones in a minute. Instead, I'm going to show you some strategic combinations of REAL food (I'm talking healthy natural foods instead of supplements) that will help you increase your metabolism and burn off belly fat in a smarter healthier way. Just enter your first name and email below and the Free Fat Loss Report will be instantly emailed to you. I have made some great gains and I am well on my way to being in the best shape of my life at 39 years of age.
It is by no means a rare or insignificant disorder but since most people with gallstones are asymptomatic (without symptoms), gallstones often does not get the same attention as other common medical conditions.
This means that symptoms are in and around where the gallbladder sits and causes disruptions in the activity of the gallbladder. It can stretch to a substantial degree to accommodate bile that is produced and drained from the liver. It generally occurs as attacks that arise very suddenly and last for anywhere between 30 minutes to 2 hours.
It is usually a symptom of a more severe case and sometimes a mass may be felt in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen. This means that these symptoms are not indicative of gallstones or gallbladder disease and can arise with a range of different illnesses.
Considered to be a basic component of responsible pet ownership, the neutering of male dogs is a common surgical procedure that is performed by most veterinary clinics all over the world.
These then pass small electrical signals into your abs, making the muscles contract and relax.
As you increase the intensity, the feeling changes from a mild tingle to a deep muscle contraction: This means both you and your Slendertone are working at the optimum level. Our products have gone through rigorous testing in clinical trials to make sure they are developed to the highest standards. All of our products are rigorously tested during research and development, and independent research has also shown that Slendertone ab toners make a real difference to your major abdominal muscles. Take classes online, read dog books, attend health classes, go to school, go to workshops, talk to your vet and borrow some videos, and so on.
There are all types of deworming programs for dogs and cats, through your vet, over-the-counter products and natural care. Dogs become infected with tapeworm parasites through infected fleas, the major source of tapeworms.
This prevents the dog from controlling the worms on its own, allowing dog worms to massively increase in numbers.
If left untreated too long,  worm-affected dogs will become seriously ill and end up dying. The dog dewormer for tapeworms is available at the vets or over-the-counter at pet and feed stores– dog deworming naturally or with traditional medicine.
They will have a potbelly, dull coat, anemic (white gums), stunted in growth, vomiting, diarrhea and eventually die. The mother should be wormed before and when she is bred, with routine roundworm treatments up until she whelps the puppies. Each tapeworm may have as many as 90 segments (!), though it is the last segments in the chain that are released from the worm that can be seen on the anus or fur in the rectum area. Fleas also live in the dirt, are on other animals such as cats, or prey that gets hunted and chewed on. Praziquantel and albendazole are the medications most often prescribed to treat tapeworm infection. Take your dog to the vet with a fecal sample ASAP, as worms that are not controlled can be deadly. So … I would take your puppy to the vet and have a stool sample of the worms with you. He had roundworms bad when i brought him home took him to vet and got dewormer for round worms.
Treat both of them and then repeat when the eggs that are left hatch out into adults two more times.
Advantage is a heartworm medicine, controls fleas, and provides low-dosages for hookworms, roundworms, and whipworms — not tapeworms.
My 7month old poodle had worms three months ago, and I was able to rid him of his tapeworms. Unfortunately, the only two worms that we can really see on the outside of the dog are roundworms and tapeworm segments.
It works on the intestines of the dog like roughage or fiber, sloughing off the worms attached to the intestinal wall. I would follow directions on the bottle of OTC (over the counter) meds and feed the natural food meds. When a dog is abruptly moved from one food to another, all kinds of things happen in the digestive system, and if rich food from Easter dinner is added … problems will occur.
I'm 56 years old and have lifted and worked out and tried different diets for the past 15 years or so with mixed results. Many people are not familiar with the symptoms of gallstones as they would be with the symptoms of more common ailments. It is more likely to occur in middle-aged overweight Caucasian women who have had several pregnancies or use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). But for most people, it is sufficient to know that the gallbladder is located in the upper right side of the abdomen.
This mass is usually not the gallbladder itself but the swelling of the tissue (peritoneum) surrounding the gallbladder.
Jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes as bilirubin accumulates in the body.
