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Despite the burdens of segregation and racism, some high schools and colleges for black students provided educational opportunities that rivaled those offered to white students. Separate public schools were often created for Asian, Latino, and Native American children. During the 1940s, psychologists Kenneth Bancroft Clark and his wife, Mamie Phipps Clark designed a test to study the psychological effects of segregation on black children. As the nation's capital became more and more populated by blacks in the first half of the twentieth century, the schools in District of Columbia became more segregated. In 1949, the state NAACP in South Carolina sought twenty local residents in Clarendon County to sign a petition for equal education. In June 1950, shortly after the Sweatt, McLaurin, and Henderson victories, Thurgood Marshall convened a conference of the NAACP's board of directors and affiliated attorneys to determine the next step in the legal campaign. Brief of the Attorneys for the Plaintiffs (Charles E.
On June 25, 1951, Robert Carter and Jack Greenberg argued the Brown case before a three judge panel in district court in Kansas. Opinion and Finding of Fact for the case of Oliver Brown, et al. In 1950 Louis Redding filed a lawsuit on behalf of Sarah Bulah to admit her daughter Shirley to a nearby white elementary school, after the Delaware Board of Education refused to allow her to board an all-white school bus that drove pass their home.
The Library of Congress does not have permission to show this image online. Spurred by a student strike, blacks in Prince Edward County, Virginia, called a lower federal court's attention to the demonstrably unequal facilities in the county's segregated high schools. United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. The Supreme Court did not render a judgement after the initial oral arguments in Brown v. As President (1953-1961), Dwight David Eisenhower took decisive action to enforce court rulings eliminating racial segregation. This photograph shows interested members of the public waiting in line outside the Supreme Court for a chance to obtain one of the 50 seats allotted to hear the second round of arguments in the landmark Brown v.
In preparation for the Brown court case the three lead lawyers gathered to discuss their final strategy. Pictured in this photograph are nine members of the Supreme Court that decided Brown v. Three lawyers, Thurgood Marshall (center), chief counsel for the NAACP's Legal Defense Fund and lead attorney on the Briggs case, with George E. The Library of Congress does not have permission to show this image online. Realizing that overturning school segregation in the South might entail a degree of social upheaval, Chief Justice Warren carefully engineered a unanimous vote, one without dissents or separate concurring opinions. Early in May 1954, Chief Justice Earl Warren circulated draft opinions for the school desegregation cases to his colleagues on the Court. Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter, who had worked to achieve a definitive repudiation of segregation by the Supreme Court, sent this note to Chief Justice Warren on the day that the decision in Brown v. Chief Justice Earl Warren's reading copy of Brown is annotated in his hand.
Chief counsel for the NAACP Thurgood Marshall spoke to the press in New York City on May 31 after the Supreme Court decreed an end to public school segregation as soon as feasible. The NAACP's affiliation with the philanthropic Stokes family began with J.
Anson Phelps Stokes to Channing Tobias, Chairman of the NAACP, offering congratulations on the NAACP's victory in Brown v.
William Patterson was an attorney and former Executive Secretary of the International Labor Defense (ILD), an organization dedicated to protecting the rights of racial minorities, political radicals, and the working class.
The multi-faceted African American response to the decision was articulated throughout the black press and in editorials published in official publications of national black organizations. After the Brown opinion was announced, the Court heard additional arguments during the following term on the decree for implementing the ruling. In response to requests from two Justices during the oral arguments of the implementation phase of Brown v. Many white Southern liberals welcomed the moderate and incremental approach of the Brown implementation decree.
Challenges to legal and social institutions implicit in the Brown decision led to adverse reactions in both Northern and Southern states.
Morehouse College and Tuskegee, Howard, and Fisk universities have educated African Americans since the late 1800s. Where there were not enough children of a single racial group to form their own school, they were usually required to attend black institutions. The young teacher in the center is Lyndon Johnson, who as president would sign the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In some southern states, white schools received two to three times more money per student than black schools. Outdated textbooks from white schools, such as this one from Raleigh, North Carolina, would be transferred to a local black school. In 1950 Kenneth Clark wrote a paper for the White House Mid-Century Conference on Children and Youth summarizing this research and related work that attracted the attention of Robert Carter of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund. They showed the dolls to black children between the ages of three and seven and asked them questions to determine racial perception and preference.
