Helped draft the declaration of independence yahoo,how to treat heat damaged curly hair yourself,poptropica survival island walkthrough thinknoodles - 2016 Feature

When in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance. He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures. For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do.
The American Revolution emerged out of the intellectual and political turmoil following Great Britaina€™s victory in the French and Indian War. This revolution of the mind had physical consequences as Americans openly and sometimes violently opposed Great Britaina€™s new assertions of control. British and French colonies, with their Indian allies, challenged each other for dominance of North America on the eve of the era of republican revolution.
Map of the British and French Dominions in North America, with the Roads, Distances, Limits, and Extent of the Settlements, by Jno.
A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America, with the Roads, Distances, Limits, and Extent of the Settlements, by Jno. Map of the British and French dominions of North America, with the roads, distances, limits, and extent of the settlements by Jno.
Map of British and French Dominions in North America, with Roads, Distances, Limits, and Extent of the Set[tlements] by Jno. The works of John Locke (1632–1704), well-known English political philosopher, provided many Americans with the philosophical arguments for inalienable natural rights, principally those of property and of rebellion against abusive governments. When Thomas Jefferson asserted the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in the Declaration of Independence, he was influenced by the writings of Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696–1782).
Discourses Concerning Government by Algernon Sidney with his Letters, Trial Apology and Some Memoirs of His Life. George III (1738–1820) of Great Britain had the misfortune to become king in 1760, shortly before the drive to revolution in his American colonies began to gather momentum. Many historians and contemporaries have blamed the stubborn, inexperienced, and mentally unstable monarch for the repeated British miscalculations and mistakes that led to the independence of the United States. London merchants involved in the American trade sent a copy of the act of Parliament repealing the Stamp Act to John Hancock, Boston's leading merchant and a Son of Liberty. Colonial governments considered missionary work essential to their efforts to control Native Americans. Viewing the act as taxation without representation, Americans passionately upheld their rights to be taxed only by their own consent through their own representative assemblies.
This 1766 cartoon depicts a mock funeral procession along the Thames River in London for the American Stamp Act. Reports that the Church of England (Anglican), the established church, was going to appoint a bishop in America stoked fears of increased and oppressive government limitations on religious freedoms. Thomas Jeffersona€™s Summary View of the Rights of British America declared Americaa€™s right to rebel against an oppressive and despotic government and heralded the arrival of an independent America. In the fall of 1774, the Continental Congress prepared this petition to King George III stating the grievances of the American provinces and asking for the Kinga€™s help in seeking solutions. A rebus, in which pictures represent words, was a favorite amusement in the eighteenth century.
The rebus portrays Britannia as a mother urging her daughter who is planning to marry a Frenchman to jilt him and stop rebelling, a reference to the American alliance with France. British forces dislodged the Americans from Bunkera€™s or Breeda€™s Hill in Charlestown, near Boston, Massachusetts, on June 17, 1775. Benjamin Franklin published this woodcut depicting America as a snake severed into various provinces. When the French and Indian War ended in 1763, Great Britain sought to reassert its authority over the American colonies and recoup some of the money expended in defending its American colonies by passing the Sugar Act (1764) and a Stamp Act (1765) to levy internal taxes on sugar products, paper products, and legal documents in the American colonies. Critics of Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), Pennsylvaniaa€™s agent in London, claimed that he had supported the Stamp Act and even that he had solicited the position of Stamp Collector for friends. Philadelphia, site of both Continental Congresses, was one of the most urban, advanced cities in America in the eighteenth century. Illuminated obelisks, made of oiled paper stretched on a wooden frame and lit from within by candles, were often created as centerpieces of celebrations such as those the repeal of Stamp Act inspired. A View of the Obelisk Erected under Liberty-tree in Boston on the Rejoicings for the Repeal of the Stamp Act 1766. Through oratory, diplomacy, physical intimidation, and civil disobedience, Americans and English sympathizers convinced Parliament that the Stamp Act was ill advised. In 1779 in the midst of the American Revolution, this British caricature depicted America as a bucking horse and George III, King of Great Britain, as the rider being thrown.



How difficult it is, out of all the people in the world, for someone to lay a finger on a single soul and be able to say, "This person is my hero." It is a true search of one's self to find a person who is totally and completely admirable.
I have decided that my hero must be a person able to overcome obstacles, to pass life's tests with flying colors. In 1902, Eleanor returned to New York for her debut into society, but disliked its strict rules and rituals.
Eleanor did not stop being involved in civil rights when Franklin became president in 1932.
That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. Freed from the threat of hostile French and Indian forces, American colonists were emboldened to resist new British colonial policies that raised issues of inequalities of power, political rights, and individual freedoms. The right to representation, political independence, separation of church and state, nationalism, slavery, the closure of the Western frontier, increased taxation, commercial restrictions, use of the military in civil unrest, individual freedoms, and judicial review were some of the salient issues that boiled up in the revolutionary cauldron of Britaina€™s American colonies.
