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July 29, 2010 By Janice VanCleave The CPR video CPR on this page is a new first aid procedure used when a person is having an heart attack .
ABOUT ME: Hi, I am Janice VanCleave, author of 50 best-selling science experiment books for children ages 4 through high school.
If you want to know why mood rings change color; why some toys change color when heated then Click Janice's Free Lesson Plans on the Nav. Unit-level HSS consists of combat medic, evacuation, and battalion aid station (BAS) operations. Medical personnel and their patients will remain in the best available protected areas during the attack.
Medical personnel must survey their equipment to determine the extent of damage and their capabilities to continue the mission. The chlorine granules in the chemical agent patient decontamination set are used to prepare the chlorine solution to decontaminate patients.
Civilian casualties may become a problem in populated or built-up areas; they may not have protective equipment and training. The irradiated casualty is one who has been exposed to ionizing radiation, but is not contaminated. The externally contaminated casualty has radioactive dust and debris on his clothing, skin, or hair. The internally contaminated casualty is one that has ingested or inhaled radioactive materials, or radioactive material has entered the body through an open wound. Medical triage, as discussed earlier, is the classification of patients according to the type and seriousness of injury. Other sequential epidemiological events, especially when presented in lines of communication.
Enemy employment of NBC weapons in the extremes of climate or terrain warrants additional consideration. Stop the bleeding immediately by applying direct pressure above or on the wound, a tourniquet or leg rope may be tied tightly above the wound to block blood flow if bleeding cannot be controlled by a pressure bandage. Send for an ambulance and medical personnel (if possible do not move the patient if badly injured.
The faster you can treat your wounds, and manage them effectively, the more time you will have to enjoy the waves on your trip! Wash the wound with fresh water and ensure any pieces of debris (coral, rock, fibreglass, etc.) are removed from inside the wound using tweezers or the urchin picker found in your kit. Apply antiseptic to the wound (Die Da Yao Gin Chinese Antiseptic which is available from our online store is perhaps the most effective antiseptic for coral and reef cuts in tropical climates. Keep the wound free of dirt and covered as much as possible using Fixomull and Melolite items available in all Naturalfooted kits and through our online store. It is important that all wounds, no matter how small, are treated immediately, and monitored for signs of infection. Try to keep wounds covered where possible, but also check them regularly for signs of infection. Doing this will ensure that your wounds heal quickly and effectively, leaving more time for you to enjoy the waves!
Purple or black markings in the skin that appear immediately after a sea urchin encounter do not necessarily indicate the presence of a retained spine fragment. If there are still black markings after 48 to 72 hours, then a spine fragment is likely present. Part I of this article outlined the equipment needed to correct problems that could potentially lead to livestock losses in the aquarium. Environmental Changes - Changes with the general appearance of the aquarium can also be an indication of problems. The following general guidelines may help you identify the signs of water chemistry abnormalities and provide correct steps which may help solve the problem.
If any of the fish in the aquarium show the signs of disease, it is important to remove it from the community aquarium immediately and place it in your hospital aquarium. By following these first aid procedures, you can greatly reduce the amount of livestock losses due to problems in your aquarium. Part I of this article outlines the equipment needed to correct problems that could potentially lead to livestock losses in the aquarium. I strongly suggest that you watch it all and even twice so that you know how to perform this life-saving procedure. Nuclear, biological, and chemical actions cause high casualty rates, materiel losses, obstacles to maneuver, and contamination. In the brigade support area (BSA) HSS consists of evacuating patients from the BAS, providing area support medical treatment, operating the BSA division clearing station (DCS), including a patient holding capability for up to 40 patients for 72 hours, and providing limited dental service.
During a nuclear attack, they take up positions within the shelter that are away from windows and other openings; they only move out of these positions when notified that it is safe to do so.
Initially, patients from nuclear detonations will be suffering thermal burns or blast injuries. The division medical supply office (DMSO) maintains a 5 to 15-day stockage level of Class VIII supplies; the exact number of days of supplies maintained are prescribed in the TSOP. The divisional and nondivisional medical company PVNTMED section and supporting corps PVNTMED personnel are responsible for testing the quality of water for the division. Plans for HSS following an NBC attack must include efforts to conserve available HSS personnel and ensure their best use.