During World War II, there was no new construction of schools and the few that existed were extremely overcrowded. The petition turned into a lawsuit and first name on the list was Harry Briggs. Testimony of Expert Witnesses at Trial of Clarendon County School Case Direct Examination by Robert L.



They were assisted by local NAACP attorneys Charles Bledsoe and brothers John and Charles Scott.
In 1951, Redding filed a second suit on behalf of Ethel Belton and nine other plaintiffs, whose children were barred from attending the all-white high school in their community.
Trial Memorandum from Jack Greenberg concerning the Wilmington school case, October 11, 1951. He would not, however, endorse the Brown decision or condemn segregation as morally wrong. Board of Education decision its name originated in a Federal District Court in Topeka, Kansas. Coleman assisted Thurgood Marshall with the planning and execution of the Brown litigation.
Burton sent this note to Chief Justice Earl Warren on the day that the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Warren announced the opinion in the names of each justice, an unprecedented occurrence. Board of Education case in 1954 marked a culmination in a plan the NAACP had put into action more than forty years earliera€”the end to racial inequality. Nettie Hunt and daughter Nikie on the steps of the Supreme Court, 1954. At the news conference in New York City, Marshall told reporters “.
Patterson, Executive Secretary of the Civil Rights Congress, to Walter White congratulating White on the NAACP's victory in Brown v. Founded in 1910, The Crisis magazine, shown here, is the official organ of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Redding, a graduate of Brown University and Harvard Law School, became the first African American attorney in Delawarea€”the only one for more than twenty years.
Redding of Wilmington, Delaware, and Thurgood Marshall, General Counsel for the NAACP, conferring at the Supreme Court, during recess in the Court's hearing on racial integration in public schools, 1955. Board, Kansas Attorney General Harold Fatzer provided the Court with this map of the Topeka public school districts along with 1956 enrollment estimates by race. Ralph McGill, the influential editor of the Atlanta Constitution, wrote in praise of the Court's decision to have local school boards, in conjunction with Southern court judges, formulate and execute desegregation orders. Supreme Court's decision on May 17, 1954, and May 31, 1955, desegregating schools, Thurgood Marshall (1908-1994), was featured on the cover of Time magazine, on September 19, 1955.
However, it did take longer for the junior and senior high schools to integrate.
Black taxpayers in several states not only bore the entire cost of their own schools, but helped support white schools as well. Carter believed that Clark's findings could be effectively used in court to show that segregation damaged the personality development of black children.
Melvin Sharpe, was one of the five school desegregation cases that comprised Brown.
Carter, Jack Greenberg, and Thurgood Marshall) in the case of Oliver Brown, . As in Briggs, the testimony of social scientists was central to the case. That fall, Thurgood Marshall sent Jack Greenberg to Wilmington to work with Redding on the litigation.
The case involved four states (Kansas, Virginia, Delaware and South Carolina) and the District of Columbia. Boulware, (Briggs case), Thurgood Marshall, (Briggs case), and Spottswood W. Seated in the front row (from left) Felix Frankfurter, Hugo Black, Earl Warren, Stanley Reed, and William O. The Russell Daily News, serving the city and county of Russell, Kansas, announced the decision with a banner headline and two front page stories.
The drama was heightened by the widespread prediction that the Court would be divided on the issue.
The NAACP lost the bid because it lacked a full-time legal staff spurring Walter White, then head of the NAACP, to hire Charles H.
He devoted his practice to civil rights law and served as the counsel for the NAACP Delaware branch.
Frankfurter wanted to anchor the decree in an established doctrine, and his endorsement of it sought to advance a consensus held by the entire court. Although almost all of the schools shown were either overwhelmingly white or completely black, Fatzer argued that Topeka had not deliberately gerrymandered the districts so as to concentrate black pupils into a few districts. Solicitor General Simon Sobeloff forwarded to Chief Justice Warren this letter from an official of the New York chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution. Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Marshall graduated with honors from Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. On Carter's recommendation, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund engaged Clark to provide expert social science testimony in the Briggs, Davis, and Delaware cases.
However, when asked which they preferred, the majority selected the white doll and attributed positive characteristics to it. The data reveals that Mark A., a black boy age four with a dark brown complexion, prefers the white doll and selects the white doll as the one that looks like him.
