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The most important requirements that should be fulfilled, in addition to skilled staff, which was discussed in the previous chapter, are the supply of adequate equipment and working materials, the presence of suitable housing, and the enforcement of proper safety measures. Transport of prepared samples from the storage block to the scientific block should be through a passage or buffer room or, if the blocks are on two levels, by means of an elevator. The rooms of Types 3 and 4 should be so arranged and equipped that no samples need to be taken into them, except those already weighed for analysis and contained in covered vessels. The air temperature of the laboratory and working rooms should ideally be maintained at a constant level (preferably between 18 and 25°C) and the humidity should also be kept reasonably steady at about 50%.
The importance of supplying clean air, at a constant favourable temperature and humidity to all parts of a scientific laboratory building is too often neglected for financial reasons, particularly in tropical countries where air conditioning on a large scale during the hot seasons may be very expensive. Most accidents in laboratories occur as a result of casual behaviour and neglect, not only actively in the operations but also passively in the maintenance of appliances (old electricity cables, plugs, manifolds, tubing, clamps, etc.).
The proper handling and storage of chemicals, reagents and gases, particularly the toxic and inflammable ones should also be laid down in SOPs.
Somebody should be responsible for checking and keeping in order the special safety equipment such as first-aid kits, chemical-spill kits, eye-wash bottles (unless special eye-wash fountains are present), the functioning of safety showers, the presence and maintenance of fire extinguishers (the latter will usually be done for the whole institute). Storing chemicals in alphabetical order is convenient but can only be done to a limited extent as several chemicals should not be stored together.
Both for efficient working and for inspection purposes a list of chemicals in stock and the place they are stored should be prepared and kept up-to-date.
Make an inventory of toxic compounds in the laboratory and prepare a Protocol for their collection and disposal.
The "Methods manual for forest soil and plant analysis" (Kalra and Maynard, 1991) gives a useful list of various points to improve safety in a laboratory. Every employee of a laboratory should have knowledge of emergency first aid and roughly one out of every ten employees of a whole institute should have a valid First Aid certificate including an endorsement for resuscitation.
Since no paragraph nor even a chapter can take the place of a proper first aid training, only some major practical aspects will be mentioned here to provide the basics of emergency first aid.
It is the (delegatable) responsibility of the head of laboratory that these items are in order.
The First Aid kit should be the responsibility of one person who keeps a logbook of regular contents checks and purchased supplements.
Sometimes, in case of an accident, there is no time or possibility to await qualified help.
Wash eye thoroughly with tap water: use an eye fountain or eye-wash bottle or a tubing connected to a tap. As in the case of First Aid, a number of employees should be properly trained in fire fighting, this goes especially for laboratory personnel.
Persons with burning clothing should be wrapped in a blanket on the floor, sprayed with water or be pulled under a safety shower. In connection with safety and quality, only authorized persons have admittance to the laboratory blocks. Aquaponics is the breeding of marine animals in tanks or ponds making use of the fish tank h2o to grow with out soil, veggies, fruits or seaweed. The Aquaculture faces some environmental challenges that Aquaponics has by natural means solved. In purchase to protect the well being of the system and create organic and natural vegetables and fish, in Aquaponics the top quality of the food is a priority. In Aquaculture, like any manufacturing facility-farmed meat, the dwelling situations of the animals are not optimal and are frequently kept alive by the constant use of antibiotics. Antibiotics for fish are not permitted in Aquaponics because they can also impact the bacteria required for the balance.
Aquaculture: with the want to drain the water, there is a danger of pathogen transfer to wild stock populations. Since Aquaponics is a closed system, any problem regarding the wellness of the fish will be handled within the method.
Because, biofouling is a all-natural method in a moist atmosphere, in Aquaponics is not necessary to get rid of microorganisms or algae. Aquaponics, as we have noticed, is a great choice for individuals committed to sustainability, aiming to secure the future of our planet. If you are utilizing Aquaculture methods as a business or at residence, consider the possibility to know more about what Aquaponics has to supply!