Freed from the threat of hostile French neighbors after the British victory in the French and Indian War in 1763, Britaina€™s American colonies increasingly demanded rights of political and economic independence. This map shows that the United States replaced Great Britain as the dominant nation in the part of North America lying east of the Mississippi River. The Albany Plan, calling for proportional representation in a national legislature and a president general appointed by the King of Great Britain, served as a model for Franklina€™s revolutionary Plan of Confederation in 1775. Certainly George III displayed no creativity or imagination in the formulation of policies toward the British colonies in America.
Although the more than fifty merchants who signed this letter heralded the repeal, they decried the mob threats and violence visited upon British officeholders in America by the Sons of Liberty. In this letter John Brainerd (1720–1781), a missionary to the Alonquin Indians, reports on the collection of funds to further his work. Future revolutionists saw the act as a harbinger of greater direct taxation and the loss of political rights. Only six delegates, including Williams Samuel Johnson (1727–1819) from Connecticut, agreed to draft a petition to the King based on this Declaration of Rights. Jeffersona€™s pamphlet was originally drafted as instructions for Virginiaa€™s delegates to the Continental Congress in 1774. King George refused to accept the petition, which was signed by fifty-one delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Just two days earlier the Continental Congress had taken charge of the American army at Boston and appointed George Washington commander-in-chief of Americaa€™s armed forces.
In this letter he asserts his opposition to the Stamp Act, but urges Americans to make the best of it.
During the winter of 1777–1778, it was occupied by the British under General William Howe. American activist and engraver Paul Revere (1735–1818) apparently helped design the illuminated obelisk erected on Boston Common, which explains why he was able to offer a copperplate engraving of it on the night it was presented. Even if someone loves seemingly everything about a person, a small personality trait can change one's whole opinion. She tried to escape by working with the poor at a settlement house, where she got her first taste of community service and began to understand the realities of discrimination and poor working conditions in factories.
She became the first First Lady to hold a press conference (she went on to hold more than 300), and she allowed only female reporters to attend, thus pressuring newspapers to hire female reporters. She was not an expert on international law as were her colleagues at the UN, but she represented the common person. Not, perhaps, what you would expect of well-educated men, many of them gentlemen steeped in the most sophisticated culture of their time.
We deliver big-picture science by reporting on a single monthly topic from multiple perspectives. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
People such as John Adams and Mercy Otis Warren believed that the British policies stimulated the minds of Americans to demand independence and expanded individual rights. A copy of this map by John Mitchell (1711–1768) was used to define the boundaries of the new United States during negotiations for the peace treaty of 1783 that ended the American Revolution.
Spain regained control of East and West Florida and held vast territories west of the Mississippi River, while Britain was pushed back to Canada. Brainerd was instrumental in arranging for Native Americans to move from the settled lands of the colonies to lands unoccupied by English settlers in the west. Colonists convened a Stamp Act Congress in New York in the fall of 1765 and called for a boycott of British imports.
The spirited and creative qualities of Jeffersona€™s writing helped secure his selection as chair of the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
The Stamp Act was passed in 1765, according to Franklin, because England wanted to squash American claims of independence. The British enjoyed their stay immensely, while Washingtona€™s army suffered near starvation at Valley Forge. Decorated with patriotic imagery and portraits of English statesmen who aided the American cause, the obelisk was destroyed by fire hours after it was erected.
Boston residents received the information on May 16, 1766, with the arrival of a ship owned by a leading New England merchant and American patriot, John Hancock (1737–1793). To license this image please request a quote and provide as much information on the intended usage so we can process your request. A hero to me must have enough confidence in herself to believe that she could make a difference, and enough strength and willpower to change the world. She was not blessed with a happy family life; her conceited mother often referred to Eleanor as "Granny" because of her appearance, and her father, whom she adored, was an alcoholic and was not often home. She also saw the horrible conditions that poverty-stricken immigrants were forced to live in. I veterans in American hospitals--something that she would continue to do throughout her life. Later in the 1930s, she headed a housing project for West Virginian coal miners, and in 1934, helped instigate the National Youth Administration, which acquired employment rights for young workers. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.
However, the Stamp Act only inflamed American opposition to British rule and forced Franklin to seek its repeal.


This engraving is one of the few authentic portraits of an American city before the Revolution. This engraving is the only surviving visual record of this important but ephemeral form of communication in revolutionary America. Most importantly, my hero must have loved all people, regardless of race, gender, social status or age, and must have tried her hardest to serve those less fortunate than herself.
In 1920, she joined the League of Women Voters, an association for the promotion of women's involvement in politics.
Throughout Franklin's first presidential term, Eleanor spoke at meetings and conferences about the role of women in politics and her strong disagreement of segregation in the South. Her enthusiasm and general knowledge of what people needed to have out of life made up for her lack of international experience. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. Her father died two years later, and when she was 15 years old, Eleanor was sent to Allenswood, a boarding school for girls in England. As Franklin climbed the political ladder, Eleanor became his helper and was able to learn and understand politics and social issues. Eleanor's dream, derived from her great knowledge and understanding of what human beings needed to flourish, was to form a document in which the basic rights of all humans would be clearly stated. Like their educated European contemporaries, signers of the Declaration, holding degrees from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and William and Mary, regarded science as a wondrously valuable tool for acquiring knowledge, and viewed its achievements as the clearest manifestation of reason. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. In 1922, Eleanor joined the Women's Trade Union League and the Women's Division of the Democratic State Committee.