Because the District of Columbia was not a state but federal territory, the Fourteenth Amendment arguments used in the other cases did not apply. The NAACP immediately instituted lawsuits concerning segregated public schools in Southern and border states.
Delivered in the United States Court for the District of Kansas, 1951.
Greenberg drafted this meticulous trial memorandum the week before the hearing.


Davis, who had been the Democratic Party's unsuccessful candidate for president in 1924, was the lead counsel in the South's effort to uphold the Plessy v. Among an impressive array of legal representation for the plaintiffs was Thurgood Marshall serving as chief council for the NAACP. Nabrit (right), attorneys for Bolling case, standing on the steps of the Supreme Court congratulating each other after the court ruling that segregation was unconstitutional. He proposed to put off the tricky question of implementation until later. He said, “Today I believe has been a great day for America and the Court.
Hunt, shown here, explained to their children why this was an important moment in history.
At the time of the Brown decision, Anson Phelps Stokes was president of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, a charitable trust that sponsored black schools and educational projects. The justices thought that the decree should provide for flexible enforcement, appeal to established principles, and suggest some basic ground rules for judges of the lower courts. Also shown is a key to the map, representing the placement of students in the districts. His exclusion from the University of Maryland's Law School due to racial discrimination, marked a turning point in his life.
Clark also co-authored a summation of the social science testimony delivered during the trials that was endorsed by thirty-five leading social scientists.
The Clarks also gave the children outline drawings of a boy and girl and asked them to color the figures the same color as themselves. Many black students were attending schools in shifts while many of the white schools sat nearly empty.
He sought Klineberg's advice on the use of social science testimony in the pending trial to show the psychological damage segregation caused in black children.
In it he provides a schedule of witnesses, instructions on deposing the witnesses, and the questions to be posed.
Coleman wrote this memorandum for Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter in 1949.
In this letter Patterson, head of the Civil Rights Congress, a leftist organization, attributes opposition to the Brown decision to “the demoralizing effect of segregated schools on white youth. When it became clear that opponents of desegregation were using the doctrine to delay and avoid compliance with Brown, the Court began to express reservations about the phrase. As a result, he attended the Howard University Law School, and graduated first in his class in 1933.
Many of the children with dark complexions colored the figures with a white or yellow crayon. Among the witnesses listed are psychologists Kenneth Clark and Otto Klineberg. Instead, the Court submitted a list of five questions for counsel to discuss at a rehearing that convened on December 7, 1953. Davis, one time Democratic presidential candidate and expert on constitutional law.
Early in his career he traveled throughout the South and argued thirty-two cases before the Supreme Court, winning twenty-nine. The Consolidated Parents Group initiated a boycott of the black High School in Washington.
District Court in Topeka, Kansas, in February 1951 and litigated concurrently with Briggs v.
The two men are shown meeting in New York in October 1952, shortly before Davis would endorse Eisenhower for president. Fact VIII endorsed the psychological premise that segregation had a detrimental effect on black children. Thurgood Marshall in later years would say of Davis, “He was a good man . Houston persuaded him to leave private law practice and join the NAACP legal staff in New York, where he remained from 1936 until 1961.
He also agreed to assist the Legal Defense Fund 's lawyers in the preparation of briefs and recruit other prominent social scientists to testify.
Oliver Brown, one of thirteen plaintiffs, had agreed to participate on behalf of his seven-year-old daughter Linda, who had to walk six blocks to board a school bus that drove her to the all-black Monroe School a mile away. This was the windfall the NAACP needed to appeal the case to the Supreme Court. Gebhart, which respectively concerned elementary school and high school.
This document records the depositions of two expert witnesses who participated in Briggs v. Houston was hired to represent them in a law suit to make black schools more equal to white schools when Houston's health began to fail. Briggs and Brown were the first cases to reach the Court; three others followed. Davis, a professor of political science at Lincoln University, Mabel Smythe, an economist, and psychologist Kenneth Clark, and scholars John Hope Franklin, C.
On April 1, 1952, Judge Collins Seitz ordered the immediate admission of black students to Delaware's white public schools, but the local state-run-school board appealed the decision to the U.S.
Johnson appointed Marshall as Solicitor General in 1965 and nominated him to a seat on the United States Supreme Court in 1967 from which he retired in 1991.



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