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This infographic provide information on several factors that contribute to caregiver stress and burnout. Psoriasis is not something that is caused by bacteria or virus problem but it is actually something that is passed down from generation to generation. Most people are happy to hear that this problem is not contagious because they don’t want to end up giving this problem to some of their friends. There are many different things that cantrigger a psoriasis breakout, but it is not something that can be “caught.” If you want to know what causes psoriasis then you need to think about the problems that could cause this otherwise dormant gene to pop its head out of the ground. Any kind of problem that is related to your skin could end up turning into a psoriasis breakout if you have the gene in your family history. When you are looking at possible problems that could lead to psoriasis then you need to think about common skin conditions that everyone has to deal with.
Something that causes psoriasis to appear on one person’s skin may not actually lead to a psoriasis breakout for someone else. Healthy individuals need to know what causes psoriasis just as much as anyone else because you never know if this kind of breakout could happen to you. The main problem with psoriasis is that it speeds up the process of replacing old skin cells with new skin cells. You should deal with your psoriasis problem as soon as possible because it will not go away on its own.
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of your brain is interrupted or severely reduced, depriving brain tissue of oxygen and food.
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the part of the brain is suddenly interrupted (ischemic) or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts, spilling blood into the spaces surrounding the brain cells (hemorrhagic).
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) - also called a ministroke - is a brief episode of symptoms similar to those you'd have in a stroke. Like an ischemic stroke, a TIA occurs when a clot or debris blocks blood flow to part of your brain.
Sudden numbness, tingling, weakness, or loss of movement in your face, arm, or leg, especially on only one side of your body.
Had a TIA or stroke and are taking aspirin or other medicines that prevent blood clotting and you notice any signs of bleeding.
Had a stroke and have signs of a blood clot in a deep blood vessel, which include redness, warmth, and pain in a specific area of your arm or leg. Strokes are usually diagnosed by studying images of the brain (brain imaging) and carrying out physical tests. Your doctor may check for the causes of your stroke by taking blood tests to determine your cholesterol and blood sugar levels, checking your pulse for an irregular heartbeat and taking a blood pressure measurement. Different treatment is required for each type of stroke so a rapid diagnosis will make treatment more straightforward. Two common methods used for brain imaging are a computer tomography (CT) scan and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. A CT scan is like an X-ray, but uses multiple images to build up a more detailed, three-dimensional (3D) picture of your brain.
For people with more complex symptoms, where the extent or location of the damage is unknown, and in patients who have recovered from a transient ischaemic attack, an MRI scan is more appropriate. After the injection of a dye into an arm vein, both CT and MRI can be used to take pictures of the blood vessels in the brain, as well as the blood vessels in the neck that take blood to the brain from the heart. If they have any difficulty swallowing, they will be referred to the speech and language therapist for a more detailed assessment.
Further tests on the heart and blood vessels might be carried out later to confirm what caused the stroke. An ultrasound scan uses high frequency sound waves to produce an image of the inside of your body.
In some cases an echocardiogram may be used to produce images of your heart using an ultrasound probe placed on your chest (transthoracic echocardiogram). Emergency treatment for stroke depends on whether you're having an ischemic stroke blocking an artery — the most common kind - or a hemorrhagic stroke involving bleeding into the brain. Other blood-thinning drugs, such as heparin, also may be given, but this drug isn't proven to be beneficial in the emergency setting so it's used infrequently. Emergency treatment of hemorrhagic stroke focuses on controlling your bleeding and reducing pressure in your brain. Once the bleeding in your brain stops, treatment usually involves bed rest and supportive medical care while your body absorbs the blood. Following emergency treatment, stroke care focuses on helping you regain your strength, recover as much function as possible and return to independent living.
Knowing your stroke risk factors, following your doctor's recommendations and adopting a healthy lifestyle are the best steps you can take to prevent a stroke. One of the most important things you can do to reduce your stroke risk is to keep your blood pressure under control.
Combining a healthy diet with regular exercise is the best way to maintain a healthy weight. For most people, an ideal blood pressure is a systolic pressure of 90-120 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and a diastolic pressure of 60-80mmHg. For most people, at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, such as cycling or fast walking, every week is recommended.
