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If you’re searching for your dream home in the sun you should ensure Italy is on your bucket list for any possible home purchase by the sea.
You’ll find vast numbers of Italian beaches and marinas have the Blue Flag award for excellence in a variety of marine and conservation issues. The Blue Flag awards for beaches have been around since 1985 and is an important environmental initiative carried out by the Danish non-Government Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE). This ranking also goes hand in hand with the same interest of international buyers looking for a second home in Italy.
Finding and purchasing your perfect home in Italy that’s close to Blue Flag beaches and gives you the lifestyle you deserve is not difficult if you take time to look at different regions of our beautiful country. Economic Development has been defined by Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen as "the process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy" (see Development as Freedom, p. Several websites have collections of scholarly papers about economic development available for download (typically in PDF format). EconPapers provides access to RePEc (Research Papers in Economics), a collection of Economics papers and articles. ERN (Economics Research Network) has a variety of papers on economic development available for download.
The Latin American Network is part of the Economics Research Network listed above, and contains over 600 papers on (mostly) Latin American development topics. There are countless development economics textbooks and readers out there and even more that cover "development" from a broader historical, political, and sociological point of view. If I had to put together a collection of readings in development economics, this is the collection I would put together. This is a very comprehensive survey of the field and one of the leading undergraduate textbooks. Michael Todaro and Stephen Smith, Economic Development, 10th edition (Boston: Pearson Addison Wesley, 2008). This is a collection of papers by Dani Rodrik, the Harvard economist who is rapidly becoming one of the most influential thinkers in the field of development economics. Paul Collier attempts to bridge in this book the chasm between the pro-aid Sachs camp and the anti-aid Easterly camp. Sachs makes a compelling case for an increase in foreign aid to the poorest countries in the world. This is a book that leaves much to be desired, but I'm recommending it to provide some balance to Sachs's The End of Poverty.
Elhanan Helpman, The Mystery of Economic Growth (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004). This book is about economic growth rather than economic development ("growth" typically refers to a long-run increase in GDP per capita; "development" is a much broader concept). Bhagwati is one of the most respected international trade specialists (widely expected to receive a Nobel prize in economics). This is a fascinating, extremely clear, and very well written account of the Asian financial crisis of 1997-98. Easterly, a former World Bank advisor, takes a critical view of foreign aid and traditional development policies pushed on developing countries by the rich world.
The text of several periodicals on economic development issues can be downloaded from the internet. The Human Development Report, published annually by the United Nations Development Programme, reports on human development issues throughout the world. The World Development Report is published annually (usually in September) by the World Bank. Finance and Development, a quarterly publication of the IMF, contains articles on development issues written mostly (but not exclusively) by IMF and World Bank staff. IMF Survey is a newsletter from the IMF that often includes information and articles about developing countries.
The best-known scholarly journals in development economics are the Journal of Development Economics, Economic Development and Cultural Change, and the Journal of Development Studies.
A number of economists with an interest in economic development have many of their writings available on-line or downloadable in PDF format. Many other interesting development economists don't have a website or don't post their writings on their website, so they are not listed above. Several private, governmental, international, and academic organizations do work on economic development issues and maintain websites with information, data, and resources regarding developing countries. World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER), part of the United Nations University system. Hundreds of NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations), also known as PVOs (Private Voluntary Organizations), do work on economic development. Chris Blattman's Blog is subtitled "Economic Development, Political Change, and Conflict in the Developing World." Blattman is an Assistant Professor of Political Science and Economics at Yale.
The Private Sector Development Blog "gathers together news, resources and ideas about the role of private enterprise in fighting poverty." Its numerous authors are all members of The World Bank Group.
Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson maintain the Why Nations Fail blog, named after their 2012 book. Following is a short list of other websites with interesting resources for students of economic development. Economic Growth Resources is a website with resources about economic growth maintained by Jonathan Temple of the University of Bristol. STUDENTS: Students from around the world often get in touch with me with requests for help. This region had the highest percentage of married Web users, and the lowest percentage in the "other" category, presumed to be couples living together. Aside from Eastern Europe, this region had the lowest level of education, while still very high.