A range of gallbladder tests may be selected by your doctor when gallstones or gallbladder disease is suspected. In fact, just 30 minutes of using a Slendertone will deliver 120 muscle toning contractions - after a few weeks, your abs will be feeling firmer and stronger. Even worse … do you know how serious the damage is inside your dog if your dog has never been wormed? Better yet, order our ebook Dog Worms and keep it on hand for emergencies, maybe saving a few bucks by doing things on your own.
Pet stores like Petco or Petsmart provide certains days and hours where veterinarians provide vet care for low fees. If the dog is healthy, well-rested, and well-fed, its healthy immune system is designed to keep the parasites or worms at bay on their own … or by using quality worms. As dog worms begin to develop into worm infestations, the various organs inside your dog’s body will become compromised an adult dog can develop the following symptoms.
Knowing how to tell what type of worms your dog has involves knowing what the symptoms of each worms are. Of these species, both adult roundworms live in a dog’s stomach and intestines, able to grow to seven inches in length. I believe she has tapeworms, my concern is we have two small children and are currently visiting family who also have dogs.
The hookworm has hooks that attack to the intestinal walls and feed on the dog’s blood. Take him to the vet immediately, because tape worms can be spread to humans by the bite of a flea and keep flea and tick medicine on him, because it can be very nasty if spread to humans.

It lives in the intestines — the last section of the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine.
Yes, they can by handling the feces of dogs who have tapeworms and not washing their hands or practicing clean hygiene. Personally, repeat this every six months as this is a type of worm that is difficult to control. But, if any fleas remain alive that is contaminated with tapeworms, it will not be effective at removing them before they begin laying eggs. Whipworms and hookworms are inside the body, and this sounds like a whipworm due to the differences in ends. You can tell they are tapeworms when they look like little white moving segments around your puppy’s bottom end. Pet stores or feed stores have tapeworm meds for dogs that you do not have to have a vet’s prescription. For example, too much onion causes anemia, weakness, pale mucous membranes and an increase in respiratory rate. As you know, your puppy has been around fleas, infected fleas, or it would not have tapeworms. Those eggs lay dormant in the ground for several months, until they are accidentally eaten by a flea. I do not know if your puppy is long-haired or not, but bath her in flea soap, which you can get at a Dollar Store or something similar. I have been body building for well over 20 years and I can honestly say that you have allowed me to break out of what I call the classical mess of weight lifting.
However, spotting gallstones early and getting medical attention as soon as possible can in some cases even make the difference between life and death. Therefore there is no abnormalities around where the gallbladder is located and there are also no disturbances in its functions.
It sits just under the liver and is midway between the right flank and midline of the body. The gallbladder can contract to expel this bile into the duodenum (first part of the small intestine) where it mixes with food and is eventually expelled with stool.
At other times shoulder pain accompanies the abdominal pain without any significant discomfort between the abdomen and shoulder. Nausea tends to worsen after eating any food and not only fatty foods which tend to exacerbate the pain. Normally bilirubin is excreted in bile but if gallstones blocks the bile outflow, the bilirubin may be retained in the body. An abdominal ultrasound, CT (computed tomography) scan, HIDA scan (cholescintigraphy), ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography) or abdominal x-ray may be used to identify the presence and location of gallstones. Controlling worms in your dog requires hands-on and head-on knowledge with lots of dog experience. Learn what OTC dewormers are good and how bad things can get before deciding to take your dog to the vet. What wormer can you use OTC, or should you rush your dog to the vet immediately? Learning when and how to treat your dog for worm prevention, such as tapeworms, is a mandatory situation when you have a dog…especially an outdoor dog. If you have a puppy or kitten, begin around four weeks of age with the mother being wormed before whelping her puppies.
Is this type of worm easily transferred to other dogs and can it be transferred to children?
If you are able to treat your little friend by yourself, use over-the-counter meds, such as Frontline Plus, on a monthly basis. Mine have never had evidence of worms, and do not have fleas, so I am suspecting a neighboring dog may have them. But my male dog is licking her pee, and sleeps in the same area( which he also wears advantage, and she takes comfortis for fleas.
The worms the puppy has are a few centimeters bigger,white with slight pink on the head and wider at the end, is this a tapeworm as well? Since you are pregnant and she sleeps with you, I would put her on one of the monthly preventives. But the advantage of natural remedies is that it is cheaper, safer for the dogs, and works with ALL worms, whereas the meds work on what the bottle says.
