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In addition to being young and affluent, Chandler residents are well-educated, with nearly 70 percent of having some college education. The City of Chandler is served by five public school districts; as well as private and charter schools. Kirsten van Engelenburg onManaging Change in Changing TimesHi Ryan, thanks for your reaction.
Gaetano Falcone onManaging Change in Changing TimesHi Kirsten, thanks for your interesting blog.
Women’s education and health are related issues that bear on the lives of hundreds of millions of girls and women throughout the developing world.
In a cross-country analysis, Smith & Haddad (1999) found that educating women led to more productive farming, which caused a decline in malnutrition. Rustein (2000) notes that education may positively affect nutrition, use of health services, childcare practices, food preservation, and household cleanliness. UNESCO studies have shown that the gendered education and health outcomes are highly concentrated in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (Herz & Sperling 2004). In Ghana, maternal reproductive health care services remain socially stigmatized for rural Ghanaian women (Yakong 2010).
Community-level survey data are helpful, if not readily available, for studying public health demographic trends in sub-Saharan West Africa. This survey examined the population of Ganave, a rural community in southeastern Togo, on the Togo-Benin border. The locale and design of this study were selected in consultation with local, indigenous health workers, and experienced medical practitioners.
Researchers surveyed thirty-five households, which provided data for 268 individuals (including 64 deceased).
Survey questions were separated into four sections: (I) Individual household member data, (II) Mortality Data, (III) Family and community health data, (IV) and work and education data. Relationships between variables were tested using chi-square, crosstabular analysis, and various measures of association. Analysis of maternal education and respondents’ indication of whether intestinal worms were a health problem revealed a significant relationship as well. This study sought to address the question: Do levels of maternal education affect various indicators of health in communities of Southeastern Togo? As we expected, our community data showed that maternal education has a positive effect on various measures of family and community health. The survey and research protocol for this study were written in English, while the national language in Togo is French.
An inconsistency also arose with the question of home birth rates, where secondary educated mothers gave birth at home more frequently than mothers with a primary level or less than a primary level education. The latrine use variable was also problematic in that the definition of a latrine was not very clear to respondents. These indicators of family and community health have demonstrated positive relationships with higher levels of maternal education (which are very low compared to those of fathers). This paper documents the exact gender-related education and health outcomes for the population of a remote community in southeastern Togo. Our results seem consistent with various studies that evaluated the relationships between gender and health, and gender and education in sub-Saharan Africa. It is also important to note that maternal education levels were repeatedly tested against various indicators of health.
According to the findings of a recent survey, Latino access to the Internet is linked to English proficiency, educational level and country of origin. The researchers’ findings indicate only 56 percent of Latino adults visit the Internet; while 71 percent of non-Hispanic whites and 60 percent of non-Hispanic blacks go online. The report is based on telephone surveys of 6,016 Hispanic adults between June 2005 and October 2006; and 2,098 non-Hispanic adults in August 2006. The report revealed that more than two thirds of English dominant (78 percent) and bilingual Latinos (76 percent) use the Internet while only 32 percent of Spanish dominant adults do so. Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the Middle East, and North Africa are the three most education-deficient regions as shown on the map. Low levels of education for girls and women lead to negative health outcomes for women and their communities. The gendered education gap in schools throughout the developing world is disconcerting because low education levels influence disease prevention, fertility, and mortality rates for women in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, more than half of girls – about 54 percent – do not complete primary school (Bruns et al.
Despite recent reductions in maternal mortality in Ghana, rates remain unacceptably high (Gumanga et al.
In Togo specifically, high rates of poverty persist, with 75% of the population, particularly in rural areas, having difficulty meeting basic health, education, nutritional, and housing needs. Some recent survey-based public health studies in West Africa have focused on genital cutting (Morison et al.
Research procedures were carried in accordance with the requirements of the Gordon College Institutional Review Board, which determines appropriate protocol for research involving human subjects.
Field research staff included principle investigators, an independent translator, and a local Togolese community health worker. Questions addressed a broad range of public health factors including questions of gender, age, child mortality, fertility, STH infection rates, health services, infectious disease, sanitation and hygiene, and educational levels. Seven variables were used to statistically test for relationships: (1) sex, (2) maternal education, (3) paternal education, (4) hand washing, (5) latrine use, (6) identification of intestinal worms as a health problem, (7) home births (*Note that crosstabular analysis of child labor, school attendance, and child mortality revealed low cells counts, due to our small sample size, and no further testing was done).

