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Pulmonary edema can have cardiac causes, including trouble with the mitral valve or aortic insufficiency. The most common causes of pulmonary edema are related to problems with the heart, particularly heart abnormalities, heart failure, and heart attack, which is known medically as myocardial infarction. The primary cardiogenic, or heart-related, causes of pulmonary edema include a variety of heart abnormalities that result in an increase in the pulmonary venous pressure.
Heart conditions like congestive heart failure, artery blockages and collapse, heart attack, and valve abnormalities can also be causes. When it comes to the heart valves specifically, some of the biggest causes of pulmonary edema include mitral valve stenosis, mitral valve regurgitation, and aortic insufficiency. Injuries also can be caused by pulmonary contusion, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism and oxygen toxicity, which occurs from breathing high concentrations of oxygen at high atmospheric pressures. Elevations of hydrostatic pressure that can lead to swelling are commonly also caused by increased intracerebral pressure in the brain, which is called neurogenic pulmonary edema.
Hier soir, Apple a mis a jour iOS en version 5.1 en annoncant "le nouvel iPad" et la nouvelle Apple TV. Vous avez un acces internet et pour x raison vous n’avez pas de wifi mais uniquement un cable rj45 pour vous brancher au Net. This week at Infection Landscapes I will cover dracunculiasis, more commonly known as Guinea worm or the "fiery serpent". These copepods ingest, and are subsequently infected by, the larvae that have been introduced into the body of freshwater by the infected human host.
In addition, chronic musculoskeletal dysfunction is not uncommon due to a hypersensitivity reaction, secondary infections, or if the worm fails to complete its migration and dies and calcifies in musculoskeletal tissue. Finally, secondary infection of the ulcer that forms at the site of the blister can be quite serious if this vulnerable tissue is not carefully managed. Around the turn of the 21st century the global burden of dracunculiasis was roughly geographically distributed as depicted in the map below published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ February 17, 2004 vol. By the close of 2007, a much reduced distribution was apparent as depicted in this map published in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (Am J Trop Med Hyg October 2008 vol. Official reporting has the number of incident cases identified in 2011 at close to 1100, most of which occurred in small pockets of South Sudan, but a small handful came from Mali, Chad and Ethiopia. The main point is that these water sources are constant over long periods of time, and they stem from those specific points in the landscape where the groundwater breaches the surface and establishes a constant (relative in geologic time) source of freshwater. In the days before dracunculiasis was eliminated from India, these kinds of water sources, which were already places of social gathering, served as the prefect relief for blistering worms. Water filtering is a common way to prevent the consumption of contaminated water and can be achieved by using any fine mesh cloth (nylon is best) over the opening of an empty water vessel and pouring the potentially contaminated water through the mesh-cloth covering.
Management of infected individuals is equally important in the control and prevention of dracunculiasis. In addition, a combination of community education to prevent individuals from entering water sources, and ongoing rigorous field surveillance to detect any and all new cases of dracunculiasis are two important features of larger elimination programs.
The slow process is required because it is critical not to break the worm, which would kill it and present a far greater danger to the host than the mere presence of the worm. Oedema is build up of fluid in the body in which causes the affected tissue to become swollen.
The swelling can occur in one particular part of the body or may be more general, depending on the cause. The fluid can accumulate under the skin - most commonly causing swelling of the lower legs and ankles - or in one of the body's internal organs - such as the lungs. It's normal to have some swelling in your legs at the end of the day, particularly if you've been sitting or standing for long periods. Immobility and standing for long periods are the two most common causes of oedema in the legs. If an underlying condition is causing the fluid imbalance, it should clear up after the condition has been diagnosed and treated. Lymphoedema is swelling in the legs caused by a blockage in the lymphatic system, or an inherited condition, such as Milroy's disease, that causes an abnormality of the lymph vessels. The lymphatic system consists of a series of lymph nodes (glands) connected by a network of vessels, similar to blood vessels. Fluid surrounding body tissues usually drains into nearby lymph vessels so it can be transported back into the blood. Unlike oedema, lymphoedema is a long-term condition that can cause discomfort, pain and a loss of mobility. With an account you can keep track of pages on the site and save them to this tab, which you can access on every page when you are logged in. Artery blockage problems known as myocardial ischemia are often included on this list, too. This increase shifts the delicate balance between the interstitial tissue and the pulmonary capillaries. These problems often result in volume overloads of the left ventricle, which causes an imbalance when it comes to how much blood is pumped to the lungs and how well they are oxygenated . Ventricular septal defects, which are holes within the cardiac muscle separating the two lower chambers of the heart, can also be problematic. A lung that collapses is an extreme example, but even severe bruising or scarring can cause a collection of blood and lung fluids to pool.
