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There are numerous important revolutions that have dramatically changed the world that we live in. The decline of feudalism, the emergence of the Renaissance and the Reformation, the expansion of trade with other distant countries and continents, and the discovery and exploration of new cultures awakened a desire to explore the nature and workings of the universe that surrounds mankind. And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands, to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies.
In 1491, Nicholas enrolled at the University of Cracow (Poland), where he took an interest in astronomy.
Copernicus is the first to propose a new view of the solar system--the heliocentric view of the solar system in contradiction to the traditional geocentric view.
Because Copernicus merely stated his ideas as a hypothesis, he was not considered dangerous to the Roman Church, as Galileo was a generation later. Even though Copernicus made sense to some, the traditional geocentric scheme simply would not disappear. Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and, although a student of Brahe, disagreed with his teacher. He was also one of the first to say that Ptolemy was wrong (Ptolemy taught the traditional geocentric view of the solar system) and maintained that Copernicus was correct--the earth did revolve round the sun, and not vice versa. These announcements, published in his work, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, brought Galileo (1564-1642) into conflict with the Roman Church. In 1992, 350 years later, Pope John Paul II stated that errors were made in condemning Galileo.
The case of Galileo is perhaps the best-known illustration of the tension between science and religion.
Bacon is considered by many historians to be the a€?founder of modern science,a€?A  although by training and vocation he was not a practicing scientist.
Empiricism -- the theory that reality is discovered through the senses, through experimentation and testing. Induction -- drawing conclusions from onea€™s observations and testing and from that developing general principles. By Bacona€™s rejection of ancient authorities, namely Aristotle and Ptolemy, a new science exploded on the scene, producing a plethora of discoveries and inventions that has continued nonstop to this day.A Under Ptolemy, there would likely not be television, iPhones, or space shuttles. What Bacon attacked was medieval scholasticism--the idea that everything we need to know has already discovered in the past. Scholasticism denied the very idea of experimentation and taught that the only thing left for the learned mind to do was to clarify was had already been discovered in the past!
Sir Francis believed that, in fulfillment of Daniela€™s prophecy, man would increase in knowledge in the last days by casting off unbiblical authorities like Aristotle and investigating Goda€™s natural revelation (creation) with minds that had been created in His image. His major works were The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620) [the New Order], and New Atlantis (1627). Harvey was a physician in England and was a lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians in London and a Christian. Following his death on April 1727, Isaac Newtona€™s body lay in state in great honor n Westminster Abbey for an entire week. He developed the answer, he believed, and published his work in his masterpiece, Principia, published in 1687.
Among the greatest scientific geniuses of all times, Isaac Newton made major contributions to mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy. To Newton, the very orderliness and design of the universe spoke of God's awesome majesty and wisdom. Seeking to further understand God's methods, Newton studied and developed formulas for specific phenomena such as ocean tides, paths of comets, and the succession of the equinoxes. Newton spent a tremendous amount of time studying the Bible, especially the prophetic portions of Scripture.
Though he outwardly conformed to the church of England, Newton privately was an Arian Christian.
List and explain what new social and political conditions existed in Europe to make possible the scientific revolution. Explain why the Copernican hypothesis was so startling to the populace and so threatening to the Vatican and to Luther and Calvin.
Explain how the relationship of Galileo to Copernicus was so similar to that between Hubble and Einstein in the 20th century and how they had similar impacts on the thinking of their generations. Describe how the scientific discoveries impacted the world of politics and urged men like Hobbes to pursue a new course of reasoning.
The dissatisfaction by many with patterns of government and the practices of absolute monarchies in Europe and Asia created a hunger to find (1) new and better ways to govern, (2) ways that would better cultivate tolerance for diversity in religion and thought, (3) ways that would promote and value progress rather than tradition for traditiona€™s sake, and (4) where processes of social justice would acknowledge and protect natural rights of the individual. In simpler terms revolutionary thinking emerged especially in France, England, Scotland, and Germany which generally sought the following: (1) eliminate absolutism in government, (2) toleration for faith and thought, (3) openness to progress, and (4) freedom for the the individual. Major events in the late 17th century set the conditions in Europe for a revolution in thought. The New Attitude: By the 1700s Europeans were quite certain that they could make the world a better, more comfortable place to live. The New Question: If there are natural laws that govern the physical universe, certainly then must there not also be natural laws that govern the spheres of religion and rationality?
The new conclusion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discern the natural laws of the physical universe, we must use the same tools to discover the natural laws of the spiritual world. In other words, what can be known about God, eternity, spiritual laws and commandments, and other related items, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method.
And if we can discover the natural laws of the spiritual world, we can also discover the natural laws of how to live with each other in this world, including how to govern and to be governed. The Renaissance questioned traditional thoughts and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. The Enlightenment, likewise, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together on earth. If we are to discover the natural laws governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them?
If human reason with the scientific method as its tool can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? They met to discuss and debate, in the spirit of the scientific revolution, what the natural laws were that were to govern all people in their personal, social, and community lives.
There were the common people who knew and cared little about those philosophers fortunate enough to sit around and debate natural laws! The printing press that had aided the Protestant Reformation now became the instrument to spread the ideas of the Philosphes. The Philosphes and their disciples tended to occupy seats in the faculties of the universities. They also tended to arrive at a new conclusion about religion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discover the natural laws of the physical universe, then we must use the same tools to discover through human reason the natural laws of the spiritual world. The Renaissance questioned traditional beliefs and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. If we are to discover the natural governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them? While the leaders the scientific revolution were for the most part orthodox Christians (and believed that they were discovering evidences of Goda€™s intelligent design expressed through the laws they discovered and described), many of those who became leaders in the revolution in thought were deists. However, as we shall see, the new thinkers in the Age of Reason were not the only people in town.