Covered and concealed sites are extremely important; they increase protection for operating the MTF. The BAS is equipped with two medical equipment sets (MES) for chemical agent patient treatment and one MES for chemical agent patient decontamination. The BAS and DCS may be required to provide assistance when civilian medical resources cannot handle the work load.
He presents a "housekeeping" problem to the MTF, similar to the lice-infested patient arriving at a peacetime MTF.
The radioactive material continues to irradiate the casualty internally until radioactive decay and biological elimination removes the radioactive isotope.
Passive defensive measures (such as immunizations, good personal hygiene, physical conditioning, using arthropod repellents, wearing protective mask, and practicing good sanitation) will mitigate the effects of most biological intrusions. The medical commander must enforce contamination control to prevent injury to medical personnel and to preserve his facility. Decontamination of most biologically contaminated patients and equipment can be accomplished with soap and water. Treatment of biological-agent patients may require observing and evaluating the individual to determine necessary medications, isolation, or treatment.
A patient decontamination station is established to handle contaminated patients; see Appendix C. Initial triage, EMT, and decontamination are accomplished on the "dirty" side of the hotline. The BAS and DCS will require 8 nonmedical augmentation personnel to perform patient decontamination. Included are the peculiarities of urban terrain, mountain, snow and extreme cold, jungle, and desert operations in an NBC environment with the resultant NBC-related effects upon medical treatment and evacuation.



The effects of extreme cold weather combined with NBC-produced injuries have not been extensively studied. In rain forests and other jungle environments, the overhead canopy will to some extent shield personnel from thermal radiation. In desert operations, troops may be widely dispersed, thus, presenting less profitable targets. An NBC environment forces the unit commander to consider to what extent he will commit evacuation assets to the contaminated area.
Optimize the use of resources; use those already contaminated (medical or nonmedical) before employing uncontaminated resources. This will depend upon the contaminant, the tempo of the battle, and the resources available to the evacuation unit. One or more helicopters may be restricted to contaminated areas; use ground vehicles to cross the line separating clean and contaminated areas. Hasty decontamination of aircraft and ground vehicles is accomplished to minimize crew exposure.
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Don't be afraid to scrub the wound using gauze dipped in antiseptic as this helps to remove any foreign bacteria.
A sea urchin picker like that found in the a Naturalfooted Surfer's First Aid Kit can be effective in removing spines.
Such discolouration is more likely dye leached from the surface of a spine, commonly from a black urchin.
But we thought we'd let the experts do the talking - The UK Travel Doctor website has some priceless information that you should read up on before embarking on your planned trip. This part of the article explains some of the typical warning signs of problems, and includes steps for correcting these problems. Some of the typical signs related to imbalances in water chemistry include: poor expansion in corals and invertebrates, poor growth or death of plants, cloudy or odiferous water, and increased algae growth. Compare the warning signs that your aquarium exhibits to the following, and test those parameters to determine if they are the culprit. Research the symptoms in order to make an accurate diagnosis, and follow the manufacturer's directions of the appropriate medication. Mission-oriented protective posture (Levels 3 and 4) results in body heat buildup, reduces mobility, and degrades visual, touch, and hearing senses: ultimately, degrading unit effectiveness.
Effective and efficient triage, emergency treatment, decontamination, and contamination control in the operational area saves lives, assures judicious evacuation, and maximizes the RTD rate. This includes provisions for treatment, evacuation, and hospitalization (including care for enemy prisoners of war [EPW]). Using triage and emergency medical treatment (EMT) decision matrices for managing patients in a contaminated environment improves proficiency of treatment.
Commanders and HSS planners must make provisions for clearing the battlefield of casualties, including NBC casualties. The area support treatment team provides sick call and medical treatment for personnel in the BSA (on an area basis).
The PVNTMED team provides limited support in the areas of disease vector surveillance, water quality control (including NBC contamination surveillance), and communicable diseases control.