If you are recovering from a stroke, you should discuss possible exercise plans with the members of your rehabilitation team. A low-fat, high-fibre diet is recommended, including plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables (five portions a day) and whole grains. However, a balanced diet should include a small amount of unsaturated fat, which will help reduce your cholesterol levels.
Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to high blood pressure and an irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation).
Because alcoholic drinks are rich in energy (high in calories) they also cause weight gain.
If you've had an ischemic stroke or TIA, your doctor may recommend medications to help reduce your risk of having another stroke.
Your doctor may also consider prescribing Aggrenox, a combination of low-dose aspirin and the anti-platelet drug dipyridamole, to reduce the risk of blood clotting. Warfarin is a powerful blood-thinning drug, so you'll need to take it exactly as directed and watch for side effects. Ocular migraine is a specific type of migraine that has all the conventional symptoms but in addition to those affects vision and hearing of the individual suffering from it.
Owing to the nature of the symptoms, ocular migraine’s symptoms are referred to as retinal or monocular and ophthalmic in some cases. Retina is located at the back of the eye which has many blood vessels leading to it and leaving it. Apart from the blood vessel spasm in the retina, any kind of physical or neural changes to the retina are also regarded as the cause of ocular migraines. If you have episodes of ocular migraines, medical intervention should be sought immediately. Non-infectious causes include diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, crystalline deposition disease, ochronosis, amyloidosis, psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, Reiter’s syndrome or reactive arthritis, gonorrhea and overuse. Certain tendons especially those in the hands, feet, and wrists are more susceptible to this condition.
Kanavel signs may be absent in patients who have received antibiotics recently, early stage of disease, immunocompromised state and chronic infections. Erythema [redness], tenderness, and painful range of motion of the involved tendon are present.
Herpetic whitlow, pyarthrosis, gout, pseudogout, dactylitis, injury, arthritis, rheumatic fever and subcutaneous abscess should be ruled out in flexor tenosynvitis of hand. De Quervain tenosynovitis occurs because of inflammation of abductor pollicis longus and the extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist at the lateral border of the anatomic snuffbox. Finkelstein test is performed by having the patient make a fist with the thumb inside the fingers. Volar flexor tenosynovitis or trigger finger mostly affects the thumb or ring finger in and is most common in middle-aged women.
The white blood cell count may be elevated in the presence of proximal infection or systemic involvement but may be normal in inflammatory conditions and in immunocompromised patients. The ESR typically is elevated in acute or chronic infections and may be elevated in cases of inflammatory flexor tenosynovitis (FT) as well. In non infectious conditions, synovial fluid may show nonbirefringent crystals (gout) or birefringent crystals (calcium pyrophosphate disease [CPPD], or pseudogout).



In case of suspected infection, culture of the synovial fluid [aerobic, anaerobic, fungal, mycobacteriae] is done befoe patient is put on antibiotics.
Non infectious flexor tenosynovitis frequently is treated nonoperatively, but in chronic conditions, surgical intervention may be necessary. For Gonococcal tenosynovitis, parenetaral [injectible] antibiotics like ceftriaxone are given. For nongonococcal infections urgent surgical incision and drainage is considered though prompt medical management [IV antibiotics,elevation , splinting] may preclude the need for surgical intervention. For patients who are immunocompromised or have diabetes, early surgical intervention is warranted. For De Quervain tenosynovitis rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and a thumb spica wrist splint is given. In tenosynovitis of Rheumatoid arthritis ice, NSAIDs, rest, splinting, DMARDs, oral steroid treatment may be considered. Incoming search terms:causes of flexor tenosynovitis (3)flexor tenosynovitis (3)Tenosynovitis Causes (3)volar flexor tenosynovitis (3)infectious flexor tenosynovitis symptoms (2)synovial fluid in wrist symptoms (2)xray of lower ulna frature (2)what is serous exudate in a hip replacement that has failed (2)cat bite possible tenosynovitis? Subscribe to our Newsletter and get latest publications on Musculoskeletal Health your email inbox. About Dr Arun Pal SinghArun Pal Singh is an orthopedic and trauma surgeon, founder and chief editor of this website. This website is an effort to educate and support people and medical personnel on orthopedic issues and musculoskeletal health. Quantitative Ultrasound or QUSQuantitative ultrasound is an ultrasound based modality to measure bone mineral density in osteoporosis. Please download the latest version of the Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, or Windows Internet Explorer browser.
