Causes red tongue dry mouth disease,red cross first aid training gravesend 2014,cost of organic foods vs processed foods - Good Point

The exact cause is unknown but scientists seem to think that genetic factors and environmental contacts to certain viruses may increase the risk of developing the disorder. Although there is no cure, Sjogren’s symptoms may be managed with treatment to give relief to improve symptoms and prevent complications.
To alleviate symptoms associated with the exocrine glands such as dry mouth, doctors may prescribe saliva substitutes or prescription meds to help stimulate the salivary glands. Contact the offices of Mulqueeny Eye Centers Accredited Dry Eye Treatment Center for more information on the treatment of Dry Eye. Pustular psoriasis may precede, accompany, or follow the standard form of plaque-type psoriasis.Pustular psoriasis is classified into one of several types, depending on symptoms. For generalized pustular psoriasis, systemic agents such as retinoids may be required from the beginning of treatment.
The oral cavity includes the lips, gingivae, retromolar trigone, teeth, hard palate, cheek mucosa, mobile tongue, and floor of the mouth. The oral vestibule is bounded externally by the lips and the cheek mucosa and internally by the alveolar processes and the teeth. The longer upper lip and shorter lower lip are connected to each other by the labial commissures at the corners of the mouth. The cheeks are a musculomembranous structure and are limited superiorly and inferiorly by the upper and lower vestibules, anteriorly by the labial commissure, and posteriorly by the retromolar trigone and the intermaxillary commissure.[4] The inner surface of each lip is connected in the middle line to the corresponding gum by a fold of mucous membrane, the labial frenulum.
The retrocommissural region is situated between the labial commissure and the opening of Stensena€™s duct (the drainage duct of the parotid gland), located opposite the second upper molar (see the images below). The buccinator muscle forms the muscular framework of the cheek and is also a muscle of facial expression. The gingiva (or gum) is a fibroepithelial mucosal tissue that surrounds the teeth and covers the alveolar jawbone. Deciduous teeth (also referred to as primary or temporary teeth) are the first to emerge in the oral cavity and are progressively replaced by the permanent (or adult) dentition. The occlusal (or masticatory) surface of molars and premolars is characterized by pointed structures named cusps. The hard palate is concave, and this concavity is occupied mostly by the tongue when it is at rest. The anterior two thirds of the hard palate is formed by the incisive bone, or premaxilla, and the palatine processes of the maxilla. The soft palate marks the beginning of the oropharynx and is the movable posterior third of the palate. When the soft palate is relaxed, its anterior surface is concave and its posterior surface is convex.
The velum is prolonged by a median free process termed the uvula and 2 bilateral processes termed the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches or pillars, which join the soft palate to the tongue and pharynx, respectively.[7] The fauces represent the space between the cavity of the mouth and the oropharynx. The palatine tonsils are located in the tonsillar sinuses (or fossae) of the oropharynx, which is bounded by the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches and the tongue. The sublingual papillae (also referred to as caruncles or folds) can be identified on both sides of the frenulum in the anterior part of the floor of mouth when the tip of the tongue is raised (see the image below).[7] The excretory duct of the submandibular gland (Whartona€™s duct) runs in the floor of the mouth along the medial border of the sublingual gland to pierce the surface of the mouth at the paramedian sublingual caruncle. The tongue is a mobile muscular organ that occupies the major part of the oral cavity and part of the oropharynx.
The major salivary glands are large paired exocrine glands that communicate with the mouth and pour their secretions into its cavity. Because food is physically broken down in the oral cavity, this region is lined by a protective, nonkeratinized, stratified squamous epithelium, which also lines the inner surface of the lips.[8] The oral cavity proper is lined by a masticatory mucosa (gingiva and hard palate), a lining mucosa (lips, cheeks, alveolar mucosal surface, floor of the mouth, inferior surface of the tongue, soft palate), and a specialized mucosa (dorsal surface of the tongue).
The inner lip (interior vermilion) is lined with a stratified squamous, nonkeratinized epithelium.
The underlying lamina propria is a thick papillary layer of loose connective tissue that contains blood vessels, nerves that send axon endings into the epithelium, and encapsulated sensory endings in some papillae. The distinct submucosa of the lining mucosa contains large bands of collagen and elastic fibers that bind the mucosa to the underlying muscles. Beneath the enamel and around the pulp lies the dentin, which makes up the bulk of each tooth.