When the flea is digested by an animal, the eggs gestate into larva which then bore into the intestinal wall and complete their life cycle as an adult intestinal worm. I've been on your suggested lean muscle diet in your book for 3 weeks now and am starting to lose a decent amount of the fat around my waist, so your program seems to be working well. Apart from pain at the right shoulder, some people may also feel pain between the shoulder blades – at the midline of the back. Two fingers or the entire hand should be placed over the tender area on the right side of the abdomen and if there is a pain when a person breathes in then it is indicative of gallbladder disease. Vomiting is also possible and when it starts it should also raise concern about acute pancreatitis.
Normally these tests are done once gallstone symptoms arise but can be conducted even if a person is asymptomatic. The eggs have to be ingested by the flea who then passes it on when he lands on a dog or cat and bites them. The medication is used to kill tapeworms transmitted from fleas and rabbits in one single dose within 24-hours.
I am a little confused as to whether or not the tapeworms can be spread to humans, or if it is unlikely???????????? He will need to be dewormed from a vet and have a test or the puppy will be in serious trouble.
Therefore the gallbladder is more active and more bile is secreted when you eat a fatty meal.
Pain that persists for more than 6 hours may be indicative of acute cholecystitis (gallbladder inflammation) or acute pancreatitis – two common complications of gallstones. This is known as Murphy’s sign but must only be considered as a positive sign if the same technique on the left side of the abdomen does not elicit pain. The lack of nausea or vomiting does not mean that the other symptoms are not due to gallstones.
Sometimes it can be high but this should raise concerns of secondary infections following an obstruction of the bile ducts by a gallstone. Most people dose their animals with natural or tradition medicine to prevent it, but a good idea is to go to a vet and get a professional diagnosis, then begin to treat your dog with the best preventive monthly. And if I only notice one dog to have them, should I go ahead and treat all of them or just the one? The barking all night could be from cramps, an uncomfortable feeling, or a continuous need to toilet.
Treatment consists of albendazole and mebendazole, to be taken one to three days to treat the dog’s infections.
The disadvantages of desexing (the cons of desexing) - why people choose not to neuter dogs.3. Neutering puppies - information about the early spay and neuter of young dogs (puppy desexing).
A lot of cost and effort and expertise goes into producing a quality litter for profitable sale.
If your bitch needs a caesarean section at one in the morning or develops a severe infection after whelping (e.g.
On top of that, if you fail to do your homework and breed poor quality pups or poorly socialised pups that won't sell, then you've just condemned some of those animals to a miserable life of being dumped in shelters or on the streets.2. The reduction of stray and feral animal populations:By having companion dogs neutered, they are unable to go out and mate with feral or stray bitches and get them pregnant.
This results in fewer litters of stray and feral dogs being born which, in return, benefits not just those unwanted puppies (who lead a tough neglected life), but also society in general.
To reduce the spread of inferior genetic traits, genetic diseases and congenital deformities:Dog breeding is not merely the production of puppies, it is the transferral of genes and genetic traits from one generation to the next in a breed population. Pet owners and breeders should desex male dogs that have conformational, colouring and temperamental traits, which are unfavourable or faulty to the breed as a whole to reduce the spread of these defects further down the generations.
The prevention or reduction of testicular (and epididymal) diseases:It is difficult to contract a testicular disease if you have no testicles. Early neutering prevents dogs from contracting a range diseases and disorders including: testicular cancer, epididymal cancer, orchitis (testicular inflammation), epididymitis, testicular torsion, testicular abscessation and testicular trauma. The prevention or reduction of testosterone-induced diseases:Dogs can suffer from a range of diseases and medical conditions that are directly associated with high blood testosterone levels. These disease conditions include:benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis, prostatic abscess, perianal or perineal adenomas (small cancers that occur around the anus of male dogs), perineal hernias and certain castration-responsive skin disorders (dermatoses).
Desexing removes the main source of testosterone in the animal's body (the testes), which not only prevents the onset of these diseases but can even help to control or cure these diseases if they are already present. It is the testicles that make male animals exhibit the kinds of "male" testosterone-dependent behaviors normally attributed to an entire animal.