The previous year, Eleanor also violated a segregation law when she refused to sit in the white section of auditorium at the Southern Conference for Human Welfare in Birmingham, Alabama. From the effective start date, the coverage exists for perpetuity (forever, until cancelled). Isaac Newton’s discoveries represented, for them, human intellect operating at its best.Franklin Drawing Electricity from the SkyPainting by Benjamin WestThomas Jefferson, only a few years out of university, was chosen by his more seasoned colleagues to draft the Declaration. However, the headmistress, Marie Souvestre, recognized Eleanor's superior intellect and pushed her to work her hardest and to become a leader within the school.
With the help of other activists she met in these associations, Eleanor founded a school for poor girls named Todhunter, where she taught government and history. The insured deposits money, called a "deposit premium", with the insurer to obtain coverage for the life of the risk. While Eleanor was doing all of these things, her husband Franklin contracted polio, and she took time to become (as many say) his "eyes and his ears." She made speeches, especially on the topics of civil rights and feminism, on behalf of her husband and observed those of his rivals. Her dedication to the declaration made it a document that has been universally accepted as a "standard of achievement for all nations." After drafting the declaration, Eleanor resigned from the UN in 1948, only to join again four years later. During Jefferson’s seven years at William and Mary, beginning at age 16 in 1760, he had read law and also been mentored by a fine scientist, William Small. The insurer must earn enough income from investing the deposits to cover losses and operating expenses for the model to be economically viable. She was continuously by his side and convinced him to stay in politics when his disease started to take its mental toll, and her speeches made on his behalf maintained his presence on the political scene when he was too sick to be there himself. Upon cancellation, the insured is entitled to a full refund of the initial deposit premium, usually without interest.
William Small of Scotland was then professor of mathematics, a man profound in most of the useful branches of science, with a happy talent of communication, correct and gentlemanly manners and an enlarged and liberal mind.” Jefferson had encountered Newton’s Principia and Opticks, and Newton’s calculus, in which he was to prove himself highly proficient. Not only did Eleanor devote her life to gaining rights for others, she did so when it was a very unpopular thing to do.
She was often criticized for the active role she played in her world, but she never faltered. Eleanor endured a poor childhood during which she received very little love or attention, and went on to love and fight for people less fortunate than herself. Bernard Cohen, in a book titled Science and the Founding Fathers, argued persuasively that we should look to science. These qualities not only earned her the nickname "The First Lady of the World," but also make her a true hero in my eyes. Locke himself wrote an essay on self-evident axioms in mathematics.What did “self-evident” mean to Jefferson?
By the time of Jefferson and his teacher William Small, people used “axiom” and “self-evident” in two senses, connoting either something like the “axioms” of geometry (unarguable Truth), or things that would be accepted as truth by people thinking in a new and corrected way. Johannes Kepler in the early 17th century used “axiom” for truths arrived at by experiment. One of Kepler’s axioms in his book Dioptrice was that “The refraction of crystal and of glass are very close to identical.” Unarguable, yes…but self-evident only to those who were aware of those experimental results. Isaac Newton, who studied these writings of Kepler, based his Opticks on eight “axioms” arrived at by experiment, not by basic, everyman observation. Thomas Jefferson surely had both meanings of the term “self-evident” in mind.Most scholars of Copernicus’ day regarded his “axioms”—such as, “all the spheres revolve about the sun as their mid-point”—as anything but self-evident. The Declaration does not say, “These truths are self-evident,” but, “We hold these truths to be self-evident.” King George certainly would have scoffed at the idea of Jefferson’s truths being self-evident! What do you and I make of the two meanings? Are equality and the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness self-evident in the sense that they are unarguable by anyone’s standards? If not, then who or what are the corrected, enlightened beings—the we—who see them as such? It seems rather shockingly self-evident that neither Nature nor God (at least in this world) respects these ideals of equality and rights.
Their rights to pursue happiness are curtailed in ways that can’t be blamed on human activity alone.The signers of the Declaration of Independence had high hopes that birthing their new nation could—like the leading-edge science of their age—represent human endeavor and reason operating at their best. Science and mathematics themselves have shown that “self-evident” truths of earlier science and mathematics are not Truth with a capital T. Different ancient religious traditions find that the received Truth of one does not agree with that of another. Post-modernism questions the possibility of objective truth.We’ve left the world of “self-evident” and entered the world of “counter-intuitive.” Is anything self-evidently true…or good? Who will dare now shake a fist at rulers, nature, God, and ourselves, declaring, “We hold these truths to be counter-intuitive and not the way the world looks, but nevertheless true in some fundamental way, that all men and women are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” Do we believe that?
If so, why do we so often leave this rhetoric hanging in the wind?Kitty Ferguson is the author of eight books about astrophysics, the history of science, the lives of preeminent scientists, and the interface of science and religion.



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