The fourth dental tissue, cementum, and consists of a thin layer of calcified tissue covering the dental root.
The basic structure of a salivary gland is that of a branching duct that has the principal secretory cells (the acinar cells) at the proximal ends of the branches and an opening into the oral cavity at the other end of a single collecting duct. The abluminal cells are myoepithelial cells in the acinus and intercalated duct and basal cells in the striated and excretory ducts. The oral cavity is scattered with 500-1000 minor salivary glands within the mucosa and submucosa of the cheeks, lips, floor of the mouth, hard and soft palates, retromolar trigone, and tongue; the anterior hard palate and gingivae are devoid of these glands. The lobules of the minor salivary glands are 1-5 mm in size and are separated from one another by connective tissue.
In the tongue, lips, and buccal mucosa, lobules of salivary gland tissue are located beneath the mucosal epithelium and within the deeper skeletal muscles. The movements of the mandible are mainly produced by the 4 muscles of mastication: the masseter, temporalis, lateral pterygoid, and medial pterygoid muscles. The temporalis is a broad triangular muscle that originates from the floor of the temporal fossa and from the deep surface of the temporal fascia.
The lateral pterygoid muscle is a 2-headed triangular muscle that has 2 distinct origins: the infratemporal surface and crest of the greater wing of the sphenoid and the lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate. The medial pterygoid muscle is also a 2-headed muscle; it originates from the medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate and the pyramidal process of the palatine bone and from the maxillary tuberosity.
Blood is supplied to the oral vestibule and oral cavity via branches of the external carotid artery (facial, maxillary, and lingual).
The angular artery, a terminal branch of the facial artery, supplies the superior part of the cheek.[7] The facial vein provides venous drainage to the lips. The maxillary artery is the larger of the 2 terminal branches of the external carotid and supplies the cheek mucosa, teeth, gingivae, and palate. The pterygopalatine portion of the maxillary artery branches into the posterior superior alveolar artery, the infraorbital artery, the artery of the pterygoid canal, the pharyngeal branch, the descending palatine artery, and the sphenopalatine artery.
The posterior superior alveolar artery supplies the maxillary molar and premolars and the adjacent gingiva.
The deep facial vein, which originates from the pterygoid venous plexus, drains most of the areas supplied by the maxillary artery. The lingual artery, its branches, and the lingual veins provide circulation to the tongue and the floor of the mouth.
All lymphatics from the head and neck drain directly or indirectly into the deep cervical lymph nodes.
The skin of the cheeks drains to parotid and submandibular lymph nodes.[11] The upper lip and the lateral parts of the lower lip drain to the submandibular lymph nodes. Both surfaces of the lower gingivae and the outer surface of the upper gingivae drain into submandibular lymph nodes. Sensory innervation to the lips, cheeks, gingivae, teeth, hard palate, and floor of the mouth is provided by the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), more specifically the maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) divisions of this nerve. The maxillary nerve (V2) leaves the cranium through the foramen rotundum in the sphenoid and enters the pterygopalatine fossa, where it gives off branches to the pterygopalatine ganglion and enters the inferior orbital fissure.
The posterior and middle superior alveolar nerves arise from the maxillary nerve, and the anterior superior alveolar nerve arises from the infraorbital nerve. The mandibular nerve (V3) descends through the foramen ovale into the infratemporal fossa and divides into the auriculotemporal, inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves. The inferior alveolar nerve enters the mandibular foramen, passes through the mandibular canal, and forms the inferior dental plexus. Fordyce granules are visible sebaceous glands that are not associated with a hair follicle. Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis are benign bony outgrowths of the palate and mandible (see the image below). Torus palatinus is found in the midline of the hard palate, and torus mandibularis is found on the lingual surface of the anterior mandible, primarily in the premolar region.