They are more prone to displaying often unwanted masculine territorial behaviours such as the guarding of resources (food, bones, territory, companion people and pets and so on) and the marking of territory with urine and feces (e.g.
Additionally, entire male animals are more likely than neutered animals are to leave their yards and roam the countryside looking for females and trouble.
The neutering of entire animals can reduce some of these problematic testosterone-mediated behaviours. The disadvantages of desexing (the cons of desexing) - why some people choose not to neuter.There are many reasons why some individuals, breeders and pet groups choose not to advocate the sterilisation of entire male dogs. Many of these reasons have been listed below, however the list is by no means exhaustive.1. The dog may become overweight or obese:Studies have shown that neutered animals probably require around 25% fewer calories to maintain a healthy bodyweight than entire male animals do. This is because a neutered animal has a lower metabolic rate than an entire animal does (it therefore needs fewer calories to maintain its bodyweight).
Because of this, what tends to happen is that most owners, unaware of this fact, continue to feed their neutered male dogs the same amount of food after the surgery that they did prior to the surgery, with the result that their pets become fat.
Consequently, the myth of automatic post-desexing obesity has become perpetuated and, as a result, many owners simply will not consider desexing their dogs because of the fear of them gaining weight and developing weight-related problems (e.g. They will only become obese if the post-neutering drop in their metabolic rate is not taken into account and they are fed the same amount of food calories as an entire animal.
A neutered dog potentially costs less to feed than an entire animal of the same weight and, therefore, neutering your animal may well save you money in the long run.
Desexing equates to a loss of breeding potential and valuable genetics:There is no denying this. In an era where many unscrupulous breeders and pet owners ("backyard breeders" we call them) will breed any low-quality dog regardless of breed traits and temperament to make a quick buck, the good genes for breed soundness, breed traits and good temperament are needed more than ever. Current desexing age recommendations.In Australia and throughout much of the world it is currently recommended that male dogs are neutered at around 5-7 months of age and older (as far as the "older" goes, the closer to the 5-7 months of age mark the better - there is less chance of your dog developing a testicular or testosterone-dependant medical condition if he is desexed at a younger age). The reasoning behind this 5-7 month age specification is one of anaesthetic safety for elective procedures. When asked by owners why it is that a dog needs to wait until 5-7 months of age to be desexed, most veterinarians will simply say that it is much safer for them to wait until this age before undergoing a general anaesthetic procedure. The theory is that the liver and kidneys of very young animals are much less mature than those of older animals and therefore less capable of tolerating the effects of anaesthetic drugs and less effective at metabolising them and breaking them down and excreting them from the body. Younger animals are therefore expected to have prolonged recovery times and an increased risk of suffering from severe side effects, in particular liver and kidney damage, as a result of general anaesthesia. Consequently, most vets will choose not to anesthetize a young dog until at least 5 months of age for an elective procedure such as neutering. Whether the 5-7 month age specification for general anaesthesia is valid nowadays (2008 onwards), however, is much less clear and is currently the subject of debate. The reason for the current desexing-age debate is that the 5-7 month age specification was determined ages ago, way back in the days when animal anaesthesia was nowhere near as safe as it is now and relied heavily upon drugs that were more cardiovascularly depressant than modern drugs (e.g.
Because modern animal anaesthetic drugs are so much safer on young animals than the old drugs used to be, there is increasing push to drop the age of desexing in veterinary practices. As modern pet anaesthetics have become a lot safer, with fewer side effects, the debate about the recommended age of canine neutering has been reopened in the veterinary world with some vets now allowing their clients to opt for an early-age spay or neuter, provided they appreciate that there are greater, albeit minimal, anaesthetic risks to the very young pet when compared to the more mature pet. In these situations, cat and dog owners can opt to have their male and female pets desexed as young as 8-9 weeks of age (the vet chooses anaesthetic drugs that are not as cardiovascularly depressant and which do not rely as heavily upon extensive liver and kidney metabolism and excretion).NOTE - in 1993, the AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association) advised that it supported the early spay and neuter of young dogs and cats, recommending that puppies and kittens be spayed or neutered as early as 8-16 weeks of age. This again helps to reduce the incidence of irresponsible breeding - dogs sold already desexed cannot reproduce. I take about 3-7 minutes to neuter a male pup of about 9 weeks of age compared to about 10-15 minutes for an older animal.
