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Education in Kenya is designed to provide eight years of primary education, four years of secondary education and four years of University. Before joining primary school, children aged between three and six are required to attend pre-primary for one or two years. Primary school is the first phase of the 8-4-4 education system and serves students between the ages of six and fourteen. The primary school years are split into what they call Standard One through to Standard Eight.
Due to the large increase in primary school enrolment (since it became free) the number of students seeking secondary education has grown significantly. There are seven public Universities and seventeen private Universities with an enrolment of about 50,000 students.
The partition of Africa in 1884 established British rule in Kenya and led to an increase of Christian missionaries. Later, the colonial government urged the missionaries to expand the education system to include technical focus in the curriculum in addition to religion. In 1908, missionaries formed a joint committee on education that later became the missionary Board of Education, representing the protestant missions in the British protectorate. The board was established at the same time that the Fraser and Giroud Commissions were set up. After the First World War, a more concerted effort by the British to develop African colonies was established.
Government schools, formerly reserved for Europeans, and the private ones were the best equipped. The expansion of educational opportunities in Kenya has been the primary objective of the Government since the attainment of independence in an effort to boost economic development and, in the early years of independence, promote Kenyanisation by ensuring the nation created a strong supply of middle and higher level manpower.
In the 1980s and 1990s, President Daniel arap Moi oversaw the change of the education system from 7-6-3 to 8-4-4 and phenomenal expansion of university education.
His successor President Mwai Kibaki’s mantle was free primary education and partially free secondary schooling. The Jubilee government of President Uhuru Kenyatta and Deputy President William Ruto is keen on enhanced use of information and communication technologies by introducing laptops for all pupils joining class one in public schools in 2014. The number of educational institutions has risen to nearly 80,000 this year from just above 7,000 at independence, with the enrolment in primary schools having grown to nearly 10 million (9,970,900 in 2012) from just 891,553 in 1963. Pupils proceeding to sit the Kenya Primary Education (KPE) examination more than doubled from 62,000 in 1963 to 133,000 in 1966. Massive growth has also been recorded in the number of educational institutions, with pre – primary schools currently standing at nearly 40,000, primary schools at about 30,000, 370 teacher training colleges, 705 Technical, Industrial, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training (TIVET) institutions and about 60 universities. At Independence, the ruling party, the Kenya African National Union (Kanu), in its election manifesto of 1963 had identi?ed education as one of its high priorities and had committed itself to bring social change through education. On January 6, 2003, the Government embarked on the Third Free Primary Education (FPE) Programme, which was an election promise by Narc, which in December 2002 General Election defeated Kanu, the political party that had been in power since the country became independent in 1963. To ensure proper implementation of the programme, the Government brought on board various development partners that included the World Bank, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the British government as some of the key supporters. But significant increase in primary school enrolments put pressure on existing school infrastructure and led to overcrowding.
However, the Constitution of Kenya 2010 specifically gives every person a right to education.
During the fifth decade of independence, there has been robust political commitment not only to provide free primary education but to expand secondary and university education. And as the country marches to its next half century of self-determination, there is a great desire to ensure education moves in tandem with changes in information and communication technologies. University education also expanded rapidly as a result of increased demand for higher education from students graduating from secondary schools. But the major challenge towards expansion of education and training occurred in TIVETs as a result of inadequate facilities and capacities to cater for those who complete primary and secondary education and wish to undertake technical courses.
Efforts were made to improve early childhood education and by 2013 plans were underway to incorporate early childhood education with the overall basic education.
In November 2003, the Government organized the National Conference on Education and Training that was attended by key players in the education sector. However, the Constitution 2010 set off a ?urry of legal activities with the objective of aligning the existing laws with the supreme law.
Some of the statues that were realigned included the Education Act, Universities Act, Teachers Service Commission Act and the Kenya National Examinations Council Act. According to the policy document, this move would be achieved through the provision of all-inclusive quality education that is accessible and relevant to all Kenyans.
Basically the vision guided by the understanding that quality education and training contributes significantly to economic growth and the expansion of employment opportunities. But whereas in the past the Government was first and foremost interested in expanding access to education, the Sessional Paper No. 5 identi?ed quality education and training as a basic human right for all Kenyans and identified free primary education as a critical milestone to the attainment of universal primary education by 2015. Subsequently Sessional Paper No.5 spelt out a raft of policy options aimed at harmonizing various educational policies, guidelines and legislations as Well as addressing shortcomings and emerging educational issues.