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UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY RATE IS THE PROBABILITY PER 1,000 THAT A NEWBORN BABY WILL DIE BEFORE REACHING AGE FIVE, IF SUBJECT TO CURRENT AGE-SPECIFIC MORTALITY RATES. In fact, according to our report in 2015, Liguria and Tuscany were also the most sought after regions by overseas investors. For this reason, in a blue flag area such as Castelsardo in Sardinia (considered one of the most beautiful villages in Italy), you will find delightful places for roughly €1,170 m?. While there is no generally accepted definition of "developing countries," the expression refers to relatively poor countries—or countries where standards of living are relatively low on average. Many of these papers are on economic development issues, and many (but not all) are downloadable in full at no cost.



A collection of over 6,000 papers written between 1988 and today on a variety of development topics.
Seriously, though, I can hardly provide an unbiased review of a reader I edited, so let me just report what Jeffrey Sachs had to say about it: "The Development Economics Reader, edited by Giorgio Secondi, offers a wonderful introduction to the great themes and debates of development economics. It's aimed instead at students with substantial background in economic theory and, in fact, is best suited to graduate students in economics (a must-read for Ph.D.
He reviews the results of much of his research on developing countries and draws lessons on the reasons why about a billion people still live in extreme poverty, making recommendations on what can be done about it. The first part of the book also reads as an autobiography; Sachs recounts how he got into development economics in the first place. The book appears to have been conceived precisely as a response to Sachs's book, as it discusses all the reasons why foreign aid has often failed in the past and is likely to fail in the future if it continues to be disbursed in the same way. Too often these journalists aren't trained in economics and show little understanding of key economic concepts. Helpman—an extremely well-respected Harvard economist—reviews the major strands of theories of economic growth, discussing much of the evidence that supports them (or fails to support them). In this book, he lays out the case in favor of globalization, trying to address the many critiques popularized in recent years by the anti-globalization movement. The book also addresses some of the international events that followed in the wake of the crisis—namely the Russian bond default and the Long-Term Capital Management rescue in 1998. Using evidence and a wealth of anecdotes, he effectively points out all the things that can and will go wrong when development policies are not thought through carefully (and especially when they don't take into account the realities of developing countries). All articles are readable on line and are very accessible to readers with no background in economics.
Other journals that focus mostly on development issues include World Development, The World Bank Economic Review, the Journal of Economic Growth, Development and Change, and the Review of Development Economics. Acemoglu is not really  a development economist, but recently he has done very interesting work on the role of institutions in economic development (winning the 2005 John Bates Clark Medal). Banerjee has published widely on issues of economic development in India, addressing everything from governance to health care delivery, and from bank financing to land tenure systems. Bardhan has written mostly about institutions, governance, and corruption, as well as about globalization and India's economy. Bhagwati is really an international trade theorist (rather than a development economist), but I'm including him in this list because much of what he's written recently focuses on the effects of globalization on developing countries.
Collier works almost exclusively on Africa, but has studied all sorts of different development issues on the African continent—civil wars, foreign aid, commodity prices, democracy, trade policies, and much more. Duflo has worked on a wide variety of (mostly) empirical microeconomic topics, including inequality and growth, intrahousehold resource allocation, health and education, and the role of banks. Hausmann specializes in international finance, and has written extensively about international financial crises and macroeconomic issues in developing countries.
Kremer has worked mostly on the economics of health in developing countries, but he's also written about education, globalization, and a variety of other issues. Pritchett, who spent a significant share of his career at the World Bank, is especially known for his research on education in developing countries, but he has also written extensively on economic growth and poverty reduction.
Ray is the author of an excellent (but advanced) textbook in development economics and has written on such issues as inequality, ethnic conflict, and credit markets. Rodrik has written mostly about development policies, and has several critical pieces on globalization and foreign aid.