Some of the most common symptoms of injury-related edema include extreme bouts of shortness of breath, particularly when lying down, and a bluish pallor to the skin. For example, high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is an acute mountain illness that occurs when persons ascend to high elevations without proper acclimation.



Air pollution can also be a cause, particularly in children and particularly in places where the air quality is generally bad to start with. These are usually serious conditions and can include sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and pancreatitis. Some chemical causes of pulmonary edema include radiographic contrast allergies, salicylate intoxication and inhaled toxins, such as occurs in smoke inhalation. Vous pourrez lui poser des questions, lui suggerer des idees et participer au developpement avec lui. Pour pouvoir connecter tout vos iBidules sur Internet , sachez que vous pouvez transformer votre ordinateur en borne d'acces Wifi. A l'heure ou l'iPad et l'iPhone seduisent de plus en plus d'entreprises Apple a sorti un nouvel outil pour faciliter les deploiements. Dracunculiasis is an ancient disease, so embedded in human experience that it is stylistically represented as the very symbol of medicine and health across much of the world. A further 2 to 3 weeks of larval development are then required in the copepod host before the larvae reach their 3rd stage, which is then infectious to new susceptible human hosts.
Dracunculiasis does not typically cause life-threatening illness, unless the worm is removed incorrectly and dies within the host leading to extensive secondary infection. These numbers are likely under-reported especially in the areas of conflict in South Sudan, where most of the current cases still occur. Because of the geologic structure of these aquifers, they provide extremely reliable sources of water to communities, in contrast to those unpredictable water sources that are more dependent on seasonal precipitation. Once infected individuals would seek relief in the water, the worms released their larvae, which readily infected copepods in the water and were subsequently consumed by the many people gathered at the well. This technique is very good at filtering out the larvae-infected copepods and blocks transmission by removing the intermediate host from the water. These individuals must be prevented from contaminating the water sources used by the community. Indeed, the extraordinary effectiveness of water filtration and case management to prevent further infections, in concert with good field surveillance, epidemiology and community education are greatly responsible for the widespread successes of regional elimination programs in many parts of the world where dracunculiasis was previously endemic.
For example, if you’ve been standing up too long on a hot day, your ankles may swell up until you get the chance to put your feet up and rest. However, if the lymph vessels are blocked, the fluid can't be reabsorbed and will build up in the tissue. The heart and lungs are connected in a number of important ways, and when the heart isn’t working properly it can impact how much blood is pumped in and out of the lungs — which, in turn, can cause or worsen fluid build-up problems. This fluid is often blood, but it can also be water, lymphatic fluid, mucus, or a combination of some or all of these.
When this happens, the hydrostatic pressure elevates, promoting the collection of fluid into the capillaries and thereafter into the alveoli. Edema increases inside the lungs from leakage of proteins through damaged capillary linings. Of all the causes of this condition, HAPE has the simplest treatment: people usually need only to descend to lower altitudes to get things re-stabilized. Multiple transfusions with negative reactions can also lead to fluid and swelling, as can trauma to other parts of the body that may seem unrelated. Nevertheless, because of the pain that is almost always associated with mature infections, particularly in the extremities, the disability that attends dracunculiasis can be severe during the eruptive stage, lasting approximately 3 to 10 weeks. At one time this infection was a scourge that disrupted the lives of many across a vast expanse extending from West Africa, across the Middle East, South Asia, and into Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, while complete eradication still requires vigilance and is by no means inevitable, it certainly does seem that dracunculiasis is now within reach of genuine eradication.
In the areas of the world where dracunculiasis is endemic, this fundamental landscape requirement, i.e. Furthermore, because these aquifers have typically been reliable across many human generations in the communities where they occur, they are also frequently centers of social gathering and exchange in addition to being fundamental sources of water for consumption. This represents an incredible exploitation by this helminth of this unique landscape that represented the overlapping of geology, hydrology and society to form a very specialized ecologic niche. In some communities, filtering straws have been distributed that allow individuals to drink directly from the water source without ingesting the copepods (this is depicted in the photo above). Only four countries are still reporting cases: Mail, Chad, Ethiopia, and South Sudan, and most of these are coming from South Sudan. While an intermediate host exists in copepods, and is required for the completion of the life cycle, without the human reservoir the worm cannot reach adulthood and reproduce.
These aren’t the only potential causes of edema, though; lung injury and trauma are also high on the list. The extent of the pulmonary edema depends on osmotic and hydrostatic forces within the pulmonary capillaries. Alveoli are tiny air sacs that easily fill with fluid, resulting in shortness of breath and coughing. Fluid follows the leaking proteins due to oncotic forces causing a dysfunction of the surfactant-lined alveoli.