The Kenya Constitution 2010 laid ground rules that every person has the right to education. Articles 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 and 59 of the Constitution have provisions on children‘s right to free and compulsory basic education, including quality services, and to access educational institutions.
People with disabilities are also accorded similar rights in addition to being properly integrated into society. Chapter Four of the Constitution embodies a comprehensive Bill of Rights and affirms the right of all Kenyans to education. The Constitution placed major emphasis on devolution of previously concentrated powers at the national level to 47 counties, each with a defined structure of government, elected governors, and county assembly and Wards. Government reorganization Under the Constitution, the Cabinet is also limited to between 14 and 22 members, resulting in the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. In anticipation to the new political dispensation, the Ministry of Education appointed a taskforce on realigning education to the Constitution 2010 and Vision 2030 under the Gazette Notice No.
Some key recommendations by the task force were that the curriculum be structured within a skills and competences framework that identi?es the knowledge, skills that all learners will acquire at every level of education. It proposed development of a progressive assessment framework that identi?es the knowledge, skills and competences that will be assessed for each level, mainly, senior secondary, junior secondary, upper primary and lower primary. On assessment and evaluation goals, the team called for the strengthening of regular school-based assessments in the form of Competence Assessment Tests (CATs). The team proposed the introduction of competency-based assessment in line with a competency-based curriculum for self-reliance and reintroduction of the Kenya Junior Secondary Education Certi?cate examinations, hitherto taken at the end of form two. The team recommended that ranking of schools be based on holistic assessment on performance indicators built around academic performance, co-curricular activities, quality management, maintenance of physical facilities, environmental care, learners ‘services and community outreach. It also called for the renaming of the Kenya National Examinations Council to Kenya Educational Assessment Council.
On access, relevance, equity and quality education, the team proposed the expansion of education at all levels, a major curriculum review, abolishing of all school levies which discriminate against poor households, review of capitation grants to be in line with in?ationary trends and establishment of a Council for Nomadic Education in Kenya. To address standards and quality assurance, the team proposed a semi-autonomous Education Standards and Quality Assurance Commission as the national custodian of standards and quality in education and hold to account all service providers across the education sector. It mandated the Commission for University Education to assume responsibility for Standards and Quality Assurance across all universities and other institutions of higher learning. The taskforce proposed creation of a National Qualification Framework for determining and assessing the level of achievement and competences of learners who have gone through different learning systems or different education structures. The taskforce observed that it was vital for the Government to continue reducing the cost of education to households through the provision of teachers, learning materials and grants to schools.
Other recommendations were that capitation grants be allocated o learners in pre-primary, primary, secondary, special needs education, adult education and not-for-pro?t non-formal schools; diversify and institutionalize university education funding sources to include government grants, education bonds and loans, private sector, development partners, scholarships, bursaries, ?nancial institutions, income generating activities and philanthropy. It also called for the encouragement of local, regional and international public private partnerships in ?nancing education, and investment in teacher professional development. Amid efforts to realign the education sector with the Constitution, the government enacted the Basic Education Act 2013. Empowered the Cabinet Secretary to implement the constitutional right of every child to free and compulsory basic education.
The Act states that no public school shall charge or cause any parent or, guardian to pay tuition fees for or on behalf of any pupil in the school. Every parent whose child is a Kenyan or resides in Kenya is required by law to ensure that the child attends school regularly. No child shall be denied admission in a school or basic education institution for lack of proof of age. A school or person responsible for admission shall not discriminate against any child seeking admission on any ground, including ethnicity, gender, sex, religion, race, colour or social origin, age, disability, language or culture.
No public school shall administer any test related to admission of a child to a public school or cause a person to administer such test unless such a test is for purposes of placing the child at an appropriate level of education. A parent of a child who has been denied admission to a public school may notify the County Education Board of the decision and only the Cabinet Secretary has the authority to prescribe criteria for the admission to a public school. No pupil shall be subjected to torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, in any manner, whether physical or psychological and any person convicted of having contravened that section shall be liable to a ?ne not exceeding Kshs 100, 000 or to imprisonment not exceeding six months or both. The law also outlaws holiday tuition and any person who contravenes the section will be liable to a fine not exceeding Kshs100,000 or to imprisonment not exceeding one year or to both.