Oral cancer is more likely to occur in leukoplakia and erythroplakia (see the image below). Oral cavity cancers, most of which are squamous cell carcinomas, account for around 3% of all cancers (see the image below). Salivary gland neoplasms make up 6% of all head and neck tumors and most commonly appear in the sixth decade of life (see the image below). Medscape Reference thanks Ravindhra G Elluru, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine; Pediatric Otolaryngologist, Department of Otolaryngology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, for the video contribution to this article. The authors wish to thank Dr Owen Woods and Dr Marie-Helene Geoffroy for their notable contributions to the multimedia in this article. Medscape's clinical reference is the most authoritative and accessible point-of-care medical reference for physicians and healthcare professionals, available online and via all major mobile devices. The clinical information represents the expertise and practical knowledge of top physicians and pharmacists from leading academic medical centers in the United States and worldwide. More than 6000 evidence-based and physician-reviewed disease and condition articles are organized to rapidly and comprehensively answer clinical questions and to provide in-depth information in support of diagnosis, treatment, and other clinical decision-making. More than 1000 clinical procedure articles provide clear, step-by-step instructions and include instructional videos and images to allow clinicians to master the newest techniques or to improve their skills in procedures they have performed previously. More than 100 anatomy articles feature clinical images and diagrams of the human body's major systems and organs. More than 7100 monographs are provided for prescription and over-the-counter drugs, as well as for corresponding brand-name drugs, herbals, and supplements. Our Drug Interaction Checker provides rapid access to tens of thousands of interactions between brand and generic drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and supplements.
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Pustular psoriasis appears as clearly defined, raised bumps that are filled with a white, thick fluid composed of white blood cells, commonly called pus. Symptoms may be sudden and severe (acute), long term (chronic), or somewhere in between (subacute). The major salivary glands are in close relation with oral cavity structures, although they are not part of the oral cavity.
When the teeth are in occlusion, the vestibule communicates with the oral cavity proper via the intermaxillary commissure behind the last molar teeth.
It is covered by the buccal fat pad, which smoothes the cheek contour by filling in the depression and the anterior border of the masseter. It is composed of a dense outer cortex (known as the cortical plate) and looser inner trabecular (or medullary) bone.
It is the portion of mucosa that lies behind the third molar tooth, covering the anterior ramus of the mandible. Each tooth is composed of a crown, which is the exposed portion above the gumline, and a root, which is embedded in the jawbone. The hard palate is subdivided into the primary and secondary palates.[7] The primary palate is separated from the secondary palate by a small depression behind the central incisors termed the incisive fossa, where the incisive foramen opens.
They are bounded superiorly by the soft palate, inferiorly by the root of the tongue, and laterally by the pillars of the fauces. Its main functions are pushing food into the oropharynx during swallowing and forming words during speaking, although it is also implicated in mastication, taste, and oral cleansing.[7] The macroscopic and microscopic anatomy, musculature, nerve supply, and vasculature of the tongue are specifically addressed elsewhere (see Tongue Anatomy).
It consists of a stratum basale (a single layer of cells on basal lamina), a stratum spinosum (several cells thick), and a stratum superficiale (the most superficial layer).
It also contains the many minor salivary glands of the lips, tongue, and cheeks, which are predominantly mucous. The pulp is a fibrovascular tissue containing odontoblasts whose purpose is innervation, vascularization, and repair. The dentin consists of calcified tissue containing numerous microscopic channels known as dentinal tubules, which harbor odontoblastic processes. The apical portion of the tooth is covered by cellular cementum, whereas the remainder is covered by acellular cementum. This mucosa has a keratinized and, in some areas, a parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. In the palatine raphe, the mucosa also adheres firmly to the periosteum, and no submucosa exists. Four morphologically and functionally varying segments exist in each basic salivary gland unit: acinus, intercalated duct, striated duct, and excretory duct.
Acinar cells may be serous or mucous, depending on the chemical composition of the saliva produced by a specific gland. In the tongue, Blandin and Nunn glands are located on the anterior ventral portion and are of the mucous type. The deep portion originates from the inferior surface of the zygomatic arch and descends almost vertically to insert onto the lateral surface of the ramus.
It inserts on the tip and medial surface of the coronoid process and on the anterior border of the ramus of the mandible. The upper head inserts onto the joint capsule and articular disc of the temporomandibular joint. It branches out into the superior and inferior labial arteries 1 cm lateral to the corner of the mouth. It arises behind the mandibular neck and is at first embedded in the substance of the parotid gland. The infraorbital artery supplies the maxillary canines and incisors and the skin of the infraorbital region of the face.
Lymph from the central part of the lower lip drains to the submental lymph nodes.[7] Lymph from the mucous membrane of the cheek drains to submandibular nodes and to upper deep cervical nodes.