The best defense for medical personnel is to protect themselves, their patients, medical supplies, and equipment by applying contamination avoidance procedures. Medical supplies and equipment are protected from contamination by chemical agent resistant coatings or protective coverings.
Medical personnel will be fully active in providing EMT or advanced trauma management (ATM); they will provide more definitive treatment as time and resources permit. These sets have enough consumable supplies for decontamination and treatment of 60 chemical agent patients.
However, aid to civilians will not be undertaken at the expense of health services for US personnel. Casualties who have suffered exposure to initial nuclear radiation will fit into this category. The station is separated from the clean treatment area by a "hotline" and is located downwind of the clean treatment area.
For a more detailed discussion on NBC aspects of urban terrain, mountain, snow and extreme cold, jungle, and desert operations, see FM 31-71, FM 90-3, FM 90-5, FM 90-6, FM 90-10, and FM 90-10-1. Close terrain may limit concentrations of troops and fewer targets may exist; therefore, a lower patient load may be anticipated. However, with traumatic injuries, cold hastens the progress of shock, providing a less favorable prognosis.
It may ignite, however, creating the danger of forest fires and resulting in burn injuries. If the battalion or task force is operating in a contaminated area, most or all of the medical platoon evacuation assets will operate there.
The ground ambulance proceeds to an MTF with a patient decontamination station; the patient is decontaminated and treated. The aircraft must be allowed to land and reduce to flat pitch before patients are brought near. Units include deliberate decontamination procedures in their standing operating procedures (SOP).
The medical leader must recognize the constraints NBC places on operations; then plan and train to overcome these deficiencies. It is of benefit to all surfers to familiarise themselves with the injuries and ailments experienced as a surfer, and more importantly how to treat and manage these injuries. The antiseptic may sting but it is extremely important that any foreign bacteria is killed before they have time to invade cells within the wound.
Do not dig around in the skin to fish them out - this risks crushing the spines and making them more difficult to remove. The importance of first aid (self-aid, buddy aid, and CLS support) becomes even more critical. Field Manuals 8-9, 8-10-4, 8-10-6, and 8-285 contain additional information for use in planning for HSS operations in an NBC environment.
Health services support personnel develop plans and are prepared in the event that NBC weapons or agents are employed. The mental health personnel provides counseling and comfort for combat stress patients; these patients are returned to duty as far forward as their condition permits.
They must ensure that stored medical supplies and equipment are in protected areas, or in their storage containers with covers in place. Operating in an NBC environment requires the issue of chemical patient treatment sets, chemical patient decontamnination sets, and CPS systems when not used as the primary shelter in conventional operations. Mark contaminated water sources with NBC contamination markers; do not use the water until it is safe, or water treatment equipment capable of removing the contaminants is employed.
However, to provide definitive care they must be able to work in a shirt sleeved environment, not in MOPP Levels 3 or 4. A method of obtaining additional HSS in the area of operations (AO) is to request additional medical teams from the supporting medical company.


These sets are also used at DCS, corps hospitals, and COMMZ hospitals to decontaminate and treat chemical agent patients. Keep in mind that once care for civilians has begun, you are required to continue this care until relieved. The externally contaminated casualty is decontaminated at the earliest time consistent with required medical care.
Inhalation, ingestion, or injection of quantities of radioactive material sufficient to present a threat to medical care providers is highly unlikely.
See paragraph 4-2 for the triage classifications and Table 4-2 for the effects of radiation on triage. Ventilation systems in medical treatment facilities (without CPS) must be turned off if biological or chemical exposure is imminent. Due to the vapor hazard associated with contaminated patients, medical personnel may have to remain at MOPP Level 4 for long periods of time. Personnel on both sides of the "hotline" assume a MOPP level commensurate with the threat agent employed (normally MOPP Level 4).
Normally, the senior EMT noncommissioned officer (NCO) performs initial triage and EMT at the BAS. Thermal effects will tend to be reinforced by reflection of thermal radiation from snow and ice-covered areas.
By reducing sunlight, the canopy may increase the persistency effect of chemical agents near ground level. Smooth sand is a good reflector of both thermal and blast effects; therefore, these effects will generate an increase in injuries.