The system and structure of basic education in Kenya has been established to include pre-primary education, primary education, secondary education and middle level institutions of basic education. The new legislation calls for establishment and development of special needs education and defines children with special needs. All public institutions that include, pre – primary institution, primary school, secondary school, adult and continuing education centre, multi-purpose development training institute, or middle level institutions of basic education are mandated to have Boards of Management, effectively replacing the former schools’ Boards of Governors (BOGs).
Every educational institution is required by law to have a parents association, replacing the former Parents and Teachers Association (PTA). The new agency is entrenched in law and every parent with a pupil in the school and a representative of the teachers in the school are members.
A Special Board of Adult and Continuing Education has been established to advise the Cabinet Secretary on matters relating to adult and education, including the formulation of courses and syllabuses, the establishment of residential and non-residential institutions.
The mandate of the National Council for Nomadic Education in Kenya is to initiate the development of policies on all matters relating to nomadic education in Kenya and to mobilize funds from various sources for the development of nomadic education. The Basic Education Act prescribes establishment of Education Standards and Quality Assurance Council, a body that shall ensure that quality standards of education are maintained institutions of basic education and also administer policies and guidelines. In Kenya, primary school starts at the age of six and runs for eight years, and while the public schools are free to all children, they often suffer from limited resources. OPIC recently agreed to support a business that is providing an affordable education alternative to thousands of Kenyan families through a series of 237 schools it is building throughout the country. Bridge International, which has already opened schools in several locations in Africa, has integrated teacher use of tablet computers into the program to ensure a standardized curriculum. In addition to the obvious benefit of educating so many low income students, the Bridge project is also expected to have a positive impact in other ways and is projected to create more than 12,000 local jobs in Kenya. At the university level, student numbers grew by a massive 28 percent between 2013 and 2014 and similar growth is expected this year, yet funding was cut by 6 percent in the 2015 national budget. According to UNESCO data, there were 13,573 Kenyan students studying abroad in 2012, with 3,776 in the United States, 2,235 in the UK and 1,191 in Australia. The United States hosted just 3,500 Kenyans last year as compared to a high of 7,800 in 2003.
While not captured in the UNESCO data, local Kenyan media reports suggest that the vast majority of internationally mobile Kenyan students are in neighboring countries. Kenya’s national education system is structured on an 8-4-4 model with eight years of basic education, four years of secondary education and a four-year undergraduate curriculum. Formal schooling begins at the age of six, with compulsory and free basic education running through to the age of 14. The cycle is divided into lower (Standards 1-3), middle (Standards 4 & 5) and upper primary (Standards 6-8).



The curriculum is uniform across the country and includes: English, Kiswahili, a local language, mathematics, science, social studies, religious education, creative arts, physical education, and life skills. Holders of the KCPE who do not enroll in secondary schools can attend youth polytechnics, which prepare students for Government Trade Tests, levels 1–3. Many private schools have religious affiliations and typically offer British or – less frequently – American curriculums and qualifications. Students who fail examinations either repeat the final school year or pursue technical and vocational education, either at four-year technical secondary schools or three- to five-year trade schools. In the non-university sector, students attend public and private technical and vocational polytechnics, colleges (teacher and medical colleges), and other tertiary-level TVET institutions (technical training institutes, institutes of technology, and technical and professional colleges). Current government plans call for the establishment of at least 20 new public universities, many in underserved regions, but recent budget cuts now call those plans into question.
Entry to public universities is coordinated by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Placement Service, established in 2014 to replace the Joint Admissions Board. University entry is based on the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education with a minimum average grade of C+ (the average of 8 subjects, including the compulsory English, Kiswahili and mathematics) traditionally set as the minimum threshold. In 2014, the threshold for degree programs was set at 60 points (B) for men and 58 (B-) for women. Offered at universities, bachelor’s degrees require four years of full-time study in most fields; five to six years in architecture, engineering, veterinary science and medicine. Subject selection is based on departmental requirements, university-wide courses and elective courses. Periods of study are quantified as course units, with a four-year degree typically requiring a minimum of 120 units. Entry is based on a bachelor’s degree with at least second class honors, more often upper second class honors. Doctoral degrees require a master’s degree for entry, with a minimum of two to three years of study. At the secondary level, students can undertake three- to five-year craft and trade programs leading to employment or further education.