Anyone who wants to know what causes psoriasis will be happy to learn that it cannot be caught from others, which means you don’t have to worry about it being contagious. Sun burn and stress are definitely two things that could lead to a psoriasis problem, but this will only happen if you have a certain psoriasis gene in your body. Most people will not even know that it is possible for them to get psoriasis until they have some kind of minor skin damage that turns into something much worse. This means that skin cells that are perfectly fine and don’t need to be removed will be killed by new skin cells on their way to the surface of your skin. Your doctor should be able to tell you about what causes psoriasis and then narrow down what caused it in your individual case. All material provided on this website is provided for informational or educational purposes only. Ischemic strokes occur when the arteries to your brain become narrowed or blocked, causing severely reduced blood flow (ischemia). A thrombotic stroke occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one of the arteries that supply blood to your brain.
Brain hemorrhages can result from many conditions that affect your blood vessels, including uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension) and weak spots in your blood vessel walls (aneurysms). In an intracerebral hemorrhage, a blood vessel in the brain bursts and spills into the surrounding brain tissue, damaging brain cells. In a subarachnoid hemorrhage, an artery on or near the surface of your brain bursts and spills into the space between the surface of your brain and your skull.
A transient ischemic attack is caused by a temporary decrease in blood supply to part of your brain.
If you've had a TIA, it means there's likely a partially blocked or narrowed artery leading to your brain, putting you at a greater risk of a full-blown stroke that could cause permanent damage later. An MRI scan uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce a detailed picture of the inside of your body.
If it is suspected you had a major stroke, a CT scan is sufficient to identify whether the stroke is due to bleeding or clotting. This will provide greater detail of brain tissue, allowing smaller, or more unusually located strokes to be identified.
This is known as CT or MR angiography and is often done immediately after taking pictures of the brain itself. When a person cannot swallow properly, there is a risk that food and drink may get into the windpipe and then into the lungs (called aspiration), which can lead to chest infections and pneumonia. Your doctor may use a wand-like probe (transducer) to send high-frequency sound waves into your neck. This gives a more detailed view of your arteries than can be obtained using ultrasound, CT angiography or MR angiography. Aspirin, an anti-thrombotic drug, is an immediate treatment after an ischemic stroke to reduce the likelihood of having another stroke. Clopidogrel (Plavix), warfarin (Coumadin), or aspirin in combination with extended release dipyridamole (Aggrenox) may also be used, but these aren't usually used in the emergency room setting. Some people who are having an ischemic stroke can benefit from an injection of a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), also called alteplase, usually given through a vein in the arm. Doctors sometimes treat ischemic strokes with procedures that must be performed as soon as possible. Doctors may insert a long, thin tube (catheter) through an artery in your groin and thread it to your brain, and then release TPA directly into the area where the stroke is occurring. Doctors may use a catheter to maneuver a tiny device into your brain to physically grab and remove the clot.
To decrease your risk of having another stroke or TIA, your doctor may recommend a procedure to open up an artery that's moderately to severely narrowed by plaque.
In a carotid endarterectomy, a surgeon removes fatty deposits (plaques) from your carotid arteries that run along each side of your neck to your brain.
In an angioplasty, a surgeon inserts a catheter with a mesh tube (stent) and balloon on the tip into an artery in your groin and guides it to the blocked carotid artery in your neck.
If you take warfarin (Coumadin) or anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix) to prevent blood clots, you may be given drugs or transfusions of blood products to counteract their effects. Surgery may be used to repair certain blood vessel abnormalities associated with hemorrhagic strokes.
In this procedure, a surgeon inserts a catheter into an artery in your groin and guides it to your brain using X-ray imaging.