A sample aircraft decontamination station that may be tailored to a unit's needs is provided in FM 1-102 and FM 3-5. Staffing of HSS units is based upon the minimum required to provide support on a conventional battlefield. Training medical personnel in the use of simple decision matrices should enhance their effectiveness and contribute to more efficient battlefield treatment. Patient holding provides a place where patients can recover from minor illnesses or injuries and RTD within a few hours. One method of having supplies and equipment protected is to keep them in their shipping containers until actually needed.
Chemical agent patients will manifest their injuries immediately upon exposure to the agent, except for blister agents.
For operational procedures and use of the CPS as an MTF and management of patients, see Appendix D and the appropriate technical manual for the specific CPS system. Health service support plans include protecting (NBC hardening) contingency stocks and rapid resupply of affected units by using prepackaged and preconfigured push resupply.
Dispose of contaminated water in a manner that prevents secondary contamination; mark the area. Nonmedical personnel conduct search and rescue operations for the injured or wounded; they provide immediate first aid and decontamination. The patient decontamination station should be established in a contamination-free area of the battlefield. Secondary triage, ATM, and patient disposition are accomplished on the clean side of the hotline.
High desert temperatures will increase the discomfort and debilitation of soldiers wearing MOPP; especially heat injuries. The routes used by ground vehicles to cross between contaminated and clean areas are considered dirty routes and should not be crossed by clean vehicles.
Additionally, a helicopter must not land too close to a decontamination station (especially upwind) because any trace of contaminants in the rotorwash will compromise the decontamination procedure. Thus, they will be taxed in their ability to provide the level of HSS that is available on the conventional battlefield. Provisions for emergency medical care of civilians, consistent with the military situation, must be included.
Prior training for designated nonmedical personnel in patient decontamination procedures will enhance their effectiveness in the overall patient care mission.
When time permits and warnings are received that an NBC attack is imminent, or that a downwind hazard exists, medical personnel should seek protected areas such as CPS, basements of buildings, culverts, and ravines for themselves and their patients. Biological agent patients may not show any signs of illness for hours to days after exposure.
Frequently monitor all water dispensing and associated equipment for possible contamination. Also, nonmedical personnel are required to man the patient decontamination station at the BAS and DCS (FMs 3-5, 8-10-4, and 8-285). When CPS systems are not available, the clean treatment area is located upwind 30 to 50 meters of the contaminated work area.
When treatment must be provided in a contaminated environment outside the CPS, the level of care may be greatly reduced because treaters and patients are in MOPP Level 3 or 4.
Mountain passes and gorges may tend to canalize nuclear blast and the movement of chemical and biological agents. Consider the effects of wind and time upon the contaminants; some agents will remain for extended periods of time.
In an NBC environment, many patients may be suffering from claustrophobia or stress from being in confined areas, or in their MOPP.
Water supply on the NBC battlefield is provided on an area basis by the supply and transportation battalion. However, the MTF only operates in a contaminated environment until they have the time and the means to move to a clean area. When personnel in the clean working area are away from the hotline, they may reduce their MOPP level.
As the clothing warms to room temperature, the chemical agent will vaporize (off-gas); thus, contaminating the shelter. Patients are decontaminated before treatment to reduce the hazard to medical personnel, unless life- or limb-threatening conditions exist.
Chemical monitoring equipment must be used on the clean side of the hotline to detect vapor hazards due to slight shifts in wind currents; if vapors invade the clean work area, medical personnel must remask to prevent low-level chemical agent exposure and minimize clinical effects (such as miosis). Roads and railways may be nonexistent or of limited use, thus restricting movement and complicating patient evacuation. The DCS locates in a clean area, or establishes CPS to continue their HSS mission, including providing an area for patients to remove their MOPP for a few hours, then RTD.
Patients requiring treatment before decontamination are treated in the EMT area of the decontamination station. There will be a greater reliance on air ambulance support; however, the weather may hinder flights to some areas. Preventive medicine (PVNTMED) and mental health personnel may be attached to the BSA medical company from the division support area (DSA) medical company to provide limited services within their specialties.



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