10, Dewis and Freitas (1970) give an extensive and useful account of the requirements which should be met by laboratories for soil and water.
A Storage Block, for receipt, preparation and storage of samples, which, both in case of soil and plant material, inevitably involves the danger of causing contamination. Rooms for physical analysis of soils such as soil moisture retention, specific surface area, particle-size analysis (sieving should be done in the storage block or in a room for preliminary operations (Type la).
Rooms for general chemical processes involving the use of concentrated acids, alkalies or ammonia, where fumes may be evolved, even if these operations have to be conducted in fume cupboards and the room is air-conditioned. Storage room for chemicals and maintenance supplies for apparatus, with special precautions usually demanded by law for poisons and inflammable material (see also Section 4.2, Safety). Rooms for office administration, filing of records, staff meetings, seminars, reception of visitors, etc. Room for receipt and registration of all samples, with sufficient bench and shelf space to cope with the input.
In many tropical countries air conditioning of the whole building is virtually as essential as central heating in cold and temperate countries, while in countries having a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters, both air cooling and central heating are necessary. Analytical processes normally carried out at room temperature can be affected by differences in temperature so that an analysis performed in a "cold" room can give a different result to one performed in a "hot" room. Many chemicals are affected by the temperature and humidity conditions under which they are stored, particularly if these conditions fluctuate. Modem scientific instruments can be quickly and permanently damaged by changes in temperature and humidity, which often cause condensation, tarnishing and short-circuits.



The efficiency of all laboratory personnel is undoubtedly reduced by abnormally high or low temperatures or high humidity and by the presence of even moderate amounts of dust or chemical fumes in the air, thus affecting output both in quantity and quality. Central air conditioning is preferred to the use of obviously cheaper alternatives such as individual cooling units or heaters in each room.
Therefore, for each apparatus and installation such as water distillers, deionized water systems and gas cylinders, there should be a maintenance logbook in which all particulars should be recorded.
For the instruction of new personnel and to facilitate inspection, a floor-plan indicating all safety appliances and emergency exits should be available. Once a proper partition into categories is made, this can be laid down in a Standard Registration Form which should be verified by a qualified chemist.
Copies of this list should be situated in or near all storage places so that any container or bottle removed can be tallied for easy stock-management (timely ordering new stock!).
All these materials have to be collected in proper containers to be disposed of in a way prescribed by the local authorities. All employees must receive and understand the locally applicable Workplace Hazardous Materials information guide or equivalent (if such a guide exists). Seek medical attention immediately if affected by chemicals and use first aid until medical aid is available. Use forceps, tongs, or heat-resistant gloves to remove containers from hot plates, ovens or muffle furnaces. Telephone calls to a laboratory should be regarded as improper disturbance and therefore be restricted to urgent cases. All electrical, plumbing, and instrument maintenance work should be done by qualified personnel.
When working with X-ray equipment, routinely check (once a week) for radiation leaks from X-ray tubes with appropriate X-radiation detectors. Atomic absorption spectrophotometers must be vented to the atmosphere (if necessary via fume cupboard).
Hand protection: gloves, particularly when handling concentrated acids, bases, and other hazardous chemicals. Full-face shields: wear face shields over safety glasses in experiments involving corrosive chemicals.
Acids, hydroxides, and other hazardous liquid reagents should be kept in plastic or plastic coated bottles.
Extreme care is required when using perchloric acid, otherwise fires or explosions may occur. A check-list for regular inspection of these points should be made (and kept, for instance, with the First Aid kit). Therefore, at this point only general instructions will be given to be applied when no qualified person can help in time.
These persons are: all laboratory staff, the Quality Assurance Officer and, usually, other professional officers employed by the institute. Remove manifold from cylinder with (shifting) spanner of the correct size (do not use monkey wrench!).