In France the philosophes (a€?the philosophersa€?) gathered often in private homes (salons) hosted by wealthy women to read their latest essays.
Although they dealt with a variety of topics, for our discussion we will concentrate primarily on their views dealing with politics and government. He viewed government to be ideally a function of free and rational men -- not simple-minded men who lived as serfs within feudalism or blindly obeyed the dictates of a prince or king. Obviously, his ideas were a direct threat to Roman authority and to the absolutism of Louis XIII and Louis XIV. Baron de Montesquieu was a member of nobility in France, a judge in a French court, and one of the most influential political thinkers of the 18th century. In his major work, The Spirit of the Laws (1748), (French, De la€™esprit des lois) he concluded that when all power rests with one leader or even several leaders, despotism inevitably develops and human freedoms disappear. Yet, Montesquieua€™s political thought was one of several basic ideas that was used to found the Constitution of the United States of America.
His openness to ideas and toleration was exemplified in his marriage in 1715 as a Roman Catholic to a French Huguenot woman. Montesquieu believed that if natural laws were found that could best explain the natural world, then certainly there are laws that can teach us how to live with one another in peace and harmony in the world of culture and society.
He also believed that educated persons best discover what these natural laws are that produce harmony, and, therefore, educated people govern best.
Governments are best shaped by the people and their surroundings, the climate, the environment. Voltaire was an opponent of Roman Catholic religious dogma and spoke strongly against blind obedience to the pope. One of his major and most important works was A Treatise on Toleration (1782) that raised havoc when it was circulated within the last days of the reign of King Louis XVI. After returning to France in 1734 he had to again flee imprisonment due to comments made about the absolutists French government in Letters to the English. These personal examples created in him a hatred for oppression of any kind, whether by a despotic king or a democratic mob rule.
Concerning politics, if Voltaire could choose one best form of government, it would be an enlightened monarchy.
He opposed war of any kind and called it a€?sophisticated murder.a€? This did not sit well with many in France who basked in the glory of Francea€™s hegemony under Louis XIV, which was achieved in large measure through warfare. Perhaps his best known work was the novel, Candide (1758), in which the central character, Candide, is a joyful, optimistic world traveler.
Organized religion is led by charlatans who exploit the weak and who foist ignorance on the uneducated.
Religious leaders maintain power by oppressing anyone who disagrees with them on even the simplest theological matters. Material wealth provides some comforts and power but in the long run drifts away at he hands of corrupt government officials (taxes, bribery) and dishonest merchants. A great earthquake takes place in the story of Candide which was based on a real earthquake that hit Lisbon, Portugal in 1755 with great loss of life. Voltaire expressed in Candide the opinion that God is either indifferent towards, or lacks the power to prevent evil within human history. As a youth he was educated by Jesuits, and was not an atheist, as some maintain, but bitterly opposed religious oppression of individual rights, and who believed that what can be known about God comes not through revelation and church dogma but through human reason. It can probably be said that Voltaire was at best an agnostic, that the God who was championed by religion, as Voltaire experienced it, was at the core of a suppression of individual thought and freedom and therefore should be discarded. Voltaire maintained that the only places on earth where there was true freedom of religion and speech were in England, the Netherlands, Prussia, and Switzerland.
Diderot was an atheist who believed that all mankind are born with a totally free will to live life as they wish, with no accountability to a divine being. His Encyclopedia was a critical attack on and mocking of Christianity and resulted in his flight from France to Russia where he was protected and supported by the a€?enlighteneda€? ruler, Catherine the Great. Born in Geneva, Rousseau was orphaned while young and placed in the care of a strict uncle. Rousseau was a brilliant thinker who is claimed by Geneva today as one of its most prominent sons. Probably as a result of the harsh upbringing he experienced while living under his strict uncle, Rousseau had much to say about education and how young children develop. He promoted the idea that children develop through specific stages and should be raised and educated accordingly. The truly educated person is one who has been trained to be self-governing by making rationale choices. Rousseau was among the first of the French to promote the ideal family as being a nuclear family (father, mother, and children) with a mother serving at home as the manager of the family affairs. Rousseau promoted the concept of a democratic, Christian Republic where the rights of the individual were carefully protected and where the Christian faith was part of culture. In his Social Contract (1762) Rousseau describes man as being inherently good, born both free and innocent, who is increasingly corrupted by culture and society. He personally had deep religious roots, first as a boy who was born and lived in Calvinist Geneva, then as a Roman Catholic while living in France, and then returned to Calvinism when he moved back to Geneva in his later years. A great faith arose about the ability of human reason to think, weigh, argue, and conclude rather than mere faith on the one hand and the mere gathering of knowledge on the other. By observing human behavior we can discover natural laws that govern how we are to live together and then use these laws to draw up patterns for communities and patterns for governments that will produce harmony, order, and the preservation of individual rights and dignity. Once these natural laws are discovered and agreed upon, the common people are to be taught these newly found laws and trained in the use of reason.
Once this system is at work, old institutions that rely upon traditions, unjust rules, and unreasonable patterns will be swept away for they keep the human race from progress.
A new world will be created, a new society will be built, governments will be reshaped, and there will follow unlimited human progress. Every person is (1) capable of reason and the human mind can discover any truth and the human spirit can achieve any ambition; (2) innately good, potentially virtuous, and every society can become perfect. While some rejected religion altogether (Descartes and Hume), most still held to the values and principles of traditional Christianity.
