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Diverticulitis is a complication of a common, usually symptomless, condition called Diverticulosis of the colon (Large Intestine). An episode of infection, Diverticulitis, requires antibiotics to treat the infection to minimize the risk of the infected area enlarging, forming an abscess (a pocket of pus) and, even worse, a perforation (hole) developing in the colon.
To understand how and why Diverticulitis occurs, first, a description of bowel function and why diverticuli (pockets or outpouchings) of the colon occur for many people.
First, to store waste until a convenient time to evacuate (defecate or “poop”) accumulated leftovers from food and bacteria that form the contents of the colon, and, second, to reabsorb (save) water.
Thirdly, and more recently understood, is the “discovery” of the microbiome, a mutually beneficial colony of hundreds of types of bacteria, numbering about 100 trillion (tera-) which inhabit the large intestine.
Normal bowel function including defecation, or passing stool, requires the automatic sequential contraction of the muscles in the walls of the colon. What causes diverticuli to form is the repeated higher pressure squeezing of the muscles of the colon which are arranged as bands, not as a continuous sheet of muscle. Another component of normal bowel function is that the waste collects and is stored in the proximal (closer to the stomach) two-thirds to three-fourths of the colon which is about eight or nine feet long in the usual adult. The colon ascends on the right side, goes across the upper abdomen in front of the stomach (the transverse colon) and descends of the left side of the abdomen. After a meal or after drinking a warm liquid, as part of one’s daily schedule, or automatically, the left colon will begin to contract pushing stool into the empty proximal sigmoid colon.
This urge to stool and rectal evacuation reflex may be overwhelming in intensity and intentional suppression may lead to more severe sigmoid contractions with even higher pressures inside the sigmoid colon leading to, over time, development of diverticuli and enlargement of existing diverticuli. As noted, the last parts of the colon, the twisting sigmoid (which mean sigma or S-shaped) colon and rectum, are normally empty. After the rectum and sigmoid colon are empty, if no further stool is pushed out of the left colon, the bowel movement will naturally end.
The development of diverticuli (Diverticulosis) is associated with constipation, and also increasing age. With recurring and increasing pressure in the colon, the inner lining, called the mucosa, begin to pucker out through these holes in the middle colon wall and form vase shaped outpouchings pushing into the outermost layer of the colon.
Because the vase shaped contour of the diverticulum includes a narrow neck, it can become inflamed or infected or obstructed at the neck. From the perforated diverticulum, the infection forms a local abscess in the abdomen or the infection can spread and cause a more severe infection in the abdomen, peritonitis.
Diverticulosis has two known complications:  bleeding manifest as red to dark reddish, almost black, stool (which can be life threatening bleeding) and infection (Diverticulitis). What improves bowel function and reduces the severity of diverticulosis (pocket formation)? First, add fiber (indigestible plant material) such as bran (the paper thin covering of grains) and unprocessed vegetables to your diet. Consume increased dietary fiber (eaten as high fiber foods – fruits, vegetables, whole grain pasta and whole grains or bran, vegetables, peas and beans) as tolerated to greater than 40 grams of fiber (one and one-third ounces) per day. For some people, adding too much fiber too fast to the diet may make them feel gassy or bloated until their body and the bacterial content of the colon adjusts.
The fiber and bulk “scour” the walls of the intestine, keeping bowel contents moving forward to excretion. The preferred consistency of the stool is solid-looking, formed, and soft enough to form S-shaped curves in the toilet water. So, in summary, drink extra water, enough to urinate at least five times a day during the daylight hours. Tom Corson-Knowles Blog by Tom Corson-Knowles is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
The contents of this Site, such as text, graphics, images, and other material contained on the Site ("Content") are for informational purposes only. Not many men are prepared to take their wife’s advice, particularly when it comes to treading on new ground. Once Elizabeth Swaby, brand manager, Pepsi Jamaica steps into a room, you feel her charismatic energy.
Jamaica Intensive Reading Clinic will be staging its islandwide Summer Reading Camp this week — July 25 to 29. It will feature over 100 volunteers, 35 literacy specialists, reading ambassadors and representatives from the Ministry of Education, Santana Morris, founder and executive director of the clinic told the Jamaica Observer.
I’ve spent the last week-and-a-half renewing friendships and getting to know new admissions counsellors and college advising professionals from across the world ?