The inner surface of the upper gums is drained with the vessels of the hard and soft palates to the upper deep cervical lymph nodes. They can sometimes be found in the submucosa lateral to the corner of the mouth and in the cheeks opposite the molar teeth. Tori of the oral cavity occur in 3% to 56% of adults and are more common in women, Asians, and Inuits. Patients with tori are asymptomatic unless the torus interferes with denture placement or eating.
Both conditions are diagnoses of exclusion, representing, respectively, a white patch and a fiery red patch that cannot be categorized as any other disease.
In some regions in the world, such as Southeast Asia, they account for up to 30-40% of all malignancies.
Cleft lip and palate occur approximately once every 1000 Caucasian births, and isolated cleft palate occurs once every 2000 births. Cleft palate may be complete, with extension into the nasal cavity, or submucosal, with a preserved palatal mucosa. Most salivary gland tumors arise in the parotid and submandibular glands, and fewer than 10% of tumors arise in the minor salivary glands. Topics are richly illustrated with more than 40,000 clinical photos, videos, diagrams, and radiographic images. The articles assist in the understanding of the anatomy involved in treating specific conditions and performing procedures. Check mild interactions to serious contraindications for up to 30 drugs, herbals, and supplements at a time.
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Louis, the only establishment of its kind in the Midwest dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic dry eyes syndrome. Widespread pustular psoriasis (von Zumbusch type) affects large areas of skin and can produce a systemic febrile illness. For milder and chronic forms of pustular psoriasis, topical treatment or light treatment may be tried first.
The tongue is part of the oral cavity; its anatomy is specifically described elsewhere (see Tongue Anatomy). A horizontal slightly elevated streak (called the linea alba or occlusal line) traverses this region. The area of cortical bone that lines the dental socket (or alveolus) is called the lamina dura. The base of the triangle is posterior to the last inferior molar tooth; the apex is in continuity with the tuberosity of the maxilla behind the last upper molar tooth. The permanent dentition consists of 32 teeth: 12 molars (including 4 so-called wisdom teeth or third molars), 8 premolars (or bicuspids), 4 canines, and 8 incisors. The secondary palate presents a midline elevated suture line termed the median or palatine raphe. It is marked by a median raphe and is continuous with the roof of the mouth and the mucous membrane of the nasal floor (see the image below).
The epithelium of the lining mucosa is nonkeratinized, although in some places it can be parakeratinized. The cementum is bound to the alveolar bone via specialized connective tissue fibers, which form the periodontal ligament.
The underlying lamina propria contains blood vessels and nerves (sensory receptors and Meissnera€™s corpuscles). In the other regions of the hard palate, a submucosa that contains thick collagenous bands extending from the mucosa to the bone underlies the lamina propria.
The superficial portion arises from the zygomatic bone anterior to the temporozygomatic suture and descends inferiorly and posteriorly to insert onto the angle of the mandible. The descending palatine artery descends through the palatine canal and divides into the greater and lesser palatine arteries to supply the mucosa and glands of the hard and soft palate. The mental nerve is another branch of the plexus that supplies the skin and mucous membrane of the lower lip and the vestibular gingiva of the mandibular incisors.
Treatment is reserved for symptomatic patients and is accomplished by surgical removal from underlying cortical bone with osteotomes or burrs. Kernohana€™s classification is the system that is most widely used to classify cleft lip and palate according to disease severity. Primary cleft palate is anterior to the incisive foramen, and secondary cleft palate is posterior to it.
Most minor salivary gland tumors are malignant, usually manifesting as painless masses on the palate or floor of the mouth. Customize your Medscape account with the health plans you accept, so that the information you need is saved and ready every time you look up a drug on our site or in the Medscape app. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. He currently is serving as a Principal Investigator for the PROOF study to determine the natural progression and treatment of dry eye disease and the ONIT Study to determine the effect of Oral Nutrition on Tear Film. Although pus is often a sign of infection, there is no evidence that infection plays any role in pustular psoriasis.
The palatine tonsils, soft palate, tongue base, and posterior pharyngeal walls are part of the oropharynx; the oropharynx is not part of the oral cavity.
The retromolar trigone is bounded laterally by the gingival buccal sulcus and medially by the anterior tonsillar pillar. Parakeratinized epithelium is similar to keratinized epithelium, except that the superficial cells do not lose their nuclei.