At the postsecondary level, students can undertake professional advanced programs at national polytechnics, colleges and institutes. National polytechnics offer certificate, diploma and higher diploma programs in various technical fields. The Commission for University Education licenses, accredits, and monitors quality standards at the university level.
Institutions and programs in the technical and vocational field are overseen by the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Authority, under the Ministry of Education. Official academic transcripts and examination results to be sent directly from institutions attended or by the appropriate awarding authority. Students can also send a photocopy of the notification or statement of results, final degree, diploma or certificate submitted by the applicant. This file of Sample Documents (pdf) shows a set of annotated credentials from the Kenyan education system.
The first 3 courses shown on the document are core subjects: English, Kiswahili and Mathematics, as indicated by the 100 range course codes. The student has passed the minimum required eight subjects with an average grade of C+, which is adequate for university admissions. Undergraduate Academic Transcript from Maasai Mara University, a newly accredited institution. The transcript also offers a key to the grading system used, which is the most common grading scale seen in Kenya. Master of Science (Public Health) Transcript and Degree from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. Under the course and grading details, the transcript describes the unit system used (1 unit = 36 lecture hours or equivalent, with 3 practical hours and 2 tutorial hours equivalent to 1 lecture hour). This institution was initially a national polytechnic, then was upgraded to a university college affiliated to Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, and is now the Technical University of Mombasa. First published in 1987, World Education News & Reviews (WENR) is an authoritative news and information source for professionals in international education. A public forum was held in Nairobi on 28 July 2010 to discuss the effects of discrimination and stigmatization of HIV positive people.
The lack of knowledge among the grassroots people causes the marginalization of many HIV infected Kenyans and their relatives by their community, forcing some to see their condition as a death sentence. It was for this reason that a public forum was held in Nairobi on July 28 to discuss the effects of such discrimination and stigmatization, organized by the Kenya Alliance of Residents Association (KARA). Kenya’s HIV and AIDS Prevention and Control Act was passed in Parliament in 2006, but it has not been fully enforced yet. It can take up to fifteen years before an infected person shows symptoms, so there are actually many people unknowingly living a normal life with HIV.
In the past years some Kenyans believed that it was possible to reverse their sero-status by having sex with young virgin girls. In Sierra Leone, the stigma made the government pass a law that prohibited women infected with HIV from getting pregnant. Each year, over 350,000 new HIV infections occur among children in sub-Saharan Africa as a result of mother-to-child transmission, but only 45 % of the pregnant women in the region receive antiretroviral drugs to prevent the transmission to their children.
There is a programme in Kenya called Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP), which allows people to reverse the infection by accessing antiretroviral drugs a maximum 72 hours after the infection. PEP prevents HIV from completely entering the system, thus reducing the chances of infection by 80% or more.
Another new frontier towards preventing HIV transmission is “the gel of hope”: a new research by the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) presented at the 18th International AIDS Conference 2010 in Vienna which was tested among 889 women. Various efforts are being made to find solutions, but the number of people living with HIV in Kenya is officially believed to be between 1.5 and two million people. Sokari Ekine is a Nigerian social justice activist living in Spain, with a background in technology, gender issues and human rights. The main objective is to cater to the total development of a child, including the physical, spiritual, social and mental growth, brought about through formal and informal interaction with the parents and the community. The main purpose of primary education is to prepare students to participate in the social, political and economic well being of the country and prepare them to be global citizens.
At the end of Standard Eight the students sit the Kenyan Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE), the results of which are used to determine placement at secondary school.
However due to delayed primary school entry and limited educational schools and facilities, many students (especially those from rural areas) experience late admission into the secondary education system.
In 1963 (the start of independence) there were 151 secondary schools and the total number of students enrolled was 30,120. In addition to adding technical courses at primary and secondary school level, vocational education has been a focus of the education system. Traditional education was integrated with the social, cultural, artistic, religious and recreational life.
Even today, African indigenous education in Kenya continues to play a significant role, especially in rural areas where cultural heritage is taught and reflects features of different ethnic communities.
The first missionaries to settle on the East African coast were Portuguese Roman Catholics.