If the injury is bad enough, problems can travel through the blood to many different places. It is also likely to become only the second human infection ever eradicated through public health effort (smallpox was, of course, the first and only human infectious disease eradicated).
I'll begin this helminth's developmental story in medias res: a mature adult female occupying an infected human host releases fully motile infective larvae into a community water supply by way of a blister on the host's skin. Let's explore the landscape epidemiology more closely to get a better sense of how this worm effectively occupies a shared ecology with humans, and how this can be targeted to block transmission.


In fact, it is the way in which water occupies both the physical and social landscapes that is responsible for transmission of infection.
As mentioned, dracunculiasis is no longer endemic in India, so these stepwells are no longer sources of infection. In addition, the use of larvicidal agents to kill the larvae as they enter water sources from blistering worms, as well as the use of bore wells as primary water sources, can be important implementations that effectively block transmission. Boiling is also an effective way to prevent infection as this kills the larvae before consumption.
The contaminated water is then sterilized and disposed of to prevent contamination of community water sources. While there is still serious work to be done, we are on the verge of the global eradication of dracunculiasis. Their is no modern drug that can be used, particularly because of the dangers to the host if the adult worm dies while occupying the musculoskeletal tissues. Blood issues, including pancreatitis and bad reactions to transfusions, are also possibilities, as are environmental factors like heavy air pollution or reduced oxygen levels, particularly at high altitudes.
Extended time on cardiopulmonary bypass during surgeries can also sometimes lead to lung edema. In fact, this helminth infection is the only worm we will cover in this series that is strictly waterborne.
Before the beginning of the global eradication campaign (discussed in the Control and Prevention section below) estimates had the global prevalence of disease anywhere between 3 and 4 million cases.
For example, stepwells were a critical source of infection in India before dracunculiasis was eliminated in that country at the turn of the 21st century. However, the latter two approaches are significantly more costly than the former two approaches. The water can also be disposed of on dry ground as this will kill the copepods and the larvae they carry. As mentioned before, global eradication of a human infectious disease is something that has been achieved only once before with smallpox.
Pathogens that cause human disease, but which have animal reservoirs outside the human host are probably not eradicable because they don't require humans to replicate. As the larvae are released from the human host, they enter the freshwater source and await their intermediate hosts, the copepods. Here is a picture of what is probably the most impressive stepwell in India, the Chand Baori, which was built in Abhaneri in Rajasthan in the 9th century.
Second, it is much easier to apply effective surveillance (an essential ingredient to any regional elimination program, and thus by extension to any global eradication program).
As such, the traditional approach to eliminating this pathogen, which transcends temporal, geographic, and cultural boundaries, is the stick. Anyone who is experiencing difficulty breathing, is vomiting blood, or who experiences periodic bursts of intense difficulty breathing should usually get medical attention as soon as possible. Copepods are microscopic crustaceans that are ubiquitous in bodies of freshwater throughout the world. Today we may be down to the last couple thousand cases in a few localized parts of a couple of sub-Saharan African countries.
Ongoing surveillance is required in order to monitor geographic and epidemiologic sources of current and new infections.
There are roughly 2800 species of copepods that occupy freshwater habitats, but those of the genus Cyclops, which alone comprises about 400 species, are probably the most important for maintaining the life cycle of D. The larvae then migrate out into the abdominal cavity where they begin their migration to and within connective tissue, mature to the adult stage, and mate. Without this critical knowledge, it is impossible to direct control efforts, and without directed control efforts, you cannot eliminate a disease from a region. As the worm begins to emerge from the surface of the infected individual's skin, the end of the worm is wound around a small stick. Males die after mating, but females continue their subcutaneous migration, usually, but not exclusively, moving distally toward peripheral structures in the lower limb, i.e.
After approximately one year following the initial infection, the female adult worm, who now harbors the live 1st stage larvae, begins to form an induration on the surface of the host's skin. Third, there are no asymptomatic infectious individuals because the worm must penetrate the skin in order to release its larvae, without which no new infections can occur. At this point, the blister causes a very painful, burning sensation that is typically relieved with cooling water.
As such, there is no possibility of missing infectious individuals who are capable transmitting infection subclinically. When the blister is submerged in water, it breaks and the larvae are released instantaneously into the body of freshwater from the protruding worm. And, fourth, it is relatively simple and cheap to block transmission by 2 routes: 1) once identified, infectious individuals can be managed with relatively little cost to control the release of larvae from their worms and thus prevent further transmission, and 2) contaminated water can be easily decontaminated by filtering or boiling the water. Thus a new generation is introduced into the water and is capable of infecting new copepods and, thus, recontaminating the water.
Here is a nice graphic developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that nicely depicts the life cycle of D.



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