In the case where the null hypothesis was rejected, we tested the following hypotheses: (b) levels of maternal education affect rates of household hand washing, (c) levels of maternal education affect rates of household latrine use, (d) levels of maternal education affect identification of intestinal worms as a health problem, (e) levels of maternal education affect home birth rates. Rates of hand washing for households in our sample increase along with mother’s level of education. The literature shows that maternal education does affect health in various parts of the world, but very few studies exist on Togo.
Mothers with a high level of education had a higher probability of raising families that regularly washed their hands with soap than mothers with a low level of education. Still, little French is spoken in many rural communities, where local dialects are the most frequently spoken language.
This is likely attributable to the low sample size of mothers with a secondary level of education.
It was difficult in the course of the survey to distinguish between a proper latrine and one that a respondent may have constructed improperly.
The variable ‘indication of intestinal worms as a health problem’ did not measure intestinal worm infection rates, but whether respondents considered intestinal worms a major problem for health or not.
Hypothesis testing confirmed that these particular relationships, as demonstrated in the community of Ganave, likely exist in the general population as well. Repeated testing increased the risk of type 1 error and may have weakened the strength of our statistical analysis and the assertions based on the statistical analysis.
Further work in these areas may be helpful and make important contributions to the literature and to our understanding of the social determinants of health in Southeastern Togo.
Latinos Online, a report by Susannah Fox of the Pew Internet & American Life Project and Gretchen Livingston of the Pew Hispanic Center, indicates Internet usage varies widely among Hispanics depending on language proficiency, educational level and country of origin. Fox and Livingston believe socio-economic factors such as low educational levels and language limitations play a role in the lower Internet access of this large minority which represents 14 percent of the U.S. Latino respondents had an option to respond in English, Spanish or a combination of both languages. More than half of Latino adults (59 percent) have a cell phone and almost half (49 percent) of Latino cell phone users say they send and receive text messages on their phones. Educated women attain higher socioeconomic status and are better able to sustain themselves and their families. One key indicator of this is reduced child mortality as a result of increased maternal education (Huq et al. The most recent World Bank data show 61.7% of the total population beneath he poverty line, 56-year life expectancy, and a 57% literacy rate. The details and the purpose of the study were fully disclosed to community leaders as well as all household respondents. Values for maternal education were “less than primary level education”, “primary level education”, “secondary level education”, “tertiary level education” (however, no mothers had attained a tertiary level of education and so it does not appear in any representations of the data). The extent to which maternal education affects human health could increase support for girls and women’s education and improve health in this particular region of West Africa. Mothers with a high level of education had a higher probability of having families that used a latrine than mothers with a low level of education. Respondents who chose that intestinal worms were not a problem may or may not have had lower incidence of intestinal worm infections.
The results of this study indicate that maternal education levels are low in Southeastern Togo, and that levels of maternal education have a significant effect on various indicators of family health in Southeastern Togo. It is questionable whether any study has recorded gender-related health and education data from southeastern Togo. Does maternal education have a significant effect on fertility, child mortality, or maternal mortality in Southeastern Togo?
At the same time, 70 percent of Latinos who graduated high school go online but only 31 percent of Latinos who did not complete high school go online.
At the same time, 58 percent of those of Central American origin, 59 percent of Dominican extraction Latinos, 66 percent of Puerto Rican and 64 percent of Latinos of Cuban descent go online. In Chad, 90 percent of all 15 –19-year-old girls had not completed primary school and in Burkina Faso, 80 percent had not done so (Filmer 1999). And rural African women in Ghana continue to be educationally disadvantaged (Shabaya & Konadu-Agyemang 2004). The World dataBank records show there are 81,473 female children out of primary school, compared to only 5,830 male children (WB 2000), and primary school completion rates for males and females are 84% and 64%, respectively. Principle investigators obtained consent from village elders before conducting the population survey between 4 June 2011 and 7 August 2011.
Mothers with a high level of education had a higher probability of having families who did not cite intestinal worms as a health problem than mothers with a low level of education. All survey procedures were conducted in English, translated to French, and then translated to Ewe.