More early age neuters can be performed in a day than mature dog neuters and less anaesthetic gas is used on each individual, thereby saving the practice money per procedure.Routine, across-the-board, early spay and neuter by shelters avoids the need for a sterilisation contract to be signed between the shelter and the prospective pet owner.
A sterilisation contract is a legal document signed by people who adopt young, non-desexed puppies and kittens, which declares that they will return to the shelter to have that dog or cat desexed when it has reached the recommended sterilisation age of 5-7 months.
The problem with these sterilisation contracts is that, very often, people do not obey them (particularlyif the animal seems to be "purebred"); they are rarely enforced by law and, consequently, the adopted animal is left undesexed and able to breed and the cycle of pet reproduction and dumped litters continues. Many of these disadvantages were outlined in the previous section (3a) when the reasons for establishing the 5-7 month desexing age were discussed and include: Early age anaesthesia and desexing is never going to be as safe as performing the procedure on an older and more mature dog.
Regardless of how safe modern anaesthetics have become, the liver and kidneys of younger animals are considered to be less mature than those of older animals and therefore less capable of tolerating the effects of anaesthetic drugs and less effective at metabolising them and breaking them down and excreting them from the body.
Even though it is very uncommon, there will always be the occasional early age animal that suffers from potentially life-threatening side effects, in particular liver and kidney damage, as a result of young age anaesthesia. Thishypothermia predisposition is caused by the young animal's increased body surface area (higher area for heat to be lost), reduced ability to shiver and reduced bodyfat covering (fat insulates against heat loss). The predisposition towards hypoglycemia is the result of a reduced ability to produce glucose from stores of glycogen and body fat as well as the fact that these stores of fat and glycogen are smaller in the young animal.
Early neutering may result in retained juvenile behaviours inappropriate to the animal's age later on. Many breederschoose to only desex their dogs after they have had some time to grow (after all, it is not possibleto look at a tiny puppy and determine whether or not it will have the right color, conformation and temperament traits to be a breeding and showing dog).
This allows the breeder time to determine whether or not the animal in question will be a valuable stud animal or not. Early age neuteringprevents breeders from being able to accurately determine which pups will be valuable studanimals (it is too early to tell when they are only puppies). This can potentially result in urinaryhygiene problems and an increased risk of preputial urine scalding and prepuce infections throughout life.Early spaying and neutering will not 100% reduce pet overpopulation and dumping problems when a large proportion of dumped animals are not merely unwanted litters, but purpose-bought, older pets that owners have grown tired of, can't manage, can't train and so on.

Because shelter policy was not to add to the numbers of litters being born irresponsibly by selling entire animals, all dogs, including puppies, were required to be desexed prior to sale. Consequently, it was not unusual for us to desex male and female puppies and kittens at early ages (anywhere from 9 weeks of age upwards).
Hundreds of puppies and kittens passed under the surgeon's knife every year on their way to good homes and I must say that the incidence of post-operative complications that were a direct result of underage neutering was exceedingly low. Please remember, however, that if you do decide to have your pet neutered at an early age, you do make this choice at your own risk. Current veterinary recommendations do still state that pet cats and dogs should be neutered at 5-7 months of age and that there is a greater risk (albeit minor) of young animals suffering from operative or post-operative complications as a result of general anaesthesia.4. Neutering procedure (desexing surgery) - a step by step pictorial guide to canine neutering.As stated in the opening section, neutering is the surgical removal of a male dog's testicles.
During the procedure, each of the dog's testes and testicular epididymi are removed along with sections of the dog's testicular blood vessels and spermatic ducts (vas deferens or ductus deferens).
And to be quite honest, from a general, non-veterinary pet owner's perspective, this is probably all of the information that you really need to know about the surgical process of desexing a dog.
There are numerous surgical desexing techniques available for use by veterinarians, however, I have chosen to demonstrate the very commonly-used "open procedure" of dog castration.