The printing press, which greatly promoted the ideas of the Reformation, now also greatly enabled the philosophes to spread their ideas quickly, inexpensively, and widely throughout Europe.
Locke lived during the time of the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II and James II and was a strong supporter of the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Locke taught that all people have innate, natural rights that no one has the right to diminish or deny. Locke transferred these observations about the nature of each person to how he or she is to be governed--each person is to be in charge of how he or she is governed and to participate in how society as a whole is governed. Lockea€™s ideas about government were contained in his work, Two Treatises of Civil Government.
He also opposed the idea held by those who supported the divine right of kings, that men are not naturally born to be free.
However, in order to preserve his life and his property a man has to choose to enter into society and to live happily with others in a government where the will of the majority rules. Government, therefore, is a social contract between those who govern and those who are governed.
Because men tend to misuse one another, Locke saw the necessity for a government that contained (1) a written code of laws, (2) laws that exist for only one purpose -- to protect the good of the people, (3) legislative and judicial branches in government to enforce and define those laws, (4) no taxation without the consent of the people, and (5) no war or treaty powers are given to anyone without the consent of the people.
Together with Montesquieu, Locke provided three of the foundational concepts that formed the new United States: (1) the necessity for a division of powers (Montesquieu and Locke), (2) the necessity of government to protect the natural rights and property of the individual (Locke), and (3) the formation of a commonwealth as a social contract where those who govern are selected by the people and remain in office so long as the people agree to such (Locke). Locke was not an atheist, but he resisted any religion that did not grant freedom of thought and belief, especially the Roman Church. He pictured in his work, Leviathan (1651), the all encompassing necessity of a strong central government that extended into every area of life. And yet Hobbes also called for the preservation by government of the natural rights of all citizens, and viewed the monarchy as existing only at the will of the people through a social contract.
The absolute monarchies of Europe, and France in particular under Louis XIV, tended to practice mercantilism in the realm of economics and industry. Adam Smith took on the mercantilistic establishment with the publication of his work, The Wealth of Nations in 1776. In his work, Smith maintained that man is at heart selfish in the sense that if given the opportunity, he will use industry to further his own economic well-being. Smith maintained that mercantilism is contrary to human nature and is ultimately destructive to a nationa€™s economy.
Rather than the governmenta€™s hand, there would be an invisible hand to guide a free market, marked and fueled by competition. Competition among producers to acquire the best workers raises the level of salaries of workers. Competition among producers increases not only their own wealth but that of the nation which taxes their profits. Producers, if allowed to reinvest their profits back into increased machinery, workers, research and development, produce a better quality of goods, sell more of their products, and make a greater profit. Money should circulate freely among men as blood does in the human body, a concept he learned from the revolution in science.
Colonies in North America where free enterprise was either allowed to occur, or occurred because the people were too remote to be controlled, tended to become more prosperous than the economies they left behind in Europe. Adam Smitha€™s theory became the economic policy of the newly formed United States of America.
Deism was a popular religious belief based on a God who created the universe, set it in motion with a set of specific, orderly, natural laws, then stepped back to let it operate itself. The Deists often compared their view of God to that of a clockmaker who, having once created a clock, then wound it up, moved off, and let it operate in an orderly fashion on its own, governed by natural laws. Deists believed that all religions could be reduced to the worship of an orderly, rational God who does not perform the miraculous in violation of or apart from his natural laws (hence, no virgin birth, no miracles, no resurrection), and a moral code that human reason and common sense can agree on. While some of the philosophes rejected the notion of any kind of God at all and became atheists, most remained loyal to the Christian church. To Diderot and the contributors to the Encyclopedia all religious dogma was absurd and the result of human imagination. Voltaire disagreed with the atheists and said their atheism had a religious dogma of its own. If religion is either not important for good government or not important for good society, and if principles for living together in society is based upon a commonly accepted set of values derived from common sense, what happens to people who my their own free choice choose not to live by those principles or standards? The general conclusion was that if someone disobeys a€?reasona€? or what the majority decides is a€?natural law,a€? that person has to be either removed from the perfect society or be a€?re educateda€? so that they use more enlightened reason.

The Enlightenment thinking led not only to societies and governments where great, unheard of levels of human freedom were to be realized (which took place in Englanda€™s Glorious Revolution and which we will see in the American and French Revolutions), but in reality also produced some of the most cruel and totalitarian governments ever before realized in human history. The Enlightenment that helped to produce both the United States of America also led, as well, to Hitlera€™s Nazi Germany!! The Big Question: Was this really an a€?enlightenmenta€? or is it better called the age of deifying human reason? There was another side to the Age of Reason where Christian men and women lived and taught and where spiritual movements took place at the same time as Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau. The outbreak of Christian revivals in England and America in the 18th century greatly impacted the social, moral, financial, spiritual, and political aspects of culture in Great Britain and America so that these cultures differed significantly from those of Italy and France. The Great Awakening in America turned the colonies upside-down and prepared the way for independence from Great Britain. The Baroque Age in Music broke with tradition, and produced a radical departure from the music of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Spener was born in Alsace, whichat that time was a part of Germany, but is now a province in Eastern France.
Later posts in Berlin exposed Spener to much criticism from other Lutheran ministers because of his emphasis upon personal transformation and cleansing through a spiritual rebirth. Although he is called the a€?father of pietism,a€? he, himself, did not teach nor practice what the later pietists called for--an emotional experience of salvation as a proof of conversion and the separation of the Christian from all secular life. Spener founded the University of Halle, a center of opposition to the ideas of the French philosophes. Early in his career Spener became widely known as a vocal opponent of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes (see Hobbes above). The Age of Reason had begun to infiltrate Lutheran Germany and presented a new threat to the Lutheran churches.