Surgeons may remove a smaller AVM if it's located in an accessible area of your brain, to eliminate the risk of rupture and lower the risk of hemorrhagic stroke.
The impact of your stroke depends on the area of the brain involved and the amount of tissue damaged.
Your doctor will recommend the most rigorous therapy program you can handle based on your age, overall health and your degree of disability from your stroke. It may continue in a rehabilitation unit of the same hospital, another rehabilitation unit or skilled nursing facility, an outpatient unit, or your home. If you've had a stroke, lowering your blood pressure can help prevent a subsequent transient ischemic attack or stroke.
One figure represents the pressure of the heart as it contracts to pump blood around the body.
Regular exercise may be impossible in the first weeks or months following a stroke but you should be able to begin exercising once your rehabilitation has progressed. Not smoking will also improve your general health and reduce your risk of developing other serious conditions, such as lung cancer and heart disease. High-fat foods can lead to the build-up of fatty plaques in your arteries and being overweight can lead to high blood pressure. You should limit the amount of salt you eat to no more than 6g (0.2oz) a day because too much salt will increase your blood pressure.
You should avoid food containing saturated fats because these will increase your cholesterol levels.
If aspirin doesn't prevent your TIA or stroke, or if you can't take aspirin, your doctor may instead prescribe an anti-platelet drug such as clopidogrel (Plavix). Your doctor may prescribe these drugs if you have certain blood-clotting disorders, certain arterial abnormalities, an abnormal heart rhythm or other heart problems.
Medical experts say that ocular migraines can cause blindness that can last anywhere from a few minutes to up to an hour.
Despite evidence that support the aforementioned symptoms of ocular migraines, there are other conditions too which can be causing the same symptoms. Tons of studies and relentless research have been conducted but there is very little unanimity as to what causes ocular migraines. If any of the blood vessels are damaged or do not function properly then there is a possibility of having the symptoms that ocular migraines are known for.


Since the common symptoms are ocular or retinal in nature, it is anticipated that some retinal problem is what causes the condition. The primary inciting event of infectious flexor tenosynovitis usually is penetrating trauma, such as a bite wound. Patients usually have a history of repetitive pinching motion of the thumb and fingers as in screwing or weeding.
Gonococcal cultures of the urethra or cervix, rectum, and pharynx are appropriate if gonococcal tenosynovitis is suspected. Even the healthiest individuals could think that they have no problems with their body until they get a little too sun burnt on a family vacation.
This creates a lot of problems for your skin because it is basically trying to get new skin cells much faster than it needs to.
Once the cause has been identified, you can then start taking action against your current psoriasis problem and make sure that it never comes back to give you trouble again in the near or immediate future. Brain cells die when they no longer receive oxygen and nutrients from the blood or when they are damaged by sudden bleeding into or around the brain.
A stroke may be caused by a blocked artery (ischemic stroke) or a leaking or burst blood vessel (hemorrhagic stroke).
A clot often may be caused by fatty deposits (plaque) that build up in arteries and cause reduced blood flow (atherosclerosis) or other artery conditions.
A less common cause of hemorrhage is the rupture of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) — an abnormal tangle of thin-walled blood vessels, present at birth. It's quicker than an MRI scan and improves the chances of rapidly delivering treatments such as clot-busting drugs (thrombolysis) that might be used in appropriate cases, but are time-limited and require the results of the scan before the treatment can be given safely. If they can swallow this without choking and coughing they will be asked to swallow half a glass of water. These pass through the tissue creating images on a screen that will show if there is any narrowing or clotting in the arteries leading to your brain.
This involves an ultrasonic probe which is passed down the foodpipe (oesophagus), usually under sedation. Quick treatment not only improves your chances of survival but also may reduce the complications from your stroke. This potent clot-busting drug needs to be given within 4.5 hours after stroke symptoms begin if it's given into the vein.