As the missionaries established themselves on the mainland, they started schools as a means of converting Africans to Christianity. Although some were reluctant, for fear of losing the monopoly of schools to the government, some went along and even received funding.
In 1909, the British government established an education board with Henry Scott of the Church of Scotland as the chair. In 1923, the British secretary of State established a committee chaired by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State to advise on the educational affairs of Africans in Kenya. Missionary schools continued to exist although some were converted into Government schools. More than 800,000 pupils sat the Kenya Certi?cate of Primary Education examinations in 2012, with close to 900,000 sitting the exam in 2013. Kanu pursued the goal in its 400-year rule, with its successor, National Rainbow Coalition (Narc), opening up more learning opportunities by offering free primary education immediately it ascended to power in 2003. The gross enrolment rate increased from 92 per cent in 2002 to 104 per cent in 2003 of the school age children population. Still, there is a shortage of primary schools in rural areas, especially in pastoral districts and urban slums in Nairobi and other big towns in the country. The number of universities rose from six public universities in 2003 to 22 and nine constituent colleges in 2013. However, despite the rise in enrolment, the transition rate from secondary level to university remained low, at l2 per cent in 2003 and still under 15 per cent in 2013. Subsequently, some of the polytechnics and technology institutes were taken over by universities.
The forum mandated the Ministry of Education to develop a new policy framework for the education sector.
The key concerns were related to access, retention, gender equity, quality and relevance, and internal and external efficiencies within the education system.
1 of 2005 on a Policy Framework for Education, Training and Research was to enable the country to achieve education for all objectives as stated by the Dakar Framework for Action achieving universal education by 2015. The paper reaffirmed the Government’s commitment towards improving the overall education level of Kenyans within the context of poverty reduction and economic growth. The document effectively revised Sessional Paper No 1 of 1988, which Was the outcome of Kamunge Report that had ostensibly recommended cost sharing in education at all levels. This includes the use of sign language, braille or other appropriate means of communication, and access to materials and devices to overcome constraints arising from the per son‘s disability.
The right to education includes both duties and obligations which are to be realized immediately and those which are subject to progressive realization.
Subsequently, structures of education were affected and have had to be aligned with the supreme law. Universities should focus on degree and postgraduate courses and avoid certificate courses.
The new legislation restructured management of education in the country and more importantly anchored free arid compulsory primary education into law. A parent who fails to take his or her child to school as required under the law commits an offence and shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand shillings or imprisonment not exceeding one year, or both. Only the Cabinet Secretary has power to prescribe expulsion or the discipline of a delinquent pupil for whom all other corrective measures have been exhausted and only after such child and parent or guardian have been afforded an opportunity of being heard. It also outlaws employment of a child of compulsory school age in any labour or occupation that prevents the child from attending school.
Private educational institutions No person shall establish or maintain a private school unless it is registered under the law or employ a teacher not registered by the Teachers Service Commission.
Each school will provide a standardized curriculum at a cost of less than $6 per month per student, a model designed to be both sustainable and affordable.
In addition to providing the schools teachers with lessons, the tablet maintains student grades and notes when the teacher arrives or leaves the school, and how long she spends on each lesson. More recently, the impact of the 2003 education for all program has been seen at the university level, where enrollment numbers have skyrocketed, more than doubling between 2012 and 2014 as the initial cohort of free primary school children have begun enrolling in university studies. In 2010, one million children were still out of school, and while this was almost half the number in 1999, it is still the ninth highest of any country in the world.
The mismatch between funding and enrollment growth will mean a heavier tuition burden for students, increasing the significant access issues that already exist for the marginalized, and adding to quality issues related to overcrowding, overburdened infrastructure and faculty shortages. More than 20,000 Kenyan students are estimated to be studying in Ugandan universities, and approximately 5,000 in Tanzania. Students progress to the academic secondary cycle, technical schools or trade schools from the basic cycle. At the end of the primary cycle, students take the national Kenya Certificate of Primary Education examination (KCPE), supervised by the Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) under the Ministry of Education.


Exams are held in five subjects: Kiswahili, English, mathematics, science and agriculture, and social studies.
At the end of the fourth year, students take examinations administered by the KNEC, which lead to the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). Students with the best scores on the KCPE attend national public schools, while lower scoring students tend to attend provincial and district level schools. This is narrowed down to eight subjects in the final two years, with three core and compulsory subjects taken by all students: English, Kiswahili and Mathematics. Where there were just five public universities in the country in 2005, today there are 22 with plans for as many as 20 new universities.