Spener taught that the cure for the cold dogma in the Roman Church and the dogma increasingly developing in German Lutheranism was not rationalism or human reason, but a deeper, personal commitment to Christ. His grandfather moved the family to Germany to avoid forced conversion to the state-religion, Catholicism. With wealth received from his family Zinzendorf purchased an estate in East Saxony, Germany (at the intersection of Saxony, Poland, and Czechoslovakia) where his intention was to create a community of people who desired to follow the teachings of Spener and to publish books which might awaken Lutheranism from what he felt was its stupor. Within months a request came from Moravia and Bohemia, now sections of present-day Czechoslovakia, from a group of Protestants who were the dominant group in Moravia and Bohemia before the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648), but were now a persecuted minority. Zinzendorf worked diligently to unite the various groups coming from a variety of cultures and Christian backgrounds into a unified Christian community. Zinzendorf continued to view the new community, not as a new reformation, but as a means to breath new life into the Lutheran churches. When civil authorities grew suspicious and concerned about Zinzendorfa€™s community, they banished them from the estate. Zinzendorf is mentioned here because, like his godfather, Spener, he emphasized the necessity of the new birth and of an intimate, personal relationship with Christ as the cure for the cold dogmas of Rome and the increasing coldness of the Lutheran Churches. Rather than an emphasis on human reason, Zinzendorf was faithful to biblical teachings and to cultivating the spirit and the new heart. Edwards is considered to be one of the most brilliant Amercian-born philosophers and theologians.
Edwards was a Calvinist minister in Northampton, Massachussetts and preached during some of the first revivals connected with the Great Awakening in (c. As with pietism in Europe, the Great Awakening emphasized an intensely personal relationship with Christ, brought the Christian faith to the common man, and was marked by prayer, bible study, intense introspection, and a personal commitment to a biblical standard of morality.
The Great Awakening impacted the attitudes of the colonists towards authority and especially to the government of England.
The impact of the Awakening produced a revolution in the American colonies that was totally distinct from the revolution in France that occurred about 15 years later. At Oxford he joined the Holy Club, a group of deeply committed Christian students who met regularly to pray and study the Bible. Because he was not assigned a pulpit by the Anglican Church, Whtiefield preached wherever people would gather, in parks, in public squares, in marketplaces. One of Whitefielda€™s most ardent supporters was Benjamin Franklin, who published all of Whitefielda€™s sermons and tracts in his Gazette.
On one occasion in Philadelphia, Franklin walked from the outdoor pulpit area where Whitefield was preaching on Market Street down to the Delaware River, just to see how far his booming voice would carry. Although Franklin did not agree personally with Whtiefielda€™s message of repentance and faith, he nevertheless admired him as a friend. It is said that Whitefield preached to more people in his lifetime than another other person prior to Billy Graham, and all without the benefit of air conditioning, PA systems, and closed circuit TV!
Whitefield crossed the Atlantic to the American colonies numerous times to conduct preaching campaigns from Massachusetts to Georgia. His preaching in Wales and England did much to prevent English society from being impacted by the humanism of the French philosophes.
Earlier, the Wesleys had traveled to Georgia in the American colonies to do missionary work among the native Americans.
It is understandable, therefore, that under the direction of the Wesleys many of their followers became leaders in major service projects and organizations, leading the way in prison, orphanage, hospital, and social reform. The Wesleys were abolitionists and were friends of William Wilberforce and John Newton, other English leaders in the anti-slavery movement in England.
It can be safely stated that the words of John Wesleya€™s hymns have been sung by millions around the world and are words memorized by millions. List five major members of the Philosophes in France, England, and Scotland and explain their particular contributions to the Age of Reason. Explain the roles that natural reason and the newly discovered laws of nature played on the thinking of the leaders of the Age of Reason. Discuss specific Christian thinkers of the 18th century who opposed the French philosophes.
In a brief statement be able to summarize the impact of Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Locke on the framing of the American government. Explain how Hitlera€™s Nazism and Americas democracy could flow from the same fountain called the Age of Reason. Explain why many of the philosophes had trouble accepting the claims of the Scriptures concerning the virgin birth, the resurrection, Jesus walking on water, etc. And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands,A  to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies. REVIEW FOR THE UNIT TEST The Enlightenment American Revolution French Revolution and Napoleon Latin American Revolutions Unifications of Italy and Germany. THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 1500’s when people started to challenge the old ideas about the world The Scientific Method – approach to science using experimentation and observation ? Copernicus – Heliocentric (theory that the world revolves around the sun) ? Galileo – helped proved Heliocentric theory ? Isaac Newton – Newton’s Laws of Physics Brought upon Enlightenment!
Geocentric Theory The belief that the earth was the center of the universe and everything else revolved around it.
Heliocentric (mid- 1500’s) Nicholas Copernicus was a Polish scholar who challenged the common belief that the Earth was the center of the universe. Copernicus-1500’s Developed the Heliocentric or sun-centered theory Theory stated that the sun is the center of the universe and that everything revolves around it It took Copernicus 25 years of studies to come up with this theory He wrote a book on his findings but feared persecution.
Galileo Galileo Galilei was a young Italian scholar, who discovered the law of the pendulum and proved Aristotle’s idea to be wrong, by watching a chandelier swing on its chain, and timing it with his on pulse and discovered that each swing of the pendulum took the exact same amount of time. ISSAC NEWTON Born January 4, 1643; Died March 31, 1727 At 25 years old he began revolutionary advances in math, physics, astronomy and optics.