Water should not be withheld - it is fine for your animal to drink water before admission into the vet clinic.Any food that the animal fails to consume by bedtime should be taken away to prevent it from snacking throughout the night.
Please note that certain animal species should not be fasted prior to surgery or, if they are fasted, not fasted for very long. For example, rabbits and guinea pigs are not generally fasted prior to surgery because they run the risk of potentially fatal intestinal paralysis (gut immotility) from the combined effects of not eating and receiving anaesthetic drugs.
Vet clinics usually tell owners what time they should bring their pet in for surgical admission and it is important that you abide by these admission times and not be late. Vet clinics need to plan their day around which pets arrive and do not arrive for surgery in the morning. His gum colour will be assessed, his heart and chest listened to and his temperature taken to ensure that he is fine to operate on.
This pre-surgical examination is especially important if your pet is old (greater than 7-8 years). This is a simple blood test that is often performed in-house by your vet to assess your pet's basic liver and kidney function. It may help your vet to detect underlying liver or kidney disease that might make it unsafe for your pet to have an anaesthetic procedure. Old dogs in particular should have a pre-anaesthetic blood panel performed (many clinics insist upon it), but cautious owners can elect to have young pets tested too.
Things happen (very rarely, but they do) and you need to be aware of this before signing an anaesthetic consent form. As with human medicine, it is becoming more and more common these days for pet owners to sue vets for alleged malpractice.
Vets today require clients to sign a consent form before any anaesthetic procedure is performed so that owners can not come back to them and say that they were not informed of the risks of anaesthesia, should there be an adverse event. Vets may need to call owners if a complication occurs, if an extra procedure needs to be performed on the pet or if the pet has to stay in overnight. It is often best if you ring the veterinary clinic before picking your pet up just in case it can not go home at the time expected (e.g.
The animal is normally given a premedication drug before surgery, which is designed to fulfill many purposes.
The sedative calms the animal making it slip into anaesthesia more peacefully; the sedative often contains a pain relief drug (analgesic), which reduces pain during and after surgery and the sedative action results in lower amounts of anaesthetic drug being needed to keep the animal asleep.
General anaesthesia is normally achieved by giving the pet an intravenous injection of an anaesthetic drug, which is then followed up with and maintained using an anaesthetic inhalational gas. The animal has a tube inserted down its throat during the surgery to facilitate the administration of the anaesthetic gas.
The animal is drawn laying on its back as it would be positioned during a sterilization surgery. The second thing to notice is that the spermatic ducts (vas deferens) and blood vessels supplying each of the testicles arise from within the animal's abdominal cavity. These vessels exit the animal's abdominal cavity in the region of the animal's groin, via a natural hole in each side (right and left) of the abdominal wall called the inguinal canal or inguinal ring (marked in purple). After exiting the abdominal cavity via the inguinal canal, these ducts and vessels run deep within the fat situated alongside the animal's penis and into the scrotum, where they unite with the sperm ducts and blood vessels within the animal's testicles. The third thing to remember is that some of the thick connective tissue lining the animal's abdominal cavity (the peritoneal lining - marked in green) actually comes out through the inguinal canal when the testicle descends during infancy and encases the testicle within the scrotal sac. The section of peritoneal lining containing the testicle within the scrotal sac and inguinal canal is termed the tunica vaginalis or vaginal tunic.
On top of this, some of the abdominal fluid (lubricating fluid that exists in small amounts within the abdomen to let the organs slide over each other and not adhere to each other) and abdominal 'space' that exists within the abdominal cavity also goes with the peritoneal outpouching (tunica vaginalis) and into the scrotal sac and inguinal canal surrounding the testicular structures. It allows the testicular vessels and testicles to slide a bit within the scrotal sac and tunica vaginalis casing.
Images: An incision is made into the skin just ahead of the animal's scrotal sac, on the midline of the animal. Both testicles will be removed through the one incision.Caution needs to be taken to ensure that the urethra is not accidentally cut into during this incision. The fat surrounding the testis and tunica vaginalis is trimmed away and the testis (enclosed within the thick, capsule-like tunica vaginalis) is lifted through the hole in the animal's skin. Image: The tunica vaginalis (green) is incised and the testicle itself (testis and epididymus) is exposed.