Rogoff, who served as IMF chief economist in 2001-03, has written mostly about international financial institutions and foreign debt, exchange rates, and other international macroeconomic issues. Sachs was director of the United Nations Millennium Project between 2002 and 2006 and continues to serve as Special Advisor to the UN Secretary-General. While not a development economist by training (he won a Nobel Prize in Economics in 2001 for his contributions to the economics of information), in recent years Stiglitz has published widely on globalization and international financial issues, criticizing sharply the role of the IMF. The site is maintained by Gunilla Peterson and organized by topic (aid, education, health, migration, governnance, etc.). If you'd like me to include a link to your website, send me the link (but note that it may take me a while to visit your website and decide whether I should include it). THIS PAGE HAS THE LATEST RECORDED VALUE, AN HISTORICAL DATA CHART AND RELATED INDICATORS FOR MORTALITY RATE - UNDER-5 (PER 1;000) IN ITALY. Blue Flag beaches are eco-labels given to beaches around the world that fulfill a number of criteria including cleanliness and water quality, recycling and ecological commitments and environmental education programs. A popularity which is often related to a more expensive housing market compared to other areas. You could even find one for less in Carovigno in Puglia, by far one of the most sought after areas by our users. Most of these countries are located in three geographical areas: Sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South Asia, and Latin America.
Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq has written that "the objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives" (see Human Development Reports). Run a specific search from this website, or go to this page and hit "Search" under the 'O' JEL Code to get a list of all papers in the Economic Development category.
The subject is endlessly fascinating, important, and complex, and the Reader does justice to the richness of the field, and in a manner that is remarkably accessible for students without a technical background in economics. While he believes in using neoclassical economic analysis, he emphasizes that this in no way implies simple, one-recipe development policies that must work for all countries ("privatize this, liberalize that," as he puts it). He focuses specifically on about 60 countries that, unlike China or India, have not been experiencing rapid growth or poverty reduction. The many stories of aid failures that Easterly recounts are certainly worth reading—it's always good to be reminded that there's no silver bullet in development economics. Robert Guest is one of the exceptions (Charles Wheelan and Paul Blustein are other exceptions that come to mind—journalists who write exceptionally well on economic issues).
Blustein looks especially closely at the role of the IMF, providing a critical view but staying away from gratuitous bashing. He warns against panaceas (population control or debt relief) and emphasizes the role of incentives. The full text of the report and all data are available on-line free of charge in PDF format (statistics are also available in Excel format).
Articles on economic development also appear regularly in general economics journals such as the American Economic Review, the Journal of Political Economy, the Journal of Economic Perspectives, and many others. He has also worked more broadly on questions of political economy of interest to developing countries.
Click on the link at the very bottom of his webpage to access many of his writings in PDF format. He's also worked on the role of institutions and geography in development, the effects of inflation, and other issues. He has many of his policy papers, research papers, and editorials available from his website. He's also written on exchange rates and currency crises, institutions, and technological change.


Click on the "Development Economics" section of his page for a collection of many of his papers.
His website is truly extensive—nearly everything that he's written seems to be available here in one way or the other.
He has written about saving behavior in rural areas, agricultural production and the theory of the household, and other microeconomic topics.
Each link is followed by a short description provided by the institution itself (visit each website for more details). Unfortunately, I know of no comprehensive on-line list of NGOs that work on development issues. This is seen in a Ligurian blue flag area, such as Bordighera, where the average property price can be around €2,600 m?. Here you can find a completely restored trullo with plenty of land, a few kilometres from the crystal clear Adriatic sea, starting at around €25,000. The Reader not only offers a judicious and balanced selection of important articles, but also provides a consistently high-quality introduction for each major theme, as well as review and discussion questions following each article and a valuable annotated list of further readings for each topic." In short, the idea behind the reader was to have a collection of readings that (1) are understandable to non-economists and non-Econ majors, (2) are nonetheless rigorous and written by top-notch development economists (or non-economists who understand economics), (3) are recent and reflect the latest research, and (4) give the reader a sense of the controversies and debates that are typical of the field.
The latest edition, which adds David Lindauer to the list of authors, represents a great step forward in updating and modernizing the book. The book is not nearly as comprehensive as the surveys reviewed above and focuses on the microeconomics of development; it does an excellent job at incorporating the insights of relatively recent literature.
To the contrary, Rodrik argues that development economists must look carefully at the reality of each country and design policies that take that reality into account—recipes will likely be different in different contexts.