Enlightenment 1500s Enlightenment was the idea that man could use logic and reason to solve the social problems of the day. The Social Contract(1651) During the scientific revolution the social contract was invented by Thomas Hobbs. Impact of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment sparked new political, social, artistic and scientific ideas. Enlightened Despot (1700) In the 1700s, Paris was the cultural and intellectual capital of Europe. Catherine The Great Catherine the Great was also known as Catherine II and ruled Russia from 1762-1796.
Louis 16 th Executed on January 21 1793 Became King of France in 1774 and was the last Absolute Monarch of France Borrowed money heavily to help American Revolutionaries Bankers said no to lending the government money in 1786 this posed serious economic problem for Louis 16 th He tried to tax the third estate and this led to his downfall. National Assembly A French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people. Declaration of the Rights of Man These were the basic layout for what man should and shouldn’t do.
Storming the Bastille Causes… Loius tried to make peace with the Third Estates by yielding the National Assembly’s demands. MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE :was one of the people that lead the Reign of Terror. California Standards History Test ReviewEach year, students in California will take the California Standards Test (CST). During the last decades of the 17th century, there was a crisis in the Old Regime in Europe, which was becoming obsolete.
The Enlightenment as a way of thinking began in England, although it reached its peak in France.
Anti baroque (until 1750): goes against the style of the Baroque writers, because they consider it's too full of rhetoric and too difficult to understand. Neoclassicism (until the end of the 18th century): it's a renovation of the old style of Rome and Greece, the classic style.
The main cultivators of the Enlightenment literature theatre were the writers from the school of Madrid.
Traditional: There's little variation with the previous forms of theatre, except that for the higher classes they adapted works from some italian writers, like operas and operettas, as well as some translated French plays. Neoclassical: The Count of Aranda ordered the plays from the Golden Century that were close to the Aristotelic structure to be represented, adapting them slightly.
No longer were men and women content to simply trust the traditional explanations for what seemed to drive the universe around them. The magnetic compass and astrolabe and new maps were enabling ships captains to better navigate the uncharted waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. He then continued his studies at the University of Bologna (Italy) where he met scholars who challenged Aristotle's traditional cosmologya€”that the earth was at the center of the universe known as geocentrism. It was thought to be genuinely a€?Christiana€? and a€?biblical.a€? Brahe came up with a variation of an earth-centered model that was satisfactory to many. He disagreed with the Copernican idea that the planets travel in circular routes around the earth.
He heard of a new spyglass that had been invented in the Netherlands and set out to build his own. The Jesuits saw in his teaching the worst consequences for the Church of Rome--they would be seen to have been in error and that their interpretation of the Bible was in error!
There were others before and since, but whenever the topic of science and Christianity is discussed, Galileo usually is introduced into the argument as the primary example of one who proved the Church wrong.
He is credited with being the first researcher in the Western world to describe in exact and correct detail the circulatory system of the human body and the process used by the heart in pumping blood around within the body. At the funeral, his coffin was carried by three earls, two dukes, and the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain.
If the planets revolve around sun in elliptical orbits, and all at different rates of speed and tracking different pathways, how is it that this is all so orderly?
Everything tells us mathematically, said Newton, that once on a trajectory, the planets they should continue on out in a straight line, like an arrow or a missile, and never return. He concluded that the same force that drew the apple downward was the same force that kept the planets and the earth in orbit -- gravity. He discovered the law of gravitation, formulated the basic laws of motion, developed calculus, and analyzed the nature of white light. This theory explained quite fully everything from the movement of the planets through the skies, to the movements of the tides, to the velocity of falling objects--and more. The design of the eye required a perfect understanding of optics, and the design of the ear required a knowledge of sounds.
He believed history was under the dominion of the Creator, and prophecy showed how the Creator was to establish His earthly kingdom in the end. He believed Jesus Christ was the Savior of the world, but he did not believe He was very God. Whatever forms of government the nations had used to govern, it seemed to the new thinkers that inevitably they always resulted in war. The so-called Enlightenment began in the late 17th century and continued through most of the 18th century.
In other words, what can be known about God, about eternity, about spiritual laws and commandments, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. The Reformation questioned the traditional beliefs, teachings, and authority of the Roman Church. A deist is one who believes in a God who created the universe, wound it up like a clock, and then walked away from it, allowing it to operate on its own under fixed laws. The common people of Europe knew and cared little about the philosophers who could sit around and debate natural laws: a€?We have to work for a living!a€? There were also great ministers and Christian theologians, especially in England and Scotland, who challenged the conclusions of the new thinkers. It was more or less an undercover exchange of ideas within the context of an absolute French monarchy that was generally opposed to the ideals being discussed by the philosophes. Some were committed to the basic truths of the Bible but knew that something other than absolutism had to be embraced (whether absolutism in government or the Roman Church) if God-given individual rights were to be set free.
Although he did not fully develop his ideas concerning government, the later philosophes claimed Descartes as their forerunner. The most fundamental idea of Montesquieu was the idea that all men are prone to evil and men with power are exceptionally prone to evil. For in his day, Rome was enamored with absolutism--especially if the Roman Church was in charge or if one of its hand-picked monarchs was on the throne. Montesquieu was widely read by the American colonists and was the most frequently quoted author in the letters and books of colonial writers in the period 1740-1780.