Because the space between the tunica vaginalis and testicle contains small volumes of lubricating fluid (blue) from inside of the abdominal cavity, the testicle does not stick to the tunica vaginalis but instead slips easily out of it.
They are tied tightly to ensure that the blood vessels supplying the testes are fully occluded (closed off). This will prevent the animal's testicular blood vessels from bleeding once the testicle is cut off. The surgeon cuts off the testicle (testis and epididymus) above the level of the sutures and discards it.
Author's note: Some surgeons like to also tie off the tunica vaginalis itself, instead of leaving it open. The first is that the tunica vaginalis has some blood supply of its own and oozes blood when you cut it. Although this seldom ever presents a significant, life-threatening bleeding issue, in large dogs this oozing of blood from the cut tunic can be enough to cause the scrotal sac to become swollen up with blood and therefore very painful and bruised after surgery. Leaving the tunic open may potentially increase the risk of suture-line infections extending through into the abdominal cavity.
There is also the potential (though it is rare) for abdominal contents to travel down the inguinal canal within the tunica vaginalis and end up under the skin, resulting in an inguinal hernia, which can be life threatening. Neutering aftercare - what you need to know about caring for your dog after neutering surgery.When your dog goes home after neutering surgery, there are some basic exercise, feeding, bathing, pain relief and wound care considerations that should be followed to improve your pet's healing, health and comfort levels.
1) Feeding your dog immediately after neutering:After a dog has been desexed, it is not normally necessary for you to implement any special dietary changes. Unless your veterinarian says otherwise, it is normally fine to feed your pet the night after surgery.
Offer your pet a smaller meal than normal in case your pet has an upset tummy from surgery and do not be worried if your pet won't eat the night after surgery. It is not uncommon for pets to be sore and sorry after surgery and to refuse to eat that night. If your pet is a bit sooky and won't eat because of surgery-site pain, feel free to tempt your pet with tasty, strong-smelling foods to get him to eat.
Avoid fatty foods such as mince, lamb and processed meats (salami, sausages, bacon) because these will cause digestive upsets. Do not give these drugs if your pet is refusing to eat.Most dogs that are neutered are not normally off their food for more than a day. It is therefore recommended that running-around exercise be avoided or minimised during this period to allow the skin the best chance of staying still and healing. The most important thing that you do need to do is monitor the wound to ensure that it remains looking healthy and clean. Look out for any signs of redness, swelling and wound pain (surgical wounds should not normally appear painful or red beyond the first 3-5 days after surgery).
The wound and sutures should then be dried thoroughly to stop bacteria from wicking deep into the surgical site. The wound should then be closely monitored over the next few days because wounds soiled in dirt or faeces are at high risk of becoming infected, even if they are bathed. This is a major cause of wound breakdown - the pet licks the wounds making them wet and infected or the pet actually pulls out the sutures, resulting in the wound breaking apart. At the very first sign of wound licking, go to your vet immediately and get an Elizabethan collar (E collar) for it. The collar will stop the pet tampering with the stitches and hopefully prevent wound break down.
If the dog starts licking in the middle of the night and you can not get an E collar, you can cut the circular bottom out of an appropriately-sized, clean plastic flower pot (leave the drainage holes intact); place this over your pet's head and neck like an Elizabethan collar and thread the pet's collar or a stocking through the pot-plant drainage holes to secure it to your pet's neck.
Be careful to place it so that your pet can not choke and go and get a proper E collar from your vet in the morning.
Wound licking can also be reduced by putting bitter apple spray, methyl phthalate solution or another commercial bitterant solution onto the pet's suture line. Woundgard is one commercial product that serves this role (there are many other products that serve a similar function). 4) Bathing or washing your dog after neutering:Because it takes 10-14 days for sutured (stitched) skin wounds to heal and seal closed, it is advised that the animal not be bathed or allowed to go swimming for the first 14 days after surgery.
They can be removed at home, but ideally they should be removed by a veterinarian (the vet can determine if the wounds have healed up before removing them).
6) Pain relief after neutering:In my experience, most dogs do not seem to show all that much pain after neutering surgery. Most vets send their neutering patients home with a few days of pain relief as a matter of course, however, some vet clinics do not. If you haven't been sent home with any pain relief for your pet and your pet shows signs of pain after surgery, you can return to your vet clinic and request pain relief pills.