Collier identifies four "traps" that prevent such countries—most of them in Sub-Saharan Africa—from raising standards of living: conflict (civil war and coups), the presence of natural resources (that's right—the presence, not the absence), being "landlocked with bad neighbors," and bad governance. The second part focuses more on dispelling myths about poverty and showing that extreme poverty can be eliminated within decades. Far less convincing is Easterly's distinction between "Planners" (people who want a "big push" in aid and think that they can plan development from above) and "Searchers" (people who come up with small-scale initiatives that take into account people's incentives and help the poor directly). The Africa editor for The Economist, Guest recounts many of his experiences on the ground in Africa, addressing several of the key obstacles to development—corruption, lack of clearly defined property rights, the AIDS epidemics, lack of infrastructure, etc.). This is a concise and very clear book to help the reader learn what we know and what we don't about economic growth.
I agree entirely with John Williamson when he writes (on the back cover) that "this is investigative journalism at its best." The book is accessible to the general reader. Easterly's writing style can at time be disorienting, but by and large his message gets across and is worth reading. Articles published in all these journals are typically NOT freely available on the internet, but you may have access to them if your institution subscribes to ProQuest, FirstSearch, JSTOR, or similar on-line databases. However, it is true, following the price drops in recent years and an increase in the number of properties currently on the market, you can find some real bargains, especially if you travel a little way out from popular cities or from the coast. Follow the links below to learn more about what economic development is and how development economists measure standards of living and progress toward economic development.
Clear, well-organized, comprehensive, and generally concise, the book offers a great introduction to the field. Where reading Perkins feels like walking on a straight road, reading Todaro feels more like wandering in a leafy forest (which can be great fun at times, but a bit frustrating at other times).
Collier doubts that globalization can do much for these countries, at least in their present state; and while he thinks that foreign aid has a role to play, he believes that it also has serious limitations and needs to be provided in different ways. Not all will agree with Sachs's emphasis on geography as the key reason for poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, but Sachs does have substantial data and careful analysis to back up his case. The distinction is not convincing because much development aid these days supports the kind of projects that fall into the "Searcher" category.
The book uses anecdotes to help the reader understand some of the realities that the people of Africa face every day. While most of the key points will be clear to anyone, some of the finer points of the discussion require knowledge of intermediate-level economic theory to be fully understood.
Remember that "research is the process of going up alleys to see if they are blind" (Marston Bates), so go ahead—explore the alleys.
One small quibble I have with it is that, like most books that have gone through many editions, it tends to have that feel of unevenness that results from grafting updates onto older material.
Like Perkins, Todaro suffers from the "tenth-edition syndrome"—the brand-new material doesn't always mesh well with the vintage framework; and, like Perkins, Todaro assumes familiarity with intermediate-level theory (even though most technical material is relegated to the appendices).
And he argues that coming up with "laundry lists" of reforms that a poor country needs to put into effect is not the best approach; while it may well be the case that reforms are needed in many areas, Rodrik believes that it's crucial to identify "binding constraints" and to target reforms at those constraints, thinking carefully about what needs to be prioritized and how various reforms should be sequenced. He goes on to recommend alternative solutions to aid provision, including military intervention (which he believes to be effective in very specific circumstances—he's not advocating more Iraqs).
Some of the recent work by Harvard's Dani Rodrik (see link to his webpage below) provides a critical view of Sachs's position on global poverty reduction. More importantly, while Easterly obviously enjoys pointing out everything that can go wrong when aid is given, he has little to say when the time comes to propose constructive alternatives. Rodrik's eclectic approach is well worth learning and thinking about; I was a bit disappointed that this volume didn't contain any new writings—all the papers had been published or circulated before.
Collier's research is very interesting, and he does an excellent job at explaining it to the general reader. William Easterly—a former World Bank economist and well-known foreign aid skeptic—has also written a critical review of the book which was published in the Journal of Economic Literature. Readers may not agree with everything Bhagwati has to say (and may find that his writing style is not always engaging); they will, however, learn why most economists have a positive view of globalization. But the book is a great introduction to Rodrik's thinking on development policy; it's also very readable and accessible to the general reader. A shortened version appeared in The Washington Post (which also published Sachs's annoyed reply). Readers who have only taken introductory economics classes (or no economics at all) will occasionally be stumped by the use of some of these tools. This book is accessible to the general reader (no economics background is necessary to understand it). It's hard to see how this is different from what just about any development agency is trying to do these days. Such use, however, is not too frequent, so even readers with limited economics background will be able to get a lot out of this book.
Amartya Sen has written an excellent review of this book for Foreign Affairs (appropriately titled "The Man Without a Plan"; Easterly has written a response).



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