Her belief system greatly impacted his view of government and faith, and he saw no reason why she should be suppressed and censored because of her beliefs. If we can tame the natural world, then we can do the same with government, society and culture. Thomas Jefferson picked up on these ideas from Montesquieu and championed the idea that in the new America only the educated should be given the right to vote and to serve in public office. There is no one system that fits all, he concluded, BUT whatever form of government is used, it MUST grant freedom to all of its citizens.
He advocated religious freedom for all and the guarantee of civil liberties, fair trials and freedom of thought and speech. There he learned to admire the freedoms that the English enjoyed under the parliamentary monarchy, where, he said, "The English, as a free people choose their own road to heaven. He distrusted a democracy as much as a despotic king, because mob rule, to Voltaire, was as despotic as one-man rule.
What he soon finds is hardship, disappointment, and treachery everywhere as part of the human condition. That it occurred is an indication of to Voltaire of Goda€™s indifference towards mankind and perhaps even his cruelty.
The true God of heaven was suppressed by the false gods created by religions--especially the Roman Catholic Church. Of all the philosophes, Diderot was the most outspoken critic of all religion, not simply because of the arguments raised by Voltaire and others, but simply because he believed that human reason excelled all forms of human religion. She did so in exchange for his willingness to sell to her his extensive and expensive art collection, something needed, she felt, if Russia was to enter the 19th century as an enlightened nation of Europe. As suggested by Locke earlier, both the rulers and those ruled should live by means of a social contract. His trust in the general will of the majority to do and to rule in a good fashion was viewed as extremely idealistic. They valued the concept that all men were created in the image of God with certain innate, inalienable rights. Each person enters the world as a blank page, a tabula rasa, but as each grows older his or her experiences in life shape their personalities.
Second was a mana€™s right to work his property and to own and control what he makes from it.
This was an excuse, per Locke, to justify some men ruling over other men without their consent. One of his important works was the defense of the Christian faith in his work, On the Reasonableness of Christianity (1695).
Written during the English Civil War (1642-1651), Leviathan presented an absolute monarchy as the only hope to prevent mankind from self-destruction.
In this system the government controlled production of goods, the pricing of goods, setting of tariffs and taxes to control the flow of goods in and out of the country, and in general controlled most aspects of the economy. If the government allows its citizens to use personal greed in production and in buying and selling, it will motivate towards great economic progress. The most healthy and prosperous economies, said Smith, would be those were government takes its hands off of the economy. Investors will purchase stock to enable the producer to even further invest in machinery, workers, and research and development.
When Thomas Paine moved to France from America, where, complained, the new nation was too religious, he joined them.
While many of the concepts of Locke and Montesquieu helped shape the new government that was created in the United States of America, the message of the philosophes in France created an increasing agitation that led to the French Revolution and to the European revolutions of 1848. So heavily involved were ministers in this movement towards American independence, that the resulting war between Great Britain and America was called a€?the Presbyterian Revolta€? in the Parliament of England. Music in England and Germany tended to strengthen the spiritual dimensions of culture and inspired people to faith.

It resulted in new musical forms: polyphonic music, the opera, the ballet, the oratorio, the symphony, and compositions where instruments accompanied vocal music. He was troubled by the worldly attitudes of many Lutherans, by the wide-spread reliance upon infant baptism as a guarantee of salvation, and by the seeming coldness of many towards private communion with God. Any idea that unaided human reason could arrive at absolute truth, or that mankind could achieve harmony and a just society apart from God, were ludicrous for Spener.
He began to advocated communal living and taught that the community was more important to onea€™s spiritual and emotional development than even the nuclear family. Many resettled in other areas of Germany, but many settled in the new colony of Pennsylvania in English America.
He was among the first 29 persons to be inducted in 1900 into the Hall of Fame of Great Americans. Edwards son-in-law, David Brainard, became a missionary to the native Americans in New England. Because he had no funds, he entered Oxford University as a sevitor, or student of the lowest rank who earned his tuition by serving the needs of tuition-paying students.
There he met the two brothers, Charles and John Wesley, and together with them formed the Methodist movement within the Anglican Church, which later separated and became the Methodist Church. And on another occasion when Whtiefiled urged the immense crowd to give financially to the spread of the Gospel, Franklin emptied his wallet! He once admitted to Whitefield that, a€?You have almost persuaded me!a€? Franklin once remarked that after Whitefield had preached in Philadelphia, Franklin walked through the streets and almost everywhere heard families in their homes singing psalms.
Together with his brother Charles he framed an outline of Christian disciplines, which, if followed, could lead a person into a deeper, more intimate relationship with Christ. Upon returning home, however, they both realized a deep emptiness in their hearts, and spoke about this with a Moravian in England who was waiting for a ship to sail to Georgia.
They are still sung today and remain to form far more vibrant ideas than anything written by their contemporaries, the French philosophes.
In another study, Galileo found that falling objects accelerate at a fixed and predictable rate. Sir Isaac Newton created the law of gravity and disproved Aristotle’s idea that every object attracts every other object In 1967 Isaac Newton published his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy This book is one of the most important scientific books ever written.
Philosophers spread this idea of logic and reason to the people Some famous philosophers were John Locke and Jean Jacque Rousseau This Enlightened thinking lead people to begin to question the ideas of government and the right for absolute monarchs to rule.
Wrote the book the Social Contract Believed that people were naturally good but corrupted by society. The idea behind the contract was that a ruler would have absolute power given to him by the people who were under exact control. Young people from around Europe-and also from the Americas-came to study, philosophize, and enjoy fine culture.