It can consider spot in all-natural h2o bodies this sort of as ponds, lakes, marshland or brackish h2o and the ocean.
It is a balanced closed program that recreates the identical procedure we see in a organic pond where plants and animals prosper in perfect harmony. Hormones and other artificial chemicals are not permitted in this closed method: they straight have an effect on the metabolic rate of the vegetation. In addition, any health-related remedy given to the cultivated fish poses a risk for the organic environment if the discharged drinking water has not gone via satisfactory neutralization or dilution.
The higher oxygen amounts in Aquaponics systems and the worms exercise, help mitigate illness outbreaks in each fish and crops. Biofouling is the gradual accumulation of organisms, like microorganisms and protozoa, on the surfaces of the tanks in get in touch with with h2o. It is a approach that can be utilized indefinitely as an limitless virtuous cycle that will permit natural harvest all 12 months. As their recommendations to a large extent are still valid, also for plant analysis, with some adaptations they can be followed here. This includes the traditional "balance room" and rooms for specialized purposes such as atomic absorption (with fume exhaust), autoanalyzer, optical mineral analysis, and particularly X-ray analysis (diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy).
Interruptions in the electricity supply are very annoying and costly: analyses and calibration procedures may have to repeated and computer files may be lost (make back-ups frequently!). Large amounts of inflammable liquids such as alcohol and acetone should be stored in separate sheds.
These days, most analysts have or share a personal computer which should be placed in an office and not in Type 4 areas. Quality assurance requires that samples should be kept for a minimum period after analysis (at least a year, but often longer, unless they are of a perishable nature such as moist soil samples or water samples).
The temperature of distilled or deionized water may be very different from that in the laboratory. Thus, a substance may absorb water from humid air or effloresce in dry air or decompose at high temperatures, becoming either useless or needing purification. Almost inevitably, corridors, store rooms and, often, sample preparation rooms are ignored and this may lead to undesirably wide differences in temperature and humidity between such places and analytical laboratories. Maintenance, calibrations, malfunctioning and actions to rectify this and other relevant remarks for optimal functioning should be detailed (without budget being felt as a limiting factor).
Of all inspection actions a record should be kept which rests at least with the head of laboratory.
These have to be contacted about the appropriate actions to be taken and regulations to be obeyed. Nevertheless, sinks and gullies should be fitted with removable silt traps which should be emptied regularly.
It is suggested that each laboratory adapts and moulds this list into a SOP called "Good Laboratory Behaviour" or "General Laboratory Rules".
Persons wearing contact lenses should always wear safety glasses in experiments involving corrosive chemicals. Noise producing apparatus such as centrifuges, or continuously running vacuum pumps should be placed outside the working area.
Work must be performed in special fume cupboards, certified as perchloric acid safe, with a duct washdown system and no exposed organic coating, sealing compound, or lubricant.


Use workplace labels for all prepared reagents indicating kind of reagent and concentration, date of preparation, date of expiry and the name of the person who prepared it.
The management should encourage first aid training and the essential refresher courses by allowing time off and a periodical bonus. If breathing stops, try to apply artificial respiration by mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose insufflation. These instructions can be moulded into a Standard Instruction to be issued to each and every employee. In case of any doubt, apply detergent solution to the connection with a brush: bubbling indicates a leak. It can also be conducted in gentleman-created tanks, commonly discovered in fish hatcheries. They consist of each organic and natural solid squander and dissolved organic and inorganic vitamins, which are discharged in a everyday foundation into the atmosphere. What is considered squander in Aquaculture is useful input for the balance in between the needs of the fish and the want of the greens. Another difficulty is that they are often pumped with hormones to market rapid development, and in some cases are even given chemical substances to alter their color, this kind of artificial astaxanthin to salmon to boost the pink. The diet of the fish can be naturally supplemented by the introduction of a worm farm, a black fly farm or duckweed tanks to enhance higher top quality industrial meals that frequently comes from vegetal protein sources, (as has been proposed by the Nationwide Organic Requirements Board, limiting the quantity of fishmeal and fish oils in organically licensed aquaculture products). In scenario there is a want to treat a particular condition, there is no risk of contaminating the organic environment.