AS any parent would, Mildred Walters beamed with pride as she spoke of her daughter’s accomplishment following her sitting of the Grade Six Achievement Test (GSAT) in March, the results of which were recently made public.
Her eldest of three children, Kristine Williams, 12, did exceptionally well in the annual national exam. WHEN seeking an office job turned up nil for Kristen Cole, it was the visual art of painting that came to her rescue. Should the government impose stiffer penalties to tackle the high number of road fatalities? The entire Pyrce family minus Orain on the porch of their two-room house high above the mountain village of Chantilly, Jamaica.
LenRoy Pryce, Latoya’s brother, carries water up the mountainside road from the abandoned well where the family washes their clothes.

Latoya's half brother Orain and Rue Gordon outside the Gordon compound near the village of Chantilly, Jamaica.
Latoya's half brother Orain washes clothes using water from an abandoned well near the family's mountainside home outside of Chantilly, Jamaica.
Latoya Pryce (center) heads down the mountainside road at the end of the day to collect water from the Chantilly cistern with her sister Samantha and brother LenRoy. Samson Pyrce picks oranges on his aunt Daphne Gordon's compound near the village of Chantilly, Jamaica.
Latoya Pryce of Chantilly, Jamaica, studies by candlelight in her parents’ bedroom the night after her younger brother was born. Latoya walks with her grand aunt Daphne Gordon as the two walk into the village of Chantilly, Jamaica.
Samson Pryce and his son LenRoy with the family pig that someday will provide the family with meat. Latoya holds her newborn brother Moses outside on the family porch the day after her mother delivered him at hospital eight miles away. Latoya Pryce waits at 7 in the morning for the taxi to take her to Homewood Technical high school eight miles from her hometown town of Chantilly, Jamaica.
Latoya Pryce says goodbye to Physican Assistant Joanne Gutt as her brother LenRoy says goodbye to others on the last day of the medical mission to Chantilly, Jamaica. Behind a quiet, serene exterior, Latoya Pryce shields an interior of gritty determination to help her family.
Latoya Pryce watches her half brother Orain wash his clothes using water from an abandoned well near the family home up in the mountains in Chantilly, Jamaica. Worsening Diverticulitis will  cause pain in the lower left abdomen, usually above the belt line. This leads to infection spreading in the peritoneum (lining of the abdomen) and hospitalization. These bacteria live on the left-overs of human digestion and the indigestible fiber that humans eat. Squeezed between adjacent bands of muscle is a section of colon made up of three layers: outer, middle and inner. Starting at one end, one would begin squeezing the sausage casing and repeatedly squeeze out the contents, hand over hand. The usual location of the colon in the abdomen is as follows:  liquid from the small intestines spills into the colon at its beginning through the ileocecal valve. As the waste liquid passes through these five or six feet of colon, water is progressively withdrawn from the liquid waste.
As filling starts in the sigmoid colon, the sigmoid section is stretched and reacts with vigorous sequential contractions. Better (to lessen formation of diverticuli), however, is to respond with preparation for defecation by “assuming the position.” As stool is pushed into the distal sigmoid colon and rectum, a sensation of inevitable or urgent need to defecate occurs. For defecation to start, a person has to bear down and hold one’s breath to both push out stool and to stimulate the muscles at the very end of the colon (the rectum and anus) to relax and open enough for stool to extrude. If there is still stool in the rectum, there will be a sensation of further need to defecate. The swelling associated with infection or inflammation leads to the narrow neck swelling shut. Drink enough water to void light colored (more diluted) urine at least four to five times a day. This is natural and your body must microbiome must take some time to adjust to the increased fiber – trust me, this is a good thing, and much preferable to a serious complication like diverticulitis or peritonitis.
By absorbing water, the fiber bulks up, as if wetting a sponge, increasing water in the contents of the colon. These bacteria actually influence beneficial effects on the intestinal immune system (lymph nodes and immune cells) and enhance the whole immune system of our body.
If stool is moving too slowly through the colon, it forms short, sausage shaped “links” with an appearance of small lumps of dry clay squeezed together.