The National Assembly was mostly made up of the bourgeoisie whose views had been shaped by the Enlightenment, were eager to make changes in the government. Loius ordered the nobles and clergy to join the National Assembly but the king stationed his army in Paris. They were led out of slavery by Moses who received the 10 Commandments from God (laws the Jewish people were to follow). He had many reform ideas, but was assassinated by senators were afraid of his gaining too much power. Paul the Apostle led the early church and its teaching that Jesus was the son of God and the Holy Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The new ideals established reason as the universal method for knowledge, and the experimental method and reasonable studies gained force against the arguments of the authorities, which had sustained the knowledge in previous centuries.
People started to travel because they wanted to learn more about the world and were interested in other cultures and languages, and began to practice sport and to look for ways to improve their quality of life.
In this new attitude, the enlightened is a philanthropist who cares for others, proposing and undertaking reforms in culture and society.
The first encyclopedia was published by two frenchmen, Diderot and d'Alembert, who wanted to make all the knowledge accessible for everyone. Philip V gave the monarchy more privileges and began to centralize the government of the country. Pablo de Olavide takes charge of the University of Seville and starts to implement some changes which were approved in Court, and soon the Enlightenment ideas had taken root and were being openly discussed in all the Universities in Spain.
Most of the prose was found in newspapers, which helped spread the new ideas through the population.
This style was popular in Spain, because it imposed some criteria that were useful for humanity.
In the Rococó variety, which was more luxurious and ornate, the pastoral topics were the most abundant, with the exaltation of pleasure and gallant love.
He also asked the neoclassic play writers to write about reason and the reforms they were imposing. They are mankinda€™s achievements as we attempt to fulfill Goda€™s command to subdue the earth and have control over it -- germs, bacilli, water, weather, steam, fire and all the other resources that God has so graciously given to us. But an increased interest in astronomy to further assist navigation also resulted in a re-thinking of astronomy itself.
Medieval theologians embraced the teaching that the earth was the center of the solar system, proof that humankind was the center of God's attention. He proposed a model in which the eartha€™s moon and the sun revolved around the earth, while the planets revolved around the sun.
His mathematical calculations convinced him that the planets moved in elliptical orbits around the sun.
Man, created in Goda€™s image, said Bacon, has the responsibility to observe Goda€™s creation and learn from it and learn about it.
Behind all his science was the conviction that God made the universe with a mathematical structure and He gifted human beings' minds to understand that structure. His Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended used astronomical data to argue that the Bible was the oldest document in the world and that the events of Biblical history preceded all other ancient histories. Newton believed the Athanasian creed and the doctrine of the Trinity diminished the sovereign dominion of the Almighty and corrupted the purity of the church for centuries. The lives of common people were turned upside-down, agriculture and industry destroyed, and all of Europe involved in military buildup. The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together in harmony on earth. Some of the philosophes were skeptics, questioning much of everything, including Christianitya€™s basic claims. He also concluded that not only religious people can do this but all can engage in it, hence, religion is not necessary to harmony in society. Here the nobles are great without insolence, and the people share in the government without disorder" (Voltaire, Letters on the English, 1733). In the end, these events do not seem to achieve any apparent good except to point out clearly the cruelty and folly of mankind and the apparent indifference of the natural world and its God.
However, he also predicted that Newtona€™s law of gravity would eventually (within one century) overthrow Christianity as it was then known and practiced. He advocated allowing children to set their own agendas in school and granting them freedom to study what was of interest to them. In his own personal life, Rousseau had four children by his live-in a€?wifea€? who bore him four children. This was in opposition to the Calvinism of Geneva with its twin doctrines of original sin and predestination. Every person, if allowed to live a life of freedom, has the innate ability and capacity to reach perfection here on earth and to share that perfection with his or her fellow humans!
The duty to preserve onea€™s life is so strong that he neither has the right to end his own life or to subject his life to slavery.
As creatures of God each person has the capacity to take charge of their own destiny and can regulate and improve their situation in life. However, he did not say that a man could amass property without limits or to the hurt of others. The king and queen would be subject to the input, the laws, and the regulations of those who they governed. His view of government, therefore, called for a strong central government necessary to thwart mindless revolts.
Although Austria was a Roman Catholic country and Vienna was the seat of the Holy Roman Empire, the Zinzendorfs had converted to Lutheranism. His father was an official in the government of Saxony but died several weeks after Nikolausa€™ birth. The American War for Independence was heavily impacted by the Great Awakening, and whatever impact the French philosophes and the Enlightenment had on American thinking, it was greatly tempered by Edwards, the Wesleys, and George Whitefield. They later parted company with the Moravians because they rejected the a€?quietisma€? emphasized by the Moravians. The hymns emphasized the free grace of God expressed through the death and resurrection of Jesus, emphasized the personal relationship that the Christian is intended to enjoy with God through Christ, and those practices of the Christian life that Methodism developed.
Use logic and reason to solve the problems of the world (Secular not church thought) New ideas about the solar system such as Copernicus’ Heliocentric theory and inventions like Galileo’s telescope allowed scientists to learn more about the universe. Francois Marie Arouet, or Voltaire, published more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy, history, fiction, and drama.
He believed people have a natural ability to govern their own affairs and to look after the welfare of society.
Saw the unequal distribution of property as an evil in society Believed that government should be run for the good of the majority If government did not support the majorities rights they had the right to do way with that government. Hobbes invention of this theory was partially due to him seeing the horrors of the English Civil War and coming to the conclusion that all men were wicked and selfish. During the Reign of Terror tens and thousands of people were executed, and thousands more were put into prison.