If your pet is very old or it has compromised kidney or liver function, certain pain medications may not be recommended and other pain relief solutions may need to be found.DO NOT self-medicate your pet with human pain-killers. Pets that are allowed to run around after surgery are more likely to traumatize and move their sutures, leading to swelling and pain of the surgical site.
Placing a dried-off ice pack wrapped in a tea towel (never put ice directly against the skin) on the pet's surgery site for 10 minutes and then placing a hot water bottle (also wrapped in a tea towel) on the site for another 10 minutes and then replacing the cold pack and so on (i.e. CAUTION - Only do this if you have a very nice tempered dog - remember that pets in pain can bite and you may well upset the animal more by handling his wound, even though you are only trying to help him. Possible surgical and post-surgical complications of neutering.There are some surgical and post surgical complications of desexing a dog that should be considered before you take the step of having your pet neutered. The most important thing to remember about the complications listed below is that the vast majority of these complications are very rare and the small risk of them occurring should not outweigh the benefits of having your pet neutered. Of those complications that are more common (the common ones are indicated), the vast majority of these are not life-threatening and most can be prevented by good attention to after-care and wound care. Pain after surgery (common).It is not uncommon for dogs to show some signs of mild to moderate discomfort and pain immediately after having a desexing surgery. It stands to reason: the vet has just performed a surgical procedure on a very delicate area of the male body.
Dogs that are in discomfort after desexing will normally show signs suggestive of pain in the groin region. Some dogs will even go off their food for a few days after desexing because of the discomfort. If you haven't been sent home with any pain relief for your pet and your pet shows signs of pain after surgery, you can return to your vet clinic and request pain relief pills - these will normally be enough to keep your pet comfortable.
If your pet is very old or it has compromised kidney or liver function, certain pain medications may not be recommended and other pain relief solutions may need to be found.Keep your pet confined and quiet if it is in pain. Pets that are allowed to run around after surgery are more likely to traumatise and move their sutures, leading to swelling and pain of the surgical site. Placing an ice pack wrapped in a tea towel (never put ice directly against the skin) on the pet's surgery site for 10 minutes and then placing a hot water bottle (also wrapped in a tea towel) on the site for another 10 minutes and then replacing the cold pack and so on (i.e. WARNING - Only do this if you have a very nice tempered dog - remember that pets in pain can bite and you may well upset the animal more by handling his wound, even though you are only trying to help him. If the scrotal skin appears very abraded and red to you (either from clipper rash during pre-surgical shaving of fur or due to your pet's licking), you should speak to your vet about it. He may prescribe some cream containing a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, an antibiotic compound and a local anaesthetic (e.g. If the wound break down is only mild, the animal may only require antibiotic coverage; an Elizabethan collar and better home care to treat the problem. If the wound has completely fallen apart, the vet may need to operate on your pet again to retrim and repair the surgical wound.
The bacterial invasion causes damage to the body tissues in the site of infection (this limits healing of tissues) and triggers a secondary immune system attack on the region, resulting in inflammation and a build up of pus (invading white blood cells produce yellow or green discharges) in the area.Owners often first notice infection when the neutering incision line becomes sore, swollen, red and hot-to-touch.
Sometimes, the pet will tell the owner that it is in pain by licking the infected regions obsessively: infection should certainly be suspected if a pet goes from not being bothered by its wounds to licking and biting at them excessively.
Within hours to days of this redness and inflammation being noticed, the owner may witness a yellow to green purulent discharge coming from the suture holes or the incision line itself. If allowed the progress, the wound may split apart completely, resulting in wound breakdown.
It tends to occur because the pet was allowed to lick the sutureline and, consequently, introduce mouth bacteria into its surgical incision. Infection also tends to occur if the sutures are allowed to get wet (the animal was bathed, allowed to go swimming, allowed to lay in mud) or if the sutures are allowed to become soiled by faeces, urine or dirt.
Bacterial numbers are very high in diseased skin and will easily enter the wound site during surgery, regardless of the amount of prepping done.
Animals with Cushing's disease, Diabetes Mellitus and other immune suppressive disorders may be more prone to wound infections.

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