The time window for this treatment is somewhat longer than for intravenous TPA but still limited. In this procedure, your surgeon makes an incision along the front of your neck, opens your carotid artery, and removes fatty deposits (plaques) that block the carotid artery. Your surgeon inflates the balloon in the narrowed artery and inserts a mesh tube (stent) into the opening to keep your artery from becoming narrowed after the procedure. You may also be given drugs to lower pressure in your brain (intracranial pressure), lower your blood pressure or prevent seizures. If the area of bleeding is large, surgery may be used in certain cases to remove the blood and relieve pressure on the brain. This can keep the aneurysm from bursting, or it can prevent re-bleeding of an aneurysm that has recently hemorrhaged. However, it's not always possible to remove an AVM if it's too large or if it's located deep within your brain.
If your stroke affected the right side of your brain, your movement and sensation on the left side of your body may be affected.
Your doctor will take into consideration your lifestyle, interests and priorities, and availability of family members or other caregivers. Exercising, managing stress, maintaining a healthy weight, and limiting the amount of sodium and alcohol you eat and drink are all ways to keep high blood pressure in check. Other newer blood thinners may be used if your TIA or stroke was caused by an abnormal heart rhythm. Vision loss, albeit temporary, is very common among people suffering from ocular migraines.
There is a certain level of agreement and broad consensus in the medical fraternity that some kind of spasms in the blood vessels in the retina of the eye causes ocular migraines.
The common symptoms are flashing lights, one or more blind spots and partial or complete blindness in one eye or both the eyes. In nongonococcal infectious tenosynovitis, there may be history of puncture wound, laceration, bite or injection injury. There is a gradual onset of pain in the radial aspect of the wrist which worsens with activity and becomes better with rest. Some people may experience a temporary disruption of blood flow through their brain (transient ischemic attack). High blood pressure, trauma, vascular malformations, use of blood-thinning medications and other conditions may cause intracerebral hemorrhage. A subarachnoid hemorrhage is commonly caused by the rupture of an aneurysm, a small sack-shaped or berry-shaped outpouching on an artery in the brain. Up to half of people whose symptoms appear to go away actually have had a stroke causing brain damage.
Because it's directly behind the heart, it produces a clear image of blood clots and other abnormalities that may not get picked up by the transthoracic echocardiogram.
This drug restores blood flow by dissolving the blood clot causing your stroke, and it may help people who have had strokes recover more fully. Your surgeon then repairs the artery with stitches or a patch made with a vein or artificial material (graft). People having a hemorrhagic stroke can't be given clot-busters such as aspirin and TPA, because these drugs may worsen bleeding. The coils fill the aneurysm, which blocks blood flow into the aneurysm and causes the blood to clot. If your stroke damaged the brain tissue on the left side of your brain, your movement and sensation on the right side of your body may be affected. The second figure represents the pressure of the heart as it rests, expands and fills with blood, while waiting for the next contraction. However, if left untreated without any apt medical intervention, ocular migraines can cause eventual blindness, in at least one eye. These symptoms are often associated with headaches that can last well after the migraines have subsided.
Tenderness is present at the proximal end of the tendon sheath just proximal to the metacarpal head. After the hemorrhage, the blood vessels in your brain may widen and narrow erratically (vasospasm), causing brain cell damage by further limiting blood flow to parts of your brain.
Symptoms are usually most severe when the stroke first happens, but they may slowly get worse. The dose may vary, but if you already take a daily aspirin for its blood-thinning effect, you may want to make a note of that on an emergency medical card so doctors will know if you've already taken some aspirin.
Your doctor will consider certain risks, such as potential bleeding in the brain, to determine if TPA is the most appropriate treatment for you. In addition to recommending lifestyle changes, your doctor may prescribe medications to treat high blood pressure. Stroke is diagnosed through several techniques: a short neurological examination, blood tests, CT scans, MRI scans, Doppler ultrasound, and arteriography.
However, a carotid endarterectomy also involves risks, especially for people with heart disease or other medical conditions. In addition, if you've had a stroke, you may have problems with breathing, swallowing, balancing and vision. Nausea, vomiting tendencies and abnormal sensitivity to sound and light are also common associated symptoms. Family members may have a genetic tendency for stroke or share a lifestyle that contributes to stroke.
The most important risk factors for stroke are hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, and cigarette smoking.
Other risks include heavy alcohol consumption, high blood cholesterol levels, illicit drug use, and genetic or congenital conditions.



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