Below is some of the factual information you will need to review before the test.2003 - 2008 CST Released Test Questions - Scroll towards the bottom for the 8th grade history questions. There was also a generalized fatigue towards the exuberant Baroque style, and everyone yearned for a more clear, transparent and balanced life and culture. The translation of the works of important French philosophers like Voltaire and Montesquieu in 1720 helped spread the ideas farther.
The first dictionary was published from 1726 to 1736, and it included 6 volumes in which anyone could find the meaning and etymology of every Spanish word. There were different types of newspapers, but the more popular were the ones which wrote about scientific or literary topics. Chinese and Arab insights and discoveries often suggested new explanations for natural phenomena. The telescope, first produced in the Netherlands and improved by Galileo in Italy, led to the discovery and confirmation of the new way to conceive of our solar system--heliocentrism (literally: a€?sun-centereda€™). He was the first to discover the moons of Jupiter, the first to see spots on the sun, the first to realize that the Milky Way is made up of a myriad of stars and to suggest that the moon is mountainous. If something is empirically true, it has been proven to be so through the senses, through experimentation and testing. Man is to trust God for new insights and new revelations about Himself and his created universe. They remain in motion due to an immense force that set them into motion and, they remain in their course because of a law that holds them in orbit.
Therefore, onea€™s religious beliefs should not be the test of being a good, acceptable citizen.
Corrupt government officials work hand in hand with dishonest clergy against the common people.
Violating his own stated ideal for children and the family, he required her to place them in homes for orphans. Coupled with this was the notion that a nationa€™s economic health was directly measured by the amount of gold and silver it was able to accumulate.
His mother requested Philipp Jakob Spener to serve as Nikolausa€™ godfather, and sent the child to live with her mother, who was a godly, pietistic Lutheran. With similar beliefs to Voltaire, they both believed that Britain was the best-governed country of their day. This would give the advantage to the Third Estate, which had as many delegates as the other two estates combined.
July 14 th 1789… A mob tried to get gunpowder from the Bastille but the angry crowd overwhelmed the king’s soldiers and the Bastille fell into the control of the citizens. After a year the people tried of Robespierre and he was executed, ending the Reign of Terror. Montesquieu argued that the Old Regime was obsolete and change needed to take place, and proposed democracy as the new political system, with the separation of the three main powers: legislative, executive and judicial.
Benito Jerónimo Feijoo's works, which talked extensively of the Enlightenment and the change needed in Spain, were also helpful in the expansion of the new ideas. Writers adhered to the rules of classicism, shying from spontaneity and imagination, which were substituted by an educational effort. If human reason coupled with the scientific method can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world?
Montesquieu attributed Polybius, ancient Greek philosopher, for many of his foundational principles. Newtona€™s discovery completely overturned ancient superstitions, including those of the Roman Church.
Dead formalism was replaced by excitement, enthusiasm, spiritual fervor, and individual commitment to Christ. From the Tower of Pisa, Galileo dropped items of different weights, and calculated how fast each one fell.
According to Locke all people are born free and equal, with three Natural Rights- Life, Liberty, and Property The purpose of government, said Locke, is to protect these rights, if it fails to do so, citizens have a right to overthrow it. Separation of Powers His beliefs for separation of government included - King and ministers held executive power- carried out laws of the state - The Members of the Parliament held legislative, or the lawmaking power. For example, many of John Locke’s new political theories were used in the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
She wanted to allow religious toleration and abolish torture and the death penalty, however these goals were not accomplished. On June 17, 1789, they voted to establish the National Assembly, in affect proclaiming the end of absolute monarchy and the beginning of representative government. It declares that it is the job of the government to protect the natural rights of man and guarantees equality among men. Stanford (1857) stated that an enslaved person was property and could be taken anywhere the slave owner wanted. The enlightened wanted to be able to choose their own governors, which inspired the motto of the French Revolution: Freedom, Equality, Fraternity. Little by little, things began to change: the higher classes began to see their privileges reduced, the Church had less power, and by the end of the century the life of the Spanish people had improved considerably.
The Spanish enlightened were very preoccupied with the spreading of their language and wanted everyone to study Spanish.
This prose was written in a didactic tone and wanted to help people understand the problems and possible solutions of the problems present at the time. We would have no plastics, no machinery, no cures for infection, no successful surgeries, we would walk everywhere, and have very limited knowledge about and communication with the rest of the world -- and even with communities that exist only 100-200 miles away!
Many philosophers believed that the best type of government was a monarchy in which the ruler respected the people’s rights.
She granted limited reforms but did little to help the serfs, causing a revolt in 1773 which she had brutally put down. Galileo had found out that a Dutch lens marker had built an instrument that would allow the looker to enlarge far-off objects.
His ideas would later be called, “Checks and Balances” Wrote the book, On the Spirit of Laws. She wanted to end serfdom, but she needed the support of the Nobles so stay in power, so serfdom stayed.
They broke down the door to an indoor tennis court, pledging to stay until they drew up a new constitution.
Galileo had not even seen this device, yet he was able to build his own, and with a few adjustments he was able to use his version of the telescope to study the stars.
This book stated that separation of powers would keep one branch from overpowering the others.
Some monarchs embraced the new ideas and made reforms that reflected the Enlightenment spirit. In 1610, Galileo had a series of newsletters published called the Starry Messenger, which described his astronomical discoveries.
King Louis tried to make peace by ordering the First and Second Estates to join the National Assembly. Galileo’s findings led to major conflict with the Church, since his findings proved the Church wrong. The Church did not want its followers to believe Galileo, because if they had known that they were wrong about the Solar System, they might be wrong about religion too. The foremost of Europe's’ enlightened despots were Frederick II of Prussia, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria, and Catherine the Great of Russia.

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