The latest enrollment figures for 2014 show that there were 443,783 students enrolled at universities across Kenya, more than double the 2012 enrollment number. Typically, programs offered at these institutions are two to three years in length, leading to certificates, diplomas and higher national diplomas.
Meanwhile, lecturer shortages continue to hinder growth in quality standards and lead to ever growing student to faculty ratios. Certain university departments sometimes require higher grades in certain subjects related to the field of study. In arts, social sciences and natural sciences most students take four subjects in their first year, three in the second year, and two in the last two years. Compulsory core courses are set by the department, and a research project is often required. Some universities also offer one-year postgraduate diplomas to holders of bachelor degrees with lower divisional grades. The first page of the transcript shows 100 level courses, the second 200 level, the third 300 level, and the fourth 400 level courses, showing that this is a four-year degree.
In the first year, the student took 100 level courses making up the certificate program, followed by two additional years for the award of the diploma. Neither the service provider nor the domain owner maintain any relationship with the advertisers.
Teresa Mwendwa is a lecturer at the University Of Nairobi School Of Medicine and is working with HIV infected people and their families in the Korogocho slum. The Act provides legislation on the rights of people living with HIV and aims to mitigate the effects of the epidemic on the population.
According to the last report from the National AIDS and STD Control Programme (NASCOP), 84 % of Kenyans infected by HIV are not aware of their condition.
Mwendwa believes it is mainly the stigma that causes the loss of appetite, the weakening of the immune system going down and other opportunistic infections which bring serious medical problems much sooner. Fortunately, due to awareness programmes and community activities, these kinds of beliefs, which violated human rights and dignity, are fortunately being dispelled. Hopefully this human rights violation made by the government itself should not spread out to other African countries. The Kenya National Commission on Human Rights is challenging the government to implement the HIV and AIDS prevention and control Act as soon as possible, but meanwhile it seems there are new medical frontiers on the matter of regulating HIV transmission.
This treatment is especially addressed to victims of rape and healthcare workers exposed to HIV through needle stick injuries at work: it is not possible to take it after every sexual act. By using microbicide vaginal gel applied by women 12 hours before or after sex, the infection rate is reduced by 50 % after one year, and in cases of prolonged use, by 39% after two years. There is still a huge need for information and awareness especially among the lowly educated class in order to end stigmatization and to fight for an AIDS-free generation in Kenya. He obsesses about the relationship between politics and popular culture, but the main rationale for his blog is to comment on what passes for media coverage of the African continent. She is interested in creating a community of grassroots African bloggers as a way for Africans to exchange ideas, share experiences and tell their own stories in our own words. She won the best Journalist blogger English category at the Panos hosted competition in 2009. Candidates are examined in five subjects: Kiswahili, English, Science and Agriculture, Mathematics and Social Studies. Secondary schools in Kenya are aimed at meeting the needs of students who end their education after secondary school and also those who proceed onto tertiary education. The Ministry of Higher Education has developed a national strategy for technical and vocational education and training aimed at the rehabilitation of physical facilities and equipment and ensuring that vocational and technicals institutions are appropriately equipped. Their acceptance was somewhat due to the fact that they used schools to rehabilitate slaves.
The recommendations included a push for industrial development, technical education and the teaching of religion as a moral Foundation.
It was also the starting point of a joint venture between the colonial government and missionaries — the latter paved the way for colonialism. While the estimated number of university students scattered all over the World in 1963 was estimated at 7,000, enrolment at local public and private universities is estimated at more than 240,000.
Jointly with key donors in education, the Government adopted the Kenya Education Sector Support Programme (KESSP) 2005e2010, a comprehensive sector programme that identified 23 areas of collaboration but mainly focused on attainment of Education for All (EPA). Transition rates from primary to secondary schools rose from 46 per cent in 2003 to 72 per cent in 2010. The private universities” also increased from 13 in 2003 to 31 and five university colleges in 2013. In essence it was expected to chart the way forward for giving every Kenyan the right to education and training no matter his or her socioeconomic status. There are also provisions on access for youth to relevant education and training; and access to employment. The obligation to ensure free and compulsory primary education and the prohibition of discrimination in education is supposedly immediate.
