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Denmark is among the top performers in Europe with regard to completion rates, although this figure dropped by 4 percentage points between 2005 and 2011, according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. In 2013, the Danish government introduced reforms that mean the funding of students and institutions is dependent on students’ achievements. This system has been debated in Denmark, but the European Commission says that it is expected to reveal a strong impact on students to complete within the nominal study duration.
Norway introduced quality reforms of higher education in the early 2000s, which included the objective of decreasing dropout rates and shortening the time to degree, both of which were regarded as major problems.
However, although the European Commission notes that the country’s policy mix is “harmonized and consistent”, these changes did not improve completion rates. The Netherlands’ central mission around study success is to achieve a good match between the student and the study programme. Until 2011, about 50 per cent of university funding for teaching was related to successfully completed degrees. The completion rate in the UK increased from 74 per cent in 2005 to 82 per cent in 2011, according to OECD data. Institutions receive additional funds with regard to the profile of their student population. The European Commission says that the high completion rate is due to a “fairly tight admissions system”, in which institutional autonomy has been retained, and a widespread and embedded expectation from institutions and students that completion is possible in three years, except in exceptional circumstances. The Czech Republic has no national policy aimed at addressing study success or dropouts, but it recommends that universities monitor these.
The dropout rate from higher education is not perceived as a problem in the country but rather as a quality assurance measure to “keep the bar high”, as it removes low-skilled and unmotivated students who cannot meet the demands of tertiary education. However, the European Commission notes that retention may become an important topic for institutions, employers and the government in years to come as there has been a significant decline in the number of traditional university applicants since 2011 and some institutions have already reduced the number of first-year students by more than 30 per cent. Study success in France is generally defined as the ability of students to find meaningful employment upon graduation, although policies addressing study success measure it using completion rates.
In recent years, France has faced high dropout rates at its universities; almost every second student in the first year of a university undergraduate programme drops out, according to government figures published in 2013.
The government planned to address this by providing top-up funds to universities subject to their performance in implementing multidisciplinary programmes for first-year students and better preparing students for university entrance. In Germany, higher education policy is under the authority of the federal states and the importance of study success varies across the regions. However, in 2007 the states and the federal government agreed to cooperate to launch the Higher Education Pact 2020, which aims to support universities in addressing the expected increase in student enrolments.
Students in Poland have some financial incentives to complete their university degree, but for institutions completion or dropout rates are financially inconsequential. The government has introduced state-funded “contracted studies” in which 50 per cent of the top-performing students in certain study areas each receive about €250 (?184) per month to complete their degree.
Since October 2013, students who prolong their studies beyond 11 semesters or take up a second degree must pay tuition fees (the first bachelor’s or master’s at public institutions is free of charge).

New regulations also require the strengthening of careers offices at every institution and their involvement in institution-wide graduate surveys. Most countries across Western Europe have seen increases in the numbers of university students between 2000 and 2009.
There are variations and different trends around the region, although the economic recession in 2008-2009 has made employment prospects difficult and the number of unemployed higher-education graduates is rising quicker than those of other educational levels. Tertiary level graduates benefit the economy through higher skills and consumer spending potential.
Scandinavian countries and Iceland tend to have the highest proportional numbers of university students compared to the total population, with Finland highest at 59.4 students per 1,000 people in 2009.
The rising numbers of university students has put considerable financial pressure on governments and higher education institutions. On the other hand, large numbers of well-qualified and skilled graduates create a positive impact on the business environment of an individual country, and are attractive for companies looking to relocate or expand in the region. The economic downturn in the region risks a brain-drain phenomenon, however, whereby many well-qualified students may leave for better job opportunities. Many governments in the region are attempting or planning to cut their spending on education – particularly at a tertiary level – in efforts to cut back on state deficits, following stimulus spending amid the global economic downturn of 2008-2009. In terms of unemployment by education level, figures suggest that for those with a higher education qualification it is easier to obtain a job than those with basic levels of education. However, the unemployed population of higher education graduates has grown, in general, more rapidly than any other type of education level, and particularly due to the recession which has made it more difficult for inexperienced new graduates to obtain jobs. This suggests that there is a glut of higher education graduates in the labour market who are unable to find employment, or accept employment that they feel is commensurate with their education levels. Rising household incomes have meant that more families are able to afford private education for their children, or to fund them through longer durations of education. People with higher educational attainment tend to have much higher disposable incomes than those with lower educational levels. Countries with greater numbers of higher-education graduates will offer a more attractive consumer market than those with lower levels of education, given that the former have much greater disposable incomes for spending on non-essentials and luxuries. Poor employment prospects for graduates in 2010 are likely to push up unemployment rates around the region. Many graduates may choose to return to further education rather than seek jobs in an unfavourable economic climate. Universities will continue to compete for students, especially foreign students who pay higher fees, although the European Commission's Bologna process, which began in 1999, aims to create a more homogeneous system of higher education by 2010. Further data collected for the European Commission report, based on a survey answered by national experts, reveals that there is a 6 percentage point gap between completion rates for bachelor’s students (79 per cent) and master’s students (85 per cent). The introduction of a mandatory study plan system means that full-time students are obliged to select course packages of at least 60 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits per year (or 30 per semester), they cannot withdraw from the exams related to these courses, and they must enrol for new courses each year. However, because of the recent implementation of these reforms, there is no evidence of their effectiveness yet.

The country enhanced financial support for students, turned loans into grants and rewarded institutions with timely completion rates with more funding.
OECD data show that the completion rate dropped from 65 to 59 per cent between 2005 and 2011, with dropout and long study periods both still a problem.
In 1996, the government introduced a system where all basic student funding became loans, but the loan was converted into a non-repayable grant if the student completed their degree within 10 years. A key driver of this growth was the implementation of annual tuition fees in England of ?1,000 per student in 1998 and the subsequent increases, resulting in a cap of ?9,000 in 2012. Universities charging fees above ?6,000 have to indicate in an access agreement how they spend this additional money, which must be used to implement measures to ensure access and success of students from lower socio-economic family backgrounds. The country’s New Strategic Framework for Higher Education says that at least 60 per cent of bachelor’s degrees started in 2015 should be completed within an “appropriate time frame”, but no specific measures are mentioned. In Berlin, the main rationale is that the quality of teaching contributes to study success so it provides additional funding to higher education institutions to improve their teaching quality. Higher education institutions receive €26,000 (?19,000) per additional student for a four-year period. Study areas where this applies can vary from year to year but they are those that have too few students, and science, technology, engineering and mathematics areas are always included. Most significantly, it has a direct bearing on income levels: in Western Europe in 2009, for instance, per capita disposable incomes for consumers with a tertiary-level education was US$38,808, compared to US$16,011 for those with primary education. Turkey saw the total number of graduates rise by an annual average of 10.6% between 2004 and 2009, the most of any country in the region as growth is from a lower base.
Unlike the USA, for instance, most universities in Western Europe are subsidised by the state and students are offered financial support, either with grants or soft loans. This could restrict the number of students who are able to find places in higher education and may have a detrimental impact on higher educational standards or facilities. Government policy may well focus on vocational training for specific professions, especially for countries such as Germany which are suffering from a skills shortage. Supporting tuition will place a greater strain on government finances, depending on the level of state support granted in each country, but will continue to create opportunities for businesses in the sector. This change of regime was partly aimed at improving institutions’ retention and completion rates as they become dependent on students and study success for their funding. In the final phase, which begins this month, institutions must invest 10 per cent of the funding from the pact in improving study success.

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