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This essay provides an overview of the higher education system in Egypt with a focus on students’ access to universities and women’s participation in higher education. Secondary education is of crucial importance in the Egyptian education structure because its graduates compete for university admission or for work. As of the 2005–2006 school year, 56% of students were enrolled in technical secondary schools while 32.9% attended general secondary schools (see Table 3). Even where enrollment ceased to be an issue decades ago, the boundaries between social groups have been moving, not disappearing, and the grounds for inequality have been mutating or shifting in terms of emphasis. The 2010 SPU report further explains that women’s enrollment in higher education is influenced mostly by the unequal distribution of higher education institutions across governorates. In terms of women’s participation in different fields of specialization in Egypt, as commonly seen in other countries, female enrollment in the fields of education (72%), humanities (72%), and arts (73%) tend to be much higher than their male counterparts, as opposed, for example, to the engineering discipline (28%).
In conclusion, examining male and female access to post-secondary education in Egypt reveals how educational inequality has been structured through a two-track system of general versus technical secondary schools. Sign up to receive the latest publications, event invitations, and our weekly newsletter delivered to your inbox. By submitting this form, you are granting The Middle East Institute permission to email you.
Assertions and opinions in this publication are solely those of the above-mentioned author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Middle East Institute, which expressly does not take positions on Middle East policy. PRIMARY EDUCATION; PUPILS IN EGYPT WAS LAST MEASURED AT 10819639 IN 2012, ACCORDING TO THE WORLD BANK.
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The universities and higher education institutions in Egypt, as in other countries, accept students graduated from secondary schools. There are 17 public universities, of which 11 are located in the Cairo, Alexandria, and Delta regions (in the north of Egypt), while only six universities are in the Upper Egypt regions (in the south). In poor and disadvantaged areas, according to the 2010 Egypt Human Development Report, “the twin problems of school dropouts and non-enrollment continue as a phenomenon that is mostly peculiar to poor girls, and reflects the persistence of gender disparities, with Upper Egypt [in the south] being the most disadvantaged region.”[13] The following section examines women’s participation in higher education by regions and academic disciplines. Gender inequality in higher education is present in terms of male versus female enrollment rates and women’s representation by economically-advantaged versus disadvantage regions as well as fields of specialization. Thus, it is not surprising to find that the lowest female enrollment rates exist in the Upper Egypt governorates, which are not only the poorest in the country but considered socially and culturally to be more conservative and protective toward women.
Interestingly, however, women show higher enrollment rates than men in the fields of basic sciences (54%) and medicine (57%), as shown in Table 6.
Megahed, “Secondary Education Reforms in Egypt: Rectifying Inequality of Educational and Employment Opportunities,” pp. Ministry of Education, National Strategic Plan for Pre-University Education Reform in Egypt, 2007-2008-2011-2012 (Cairo: Ministry of Education, 2007), p.
Graduates of five-year technical schools, if admitted to the university, are placed in the second year of the university program. Ministry of Education, National Strategic Plan for Pre-University Education Reform in Egypt, 2007-2008-2011-2012, p. PRIMARY EDUCATION PUPILS IS THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PUPILS ENROLLED AT PRIMARY LEVEL IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS. Output rose by a quarter to about 2,000 in 2011, he claimed.The NRC won about US$13 million from the National Science and Technology Fund in 2011 to fund 80 research projects, he said. You will be re-directed back to this page where you will see comments updating in real-time and have the ability to recommend comments to other users. Therefore, understanding male and female access to university and higher education requires a thorough examination of the structure of the education system in Egypt. In addition, there are specialized institutes as well as a private higher education sector comprised of 15 universities.


For example, the overall higher education enrollment rate in 2006–2007 in Upper Egypt region, including Assuit governorate, was only 16%, with the lowest female participation rate (35%) occurring in Assuit.
Women’s participation in higher education remains lower (46%) than that of men, especially in poorer areas (35%) – an issue that is recognized by the Ministry of Higher Education and constitutes an essential part of its reform strategies. Based on the five-year technical school curriculum, the first year includes theoretical and preparatory subjects that are similar to the subjects in the first year of the university level. THIS PAGE HAS THE LATEST RECORDED VALUE, AN HISTORICAL DATA CHART AND RELATED INDICATORS FOR PRIMARY EDUCATION - PUPILS IN EGYPT.
But, despite salary rises, the centre lost 400 researchers in the brain drain last year, especially to Qatar and Saudi Arabia.The private sector has not fared so well post-revolution.
Table 5 presents the percentages of overall enrollment in higher education by regions and gender. In 1988, the Primary Teacher Training Schools were transferred to the Basic Education Teacher Program in the education colleges at the university level. For example, commercial graduates apply to certain faculties of commerce and industrial graduates apply to certain faculties of engineering.
The Nile University, the first private non-profit research university in Egypt, came under threat because of links to the former fallen regime. Master’s and PhD degrees need at least two years and three years respectively to be rewarded.”[6] In parallel with the public education system, there is Al-Azhar (religious) education, which provides primary, preparatory, secondary, and university education. In upgrading primary teacher training schools from the secondary level to programs at the university level, the attempt was made to improve the quality and performance of primary school teachers and encourage the enrollment growth of such program. Al-Azhar institutes are spread out in different cities and regions of the country, serving diverse groups of the population.



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