Bilateral contraction of this muscle causes protraction of the mandible and depression of the chin.
Alcohol and tobacco use are widely accepted risk factors, and there is increasing evidence for the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of this disease. Isolated cleft palates may be associated with syndromes such as Pierre-Marie-Robin sequence, Stickler syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Apert syndrome, 22q11 anomalies, and many others.
Diagnosis is made through fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and primary treatment is surgical. Easily compare tier status for drugs in the same class when considering an alternative drug for your patient. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site.


It is usually subacute or chronic, and people with this type do not usually have symptoms aside from the skin symptoms. Pustules may be localized to the palms and soles (palmoplantar pustulosis) or to the fingertips and nails (acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau). If tongue is lifted, floor of mouth is visible with ducts that empty saliva of submandibular glands into mouth. Pustular psoriasis in pregnancy (impetigo herpetiformis) is occasionally life-threatening.Pustular psoriasis is not common. Far more common forms of psoriasis are plaque psoriasis and guttate psoriasis, which account for over 90% of psoriasis. Dry Mouth and Tongue Cause Tooth DecayThe 4 million Americans who have Sjogren's syndrome are more prone to have oral health problems, too. It is most common in babies under 12 months old, and occurs most often between October and March. With Sjogren's, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks tear ducts and saliva glands, leading to chronically dry eyes and dry mouth (called xerostomia). Some young children with their first RSV infection will develop noticeable wheezing, and may need treatment in hospital. Medications That Cause Dry MouthGiven that a chronically dry mouth raises risk of cavities and gum disease, you may want to check your medicine cabinet. Ear infectionYoung children are prone to ear infections because of their small Eustachian tubes. Antihistamines, decongestants, painkillers, and antidepressants are among the drugs that can cause dry mouth.
These tubes connect the ears to the throat and they may get blocked when a cold causes inflammation.
Talk to your doctor or dentist to find out if your medication regimen is affecting your oral health, and what you can do about it. Stress and Teeth GrindingIf you are stressed, anxious, or depressed, you may be at higher risk for oral health problems. People under stress produce high levels of the hormone cortisol, which wreaks havoc on the gums and body.
Stress also leads to poor oral care; more than 50% of people don't brush or floss regularly when stressed. Childhood vaccinations help prevent infections from certain bacteria that can cause ear infections. Other stress-related habits include smoking, drinking alcohol, and clenching and grinding teeth (called bruxism). Glue earGlue ear refers to a build up of fluid in the middle ear, usually without any pain.
Osteoporosis and Tooth LossThe brittle bone disease osteoporosis affects all the bones in your body -- including your jaw bone -- and can cause tooth loss. The medical term for glue ear is otitis media with effusion and it often follows an acute ear infection. Bacteria from periodontitis, which is severe gum disease, can also break down the jaw bone. One kind of osteoporosis medication -- bisphosphonates -- may slightly increase the risk of a rare condition called osteonecrosis, which causes bone death of the jaw. If glue ear lingers and threatens to interfere with a child's hearing, grommets (ear tubes) may be recommended to help fluid drain and air to move in and out of the ear. Hand, foot and mouth diseaseHand, foot and mouth disease causes a fever along with blisters on the inside of the mouth, the palms of the hands, the buttocks and the soles of the feet.
Pale Gums and AnemiaYour mouth may be sore and pale if you're anemic, and your tongue can become swollen and smooth (glossitis).
When you have anemia, your body doesn't have enough red blood cells, or your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin.
Hand, foot and mouth disease is not the same as foot and mouth disease, which affects farm animals. ConjunctivitisTears, redness, discomfort, discharge and crusty eyelashes are all signs of conjunctivitis. Often caused by the same viruses as the common cold, conjunctivitis spreads rapidly in schools and nurseries.
Eating Disorders Erode Tooth EnamelA dentist may be the first to notice signs of an eating disorder such as bulimia. Purging can also trigger swelling in the mouth, throat, and salivary glands as well as bad breath. Slapped cheekSlapped cheek syndrome or fifth disease causes a bright red rash on a child's face. Anorexia, bulimia, and other eating disorders can also cause serious nutritional shortfalls that can affect the health of your teeth.