Though a significant relationship was found, the pattern is disrupted at the secondary level of education. In fact, indication of intestinal worms as a health problem may increase with maternal education in the population because more educated mothers may be more aware of intestinal worms. One specific place where our small sample size is particularly problematic is with secondary level-educated mothers. Rigorous research and analysis of these questions may support the broader hypothesis presented in this study, that maternal education does effect indicators of health in Southeastern Togo. Although Internet access among uneducated non-Hispanic whites and blacks is also low, the percentage of Latinos without a high school degree (41 percent) is noticeably higher than it is for non-Hispanic whites (10 percent) or blacks (20 percent). Seventy percent of Hispanics of South American origin go online, making them the most likely Hispanics to surf the Internet.

More recently, Ojogwu (2009) found gender disparity in school enrollment in Nigeria, despite MDG efforts to reduce gender-based education disparities.
Data from Ghana show reduced maternal mortality as a result of increased education levels (Lester et al. The rate of secondary school participation among females in Togo is 35%, up from 25% in 1990 (WB 2010). Prior to administering each individual survey, respondents were informed that they had the right to abstain from the study, or any question they wished to pass over within the survey.
Values for paternal education were “less than primary level education”, “primary level education”, “secondary level education”, “tertiary level education”. Mothers with a high level of education had a higher probability of not giving birth at home than mothers with a low level of education.
In our sample, secondary educated mothers registered less latrine use than primary educated mothers. However, the results of the hypothesis test suggest that as maternal education increases, intestinal worm infection rates decrease (this assumes mothers can properly identify when a family member is infected with intestinal worms). Current data –specific to issues of gendered health and education outcomes– are lacking in World Bank and WHO databases. Due to the fact that so few mothers have a secondary level education (and no mothers have a tertiary level education), some relationships may be less representative of the population from which the survey was drawn.
Decreased fertility improves family health, quality of life, and life expectancy (King & Hill 1993). A 2006 survey of primary school attendance in Nigeria found gender discrimination to be a significant impediment to school attendance (Iyamu & Obiunu). Usman (2009) found increased personal health empowerment, minimized reproductive morbidities, better family planning, better nutrition, improved hygiene and sanitation, and improved child healthcare with educated rural Nigerian women.
Community-level surveys and comparative studies offer helpful qualitative and quantitative data analysis mechanisms for evaluating public health outcomes. Given relatively low literacy rates, researchers read aloud an informed consent document in English, French, and Ewe, the local dialect. The small size of our sample prevented us from testing child mortality, child labor, and school attendance against maternal education. It is possible that the exact meaning of some terms in the questions was skewed in the translation process.
Given these caveats and limitations, the results of our data analysis do seem to indicate a positive relationship between maternal education and health. A larger sample size would help to minimize the effects of random deviations from the general patterns in observed in our sample. Public health research on smaller, less populous, sub-Saharan African nations is not well represented in the current literature. All respondents chose to participate by giving verbal consent, and all were interviewed in their own language.
For example, the location of child births included multiple options such as clinic, government clinic, hospital. Our data seem to indicate that higher levels of maternal education could improve human health in Southeastern Togo.
Maternal mortality was last recorded at 478 per 100,000 women (WB 1998) and fertility is 4 live births per woman (WB 2009). And very few, if any, studies deal with community-level gender, education, and health data in Togo.
The meanings of these words may be different in Ewe, and this may have affected our results (though translators explained at length, in consultation with researchers). Further research and perhaps more sophisticated quantitative analysis may strengthen this assertion. Were levels of education measured as number of years, rather than highest level of education completed, more rigorous statistical testing may have been conducted. But evidence from Bangladesh, for example, shows that improved family planning and fertility decline, linked to female education, led to a 50% reduction in maternal mortality (Lester et al. Primary source community-level data is important for understanding specific cases within the broader context, for developing a more nuanced understanding of broad patterns in public health.
Knowing the gender of all the deceased would have enabled researchers to ask important questions about gender and mortality. This study seeks to document the exact gender-related health and education outcomes for the population of Ganave, a particular Togolese community in southeastern Togo.
Were education levels gathered on those deceased, the data may have enabled researchers to further explore the connection between health and education for communities in Southeastern Togo. By increasing knowledge about health care practices and reducing the average number of pregnancies, female education significantly reduces the risk of maternal mortality (Summers 1994).
Researchers disclosed the results of this study to the non-profit organization Clinics of Hope, Massachusetts.
Values for home births were “yes, mother gave birth in home” or “no, mother did not give birth in home”.
Clinics of Hope will use our data to craft public health programs specific to the population of Southeastern Togo.

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