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BSB volunteers try to be as accurate as possible, but we are not responsible for broken or false links or misinterpretationPrivacy Policy: Your privacy is very important to us. Tattoos in Ancient Egypt Tattoos in Ancient Egypt To colour their cheeks the Egyptians used red ochre in a base of fat or Gum-resin. In contrast with today's craftsman, who is seen as an individual artist whose signed works have great intrinsic worth, his ancient Egyptian counterpart remained an anonymous artisan who was an object of derision to the arrogant scribal class. An example of such a workshop, belonging to a temple, comes from the tomb of two sculptors named Apuki and Nebamun at Thebes. This weighing of metal in the presence of an overseer represents one of the strict security measures which operated in these official workshops. The Next scene shows the activities of the workshop, or possible series of workshops, conflated into one picture. Behind the sawyer and on the far side of the men assembling the shrine are five artisans engaged in making amulets to decorate it .
With the collapse of Tula in the 12th century, the primitive Chichimecs again poured into the Valley of Mexico from the north .
During the long reign of Xolotl ( 1244-1304 ), the Chichimec hegemony was established in the Valley of Mexico. With the death of Xolotl in 1304, the Tepanecs became the most powerful group in the Valley, led by their leader Tezozomoc, who ruled from 1363 to 1427 , conquering Xolotl's city of Tenayuca and many other cities in the Valley such as Xochimilco and Cuahnahuac and unified under one government most of central Mexico . Another Chichimec group that migrated into the valley, according to legend from the coastal area of Aztatlan were the Mexica and were also known as the Aztecs . Enraged, Coxcox attacked the Aztecs and scattered them survivors into a marsh around Lake Texcoco , where they lived on a small island in the lake around the year 1345.this is where they saw the vision prophecised by the god Huitzilopochtli This was to become the great city if Tenochititlan . In the Aztec and most of the Mesoamerican cultures, the first people were created out of maize dough.
The Aztec civilization presents a paradox, on the one had there is what appears to be a bizarre, bloodthirsty religion that demanded beating human hearts, on the other hand some aspects of Aztec society were very enlightened for the time in regards to justice and refinements in the arts and the ability to rise in society based on merit . There was also a type of gladiatorial sacrifice in which a captured warrior was tied by the ankle to a stone. Huitzilopochtli was the predominate god of the Aztecs, but there were many gods, usually for an element in nature.
Emperors were always chosen from the royal family, but the heir apparent was not fixed, the best candidate was chosen in a policy of choosing merit over birth.
All abled bodied males were expected to bear arms and distinction in battle was a way a commoner could rise to nobility . A great majority of the people were farmers, laborers and other types of commoners and were organized into districts called calpullis, which was a clan made up of many families and was the basic social unit . School was compulsory for children, the type of school depended on ones social class .The children of nobility entered a school of strict discipline and long hours of study in history, religion, astronomy and other subjects. The Aztec legal system was complex, with judges in the major cities appointed by the emperor .they had great power and could arrest even high placed nobles. The Aztec empire was in reality a loose coalition of subject city states that paid tribute.