The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It’s a score that could have easily qualified her for any of the traditional Corporate Area high schools. That effervescent personality has been a permanent accessory for this young executive since her days interning at some of Jamaica’s leading companies. Zac Bissonnette gives advice on how to get a tertiary education without plunging into debt. The 22-year-old Jonathan Grant High School graduate turned her hobby into a business this January after approximately six months in the wilderness of unemployment. The family uses water from the village cistern for drinking, washing and bathing which is over a mile from the home. Gordon over the years has started to see a bit of herself in her grand niece--especially her drive to get out of the town and for her pursuit of education for a better life.
Pryce has a family plot of land to grow yams and vegetables with two growing seasons in Jamaica.
Pyrce, Latoya’s brother, uses two sticks to beat on drums made of plastic and steel cans on the family property high in the mountain town of Chantilly, Jamaica.

Her mother Antoinette called a taxi when she knew the baby was coming and cam back by taxi the next day. Pryce, 3, as the group of doctors gets ready to leave after a week of seeing patients in Chantilly, Jamaica. Latoya was in the fifth form in school and hoping to get into the Know College prep school to go onto to college. Latoya and LenRoy are the great niece and nephew to the hosts to the group who came down from St.
Latoya walks twice a day to get drinking water from the village cistern a mile and a half away. Fever  and the other signs of infection (fatigue, sweating, chills, mental confusion) can occur. Over a lifetime, Diverticulitis occurs in at least 10 per cent of those with Diverticulosis. The loss of water slows the bowel movement’s progress through the colon and the person may becomemore constipated. The weight of colon contents for the adult human, eating a typical American lower fiber diet, consisting of water, bacteria, waste food and indigestible food residue, may range from 5-15 pounds. Food and fibers for which we lack the ability (enzymes systems) may be partially digested by these good bacteria of the microbiome. But, human immune cells cross the wall of the small intestine, interact with the cinnamon particles and then cross back into the wall of the small intestine. Most of the remaining fluid is reabsorbed and the final volume of excreted stool averages 350 to 500 ml, about one pound. As these muscle bands squeeze the content in between, the pressure causes the section of interposed colon to stretch and balloon out under the pressure. If one squeezes both end of the segment of sausage tubing at the same time, the contents of the casing will be pushed together and the pressure will increase inside the casing.
The beginning section of the colon, the cecum, in on the right side of the lower abdomen, at about the belt line. If conscious repression of the urge is attempted now, it may become painful in the lower abdomen. Sometimes, voluntary abdominal muscle (“abs”) contractions accompanied by repeatedly “bearing down” (the Valsalva maneuver) will be tried to voluntarily try to complete rectal evacuation.
This straining (holding one’s breath and bearing down or Valsalva maneuver) increases the pressure within the lumen (interior) of the colon. A single pocket is called a diverticulum.  The medical condition of multiple outpouchings is called Diverticulosis. Drink lots of water to help the fiber bulk-up the stool contents and for the benefit of the intestinal helpful bacteria. Too delayed and too dry stool, held inside longer than needed, forms lumpy “golf ball” shapes. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. But it was enthusiasm, hard work and consistent delivery of high quality work which she felt distinguished her from her colleagues during the period and laid the foundation for a smooth transition into the world of full-time work.
Diverticulitis results from a diet of meat and refined sugar that’s low in plant-based fiber. So, although the particles of cinnamon do not enter into our cells, they may produce benefit through interactions with our cells during their passage from mouth to anus.
Because the structure of the colon includes nutrient arteries from the outside lining of the colon to the interior, the path of these arteries effectively poke “holes” in the wall of the colon, these “holes” are weakened areas. As the infection increases, trapped inside the diverticulum, the diverticulum becomes an abscess which, untreated, soon leads to a perforation (hole) in the diverticulum. Increasing dietary fiber can help lower cholesterol (soluble fiber such as oat bran), decrease the risk of colon cancer and lessen the formation  of hemorrhoids. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this site! Based on what I have been told by a colleague, I am covering the work that should be done by two people. She is from a family of eight that live in a two-room house on a mountaintop overlooking the mountains and valleys of central Jamaica. Cut back on extra water after 6 PM at night if the amount you are drinking during the day awakens you more than once at night to void. Try to achieve and maintain the initial goal of at least 40 grams of dietary fiber per day. These attempts to empty the rectum will be associated with repetitions of the Valsalva maneuver.
Rarely, surgery is required to drain the pocket of infection around a section of the colon.

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