Thrush and HIVPeople with HIV or AIDS may develop oral thrush, oral warts, fever blisters, canker sores, and hairy leukoplakia, which are white or gray patches on the tongue or the inside of the cheek. The culprit is parvovirus B19, a virus that may cause mild cold-like symptoms before the rash is seen. Treating Gum Disease May Help RAPeople with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are eight times more likely to have gum disease than people without this autoimmune disease. RotavirusThe NHS estimates that every child will have at least one rotavirus infection before they are five. Making matters worse: people with RA can have trouble brushing and flossing because of damage to finger joints.
The main symptoms are vomiting and watery diarrhoea, which can make babies become dehydrated very quickly. The good news is that treating existing gum inflammation and infection can also reduce joint pain and inflammation. Tooth Loss and Kidney DiseaseAdults without teeth may be more likely to have chronic kidney disease than those who still have teeth. A rotavirus oral vaccine is available for babies and is part of the NHS childhood vaccination programme. Doctors have yet to discover exactly what causes it but it is thought to be caused by an infection.
So taking care of your teeth and gums may reduce your risk of developing chronic kidney problems. The symptoms include a fever, patchy rash, swelling and redness of the hands and feet, bloodshot eyes and chapped, red lips. Gum Disease and Premature BirthIf you're pregnant and have gum disease, you could be more likely to have a baby that is born too early and too small. ChickenpoxChickenpox is usually a mild infection but is a very infectious condition caused by the varicella-zoster virus.
Brush your teeth at least twice a day, floss at least once a day,  rinse with an antiseptic mouthwash once or twice a day, see your dentist regularly, and avoid smoking or chewing tobacco.
MeaslesIf your children have had their MMR jabs, you probably don't have to worry about measles, although there are still many cases among unvaccinated children. MumpsMumps is another childhood illness that was very common before the MMR vaccine became available.
The infection often causes no symptoms, but when it does, the classic sign is swollen glands between the ear and jaw. This creates the appearance of "hamster cheeks." Despite high vaccination rates, there are still cases, usually amongst unvaccinated teenagers and young adults.
Rubella (German measles)Rubella, also called German measles, is a mild virus that usually causes no serious problems other than a fever and a rash. The symptoms are a low grade fever and a rash that spreads from the face to the rest of the body. Whooping coughWhooping cough, caused by infection with Bordella pertussis bacteria, makes children cough so hard, they run out of breath and inhale with a "whoop." The infection is most severe in infants and may require hospital treatment. MeningitisMeningitis is an inflammation or infection of the tissue around the brain and spinal cord. In older children, teenagers and adults, the main symptoms are severe headache, vomiting, fever and stiff neck.
Viral meningitis is usually mild, but bacterial meningitis is more severe with serious consequences if it isn't treated quickly. Sore throatMost children get a sore throat now and then, usually due to a common cold virus.
Seek medical advice if a sore throat lasts more than a week, or if there's pain or difficulty swallowing, excessive drooling, a rash, pus in the back of the throat or fever. The rash usually appears 12 – 48 hours after the fever and often begins on the chest and abdomen and spreads all over the body.
Reye's syndromeYou probably know you should never give aspirin to children under 16, except on a doctor's advice.
This life-threatening condition may affect children who take medication containing aspirin during a viral illness.
Reye's syndrome has become very rare since the aspirin health warnings were issued in the 1980s. It most commonly causes clusters of tiny blisters on the skin that ooze and form a golden crust. RingwormYet another skin infection, ringworm is actually caused by a fungus - no worms involved.
The fungus spreads easily from child to child, so sharing combs, brushes, towels and clothes should be avoided. The flu more commonly causes high fever, chills, body aches, extreme fatigue and nausea or vomiting. While most children get better on their own, the flu can lead to serious complications like pneumonia, especially in younger children. Nasal spray flu vaccination is offered to all children aged 2, 3 and 4 years old and to those children in primary school years 1 and 2. It’s also recommended for children aged 2 to 17 years old who have long-term health conditions. Flu jab vaccination is offered to children aged 6 months to 2 years who have long-term health conditions. Seasonal allergiesSeasonal allergies, like hayfever, are not an infection, but a reaction to microscopic particles like pollen (seen here in pink). Symptoms may include sneezing, watery eyes and a runny or stuffy nose and may only occur in spring or autumn.



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