The leader of Texcoco at this time was Nezahualcoyotl, who became famous for his poetry and building an aqueduct to Tenochtitlan. The growth of the Aztec empire was checked in 1450 be a terrible famine caused by flooding. The next leader of the Aztecs was Tizoc,who ruled from 1481-86 a brother of Axayacatl. Ahuitzotl , who ruled from 1486-1502  was an aggressive king who led his armies on far off expeditions of conquest .
They both held important positions as controllers of sculptors and artisans at the palace and in an unnamed temple, as well as being controllers of the balances of the king. It is a model of order and cleanliness, suitable for an idealized picture of the afterlife. One of them roughly shapes a block of wood to the required size, while three others carve out the amulets. The nomadic Chichimec became civilized while in contact with the older Toltec cultural area. The Aztecs asked Coxcox for his daughter to be made the queen of the Aztecs, which he agreed to. From the island they built causeways .Tezozomoc, the strongman of central Mexico at the times, used the Aztecs as mercenaries .
By the time of Tezozomoc's death in 1426, the forth Aztec king Itzocoatl was able to establish Aztec independence by uniting with the cities of Texcoco and Tlacopan. It seems that most of the preoccupation in the religion had to do with fear of the nature, and a fear of the end of the world. The most common, for the sun god, was for the victim to be held down atop a temple while his heart was cut out with an obsidian knife .Those who were sacrificed to Xipe Totec, such as Coxcox's daughter was were flayed or bound and shot with arrows, their blood symbolizing falling rain .
Tezcatlipoca (smoking mirror ) associated with the night an hurricanes, was favored by warriors .Quetzalcoatl , the sky and creator god was revered by the priests. Priests spent many hours in prayer and fasting, and performed acts of self mutilation while in or trying to attain a higher state of mind by passing a thorn between the tongue, ear or penis . Slavery was not passed on from parent to child and slaves had certain rights .Some served as slaves to pay of a debt or to avoid starvation .
The school for the other classes was less strict and boys learned basic subjects and the rudiments of warfare while girls learned the household arts .Modesty, courtesy and conformity were prized virtues .
The nobility, who were supposed to rule by example, received tougher sentencing under the law . Many towns were conquered during this period, but the real power behind the throne was said to be the gifted general Tlacaelel. During his reign he conquered the valley of Oaxaca, expanded the Aztec empire up the Gulf coast and conquering cities in Guatemala.
A courier showed the emperor pictures of strange white men with beards bearing crosses, could this be Quetzalcoatl returning at last ?
They labored in large, highly organized workshops or in special communities, such as that of the royal tomb-builders at Deir el-Medina.

In reality mist workshops must have been noisy, dirty and hot, the ground littered with the debris of manufacture.
The main tool is the adze, which was used by the ancient Egyptians for cutting, shaping and smoothing wood. Inlay and veneer were common forms of decoration , as a means of disguising the poor native timbers of Egypt.
They exchanged there caves for huts, their animal skins for woven clothes and ate cooked meat instead of eating it raw .the began to use the Nahuatl language, which was the main language used in the Valley . He was horrified to find a dancer wearing the skin of his daughter at a banquet in his honor.
Most statues were made for religious reasons .They were also great at jewelry making and were influenced by the metalwork of the Mixtecs, but most of their work was seized by the Spanish and melted . One event that occurred during the famine was to have catastrophic results when the Spanish arrived. The Tarascans surprised the Aztecs with copper weapons and Axayacatl lost most of his army . It was rumored he poisoned Tizoc, who was said to be cowardly in battle .Tlacaelel then engineered the election of Ahuitzol to the throne, the third son of Moctezuma I. Their techniques and tools were simple, the high quality of their skill and the almost endless time and patience which they were able to devote to their work.
Gold, for instance, was relatively abundant in Egypt and Nubia, but mining techniques were unsophisticated and the mines lay in inhospitable desert regions. His daughter had been sacrificed to the god Xipe Totec ( god of life and rebirth ) and flayed ! There is even one example of plywood used to construct a Third Dynasty coffin, a technique not used again until modern times. Above this is a bowl containing semi-precious stones awaiting use, covered with a cloth to keep away prying eyes.
The superintendent of a group of artisans, therefore, held a post of great responsibility and trust,, which , as the records show, was unfortunately often abused. They work on large blocks of stone or wood, some with ledges or stops to prevent their work slipping.
His companion places a toral containing the car-touches of Amenophis III in a casket .Other jewels ready for packing are shown above.
The saw is pulled backwards and forwards, although unlike modern saws which cut on both actions, the ancient Egyptian saw it only when pulled. In the centre two men place the completed amulets in the framework of the shrine, These appear smaller than the amulets in the process of manufacture, but thus us because the latter have been enlarged by the artist so that they can be more clearly seen.

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