This follows automatically from local regulations in which cultivated species ought to not be launched to the environment. In addition, it is an excellent choice for those seeking for effectiveness and simplicity of procedure in the route for meals self-sufficiency. These recommendations can be modified for smaller laboratories but the main principles involved should not be ignored. Also the central lab computer (which may be a PC) should be situated in a separate (Type 7) room. For instance the moisture condition of a sample kept in a hot and humid store room (or a very cold one) may change significantly when taken to an air-conditioned laboratory. If complicated sensitive equipment such as atomic absorption spectrophotometers and autoanalyzers are used by more than one operator, each user should record the operation in the journal to make him or her responsible for proper use. One way of doing this is to prepare a Safety Logbook with at least one page for each item to be inspected regularly. Some chemicals in use in soil and plant laboratories such as common acids, bases and salts may be disposed of in dilute form and need not necessarily offer a problem but local regulations vary and tend to become stricter. Do not use them for storage (except the cupboards underneath, which preferably have a tube connection with the fume cupboard above for ventilation).
Good Laboratory Practice prescribes that all these particulars, including the amounts of components used, are recorded in the Reagents and Solutions Book .
When an eye-wash bottle has been used, it should be replaced or refilled and the expiration date revised.
Irrespective of where it requires place, Aquaculture has an influence on the atmosphere locally and globally. The flux of these compounds should never surpass the all-natural assimilation capacity of the neighborhood ecosystem because severe impacts, this kind of as eutrophication, oxygen depletion and alteration of local biodiversity, can happen each in the drinking water column and in the base substrate.
Bacterial colonies are accountable for the conversion of ammonia and nitrite to nitrogen commonly assimilated by vegetation. Aquaponics is a balanced ecosystem that promotes wellness and vitality each in fish and plants. When the interruption is prolonged, no work can be done at all except for some tidying up and paper work. Control of temperature is possible on a small scale by the use of thermostatic waterbaths or immersion coolers but this is impracticable for shaking machines or other large scale routine operations. In some countries, for instance, acetylene and nitrous oxide cylinders may not be situated in the laboratory and should be stored in a special ventilated cupboard or outside the building.
An example of a page of this logbook is given as Model SAF 011 (which has the same lay-out as Model APP 041 for the Maintenance Logbook for laboratory apparatus (see Chapter 5).
The chemical properties and hazards of each chemical in stock can be looked up in relevant handbooks. Care should be taken when a laboratory drain outlet "disappears" somewhere in the ground to some obscure destination or in a cesspit.
When wet-digesting soil or plant samples, treat the sample first with nitric acid to destroy easily oxidizable matter. Water has the disadvantage that it conducts electricity, powder extinguishers (containing salts) cause damage to instruments. To become an environmentally sustainable exercise and economically sound, is necessary to apply rigid laws on the management of resources and a mindful site variety. Temperature correction factors can, of course, be applied in some cases but these have to be established first and may be inaccurate for wide temperature variations.
In addition, suppliers of chemicals have Material Safety Data Sheets available for their hazardous products.
Unless there is no other option, observe the rule not to dilute concentrated solutions in order to make it disposable: 'dilution is no solution to pollution'!. They can decompose strong squander from the fish, excess roots and other materials that plants slough off, making them more bio-obtainable for the crops.
Working supplies of acids and ammonia can best be stored under fume cupboards with ventilated storage. If a chemical has particular hazardous properties this is indicated on the label by a hazard symbol. As a outcome of these numerous organic filters, there is clean drinking water in fish tank all the time.
Quantities of inflammable material such as acetone and alcohol in excess of 5 or 10 litre should be kept outside the building in a separate shed. Although these symbols are almost self-descriptive, the most important ones are reproduced here (see Fig.



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