It also laid heavy penalties and punishment for parents and other defaulters who would negate rights of children to access education.
Earlier this year, OPIC agreed to provide a $10 million loan to Bridge International Academies, which expects its schools will educate an estimated 300,000 children by 2022.
Issues related to educational quality persist, especially at the primary level, with illiteracy rates increasing among students with six years of primary schooling. The examination is used primarily to rank and stream students into secondary and technical schools. The examination is also used for admissions into universities and training at other institutions of higher education in the technical and vocational stream.
Harambee schools do not receive full funding from the government and are run by local communities.
Non-formal education centers provide basic education for children who are unable to access formal education, especially in impoverished urban and rural areas.
Students must also take two science subjects, one humanities subject, either one applied science or one technical subject chosen from the pool of subjects above. The final grade on the KCSE is an average of the scores achieved in the best eight subject examinations. Growth in the university sector has largely come about through the upgrade of already existing colleges. In recent years, due to higher demand for university places, the minimum average threshold for guaranteed entry to a public university has been raised to a B, although the threshold is expressed as a combined 8-subject overall points score – where individual subject grades are converted to points – rather than an average grade. The stamp on the transcript shows that it was certified by the Technical University of Mombasa, as it is now. Note that the certificate courses are graded on a scale of 1-8 and the diploma courses A-E. In case of trademark issues please contact the domain owner directly (contact information can be found in whois). According to media reports, the Nigerian Police Chief Solomon Arase, recently complained about the fact that there are less than 8,000 policemen in the state of Niger. Speaking at the forum, she focused on the fact that in the past years and in the present days as well, human rights of the HIV infected and affected have often been violated. According to her, the immune system would also be better strengthened if the sexual life of these people continues because even rejection itself lowers their immune system.
For a fact, the baby inside the uterus is always HIV negative, and the infection can only take place during birth or during breast feeding, but even that does not certainly mean the baby will turn out positive.
This programme has the potential to be very effective if awareness about it could be increased.
This appears to be a small but significant sign of hope in the fight to win the HIV battle in Africa. A major goal of primary school education is to develop self-expression, self-discipline and self-reliance, while at the same time providing a rounded education experience.
The second wave of Christian missionaries included the Lutherans, who were sent to Kenya through the Church Missionary Society (CMS). The Arabs had established themselves earlier on the coast and had introduced some schools where they taught the Koran. After independence in 1963, the three-tier system developed into three types of schools: Government, private or missionary and harambee (a grassroots movement of self-help schools).
Whereas there were 862,907 students in secondary schools in 2003, this figure climbed to 1.65 million in 2010 and almost two million in 2013.
1 of 2005 on a Policy Framework for Education, Training and Research, policy framework that embraced the Education for All initiatives and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals on education. Over a quarter of young people have less than a lower secondary education and one in ten did not complete primary school. Students who perform well gain admission into national secondary schools, while those with average scores attend provincial schools. The subjects offered will depend on individual schools and what they can offer in terms of learning resources and teachers.
Where a candidate sits for more than eight subjects, the average grade is based on the best eight scores. A final grade of C+ is required for university entry, although higher scores are required for some public universities. In addition, there are 17 private universities and 14 public and private university constituent colleges.
Institutes of technology offer programs of between two and four years in a range of technical fields. UNICEF is committed in taking a lead role towards the elimination of mother-to-child transmission by giving access to antiretroviral drugs to as many infected pregnant women as possible. Nowadays still, the lack of information among the grass roots people does not allow the programme to make a significant impact. Admission to programs leading to certificates and diplomas at polytechnics requires a D+ or C- average, respectively. Kenya School of Law is an academic institution established under section 6(2) of the Council of Legal Education Act (Cap. Includes objectives, structure, training programmes, sports and recreational facilities and contact information. Terminal Tours Kenya is not one of those big companies if that happens to be your top priority in making choices for a holiday. Nairobi and Mombasa Kenya safari tour packages for Masai Mara, Lake Nakuru, Amboseli, Tsavo, Samburu, Mount kenya, kilimanjaro, Ngorongoro, Serengeti, Zanzibar.. Our mission is to provide affordable Kenya Safari tours out of Nairobi and Mombasa (Kenya Coast) to the National Parks and Game reserves of Kenya and Tanzania.
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