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Discussion: Communication Matters “The Truth, The Whole Truth, and Nothing But The Truth…” Why do people lie? Leadership for Innovative Omani Schools in the 21st Century 1 Ethical Leadership in Education: a Global Perspective.
DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS ? In ethical theories, if we mainly focus on the action itself, then we use deontological ethics (also known as deontology or duty.
A Framework For Thinking Ethically Professional Development Seminar CHE 395 Adapted from work done by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics.
ETHICS – 101 do “The need for ethics in all professions has never been greater, nor have the actions of professionals ever been under more intense scrutiny….One. Main Idea Notes Main Idea - the idea that most of the passage covers; the basic point that the author wants to convey to the reader. Practicing Communication Ethics" provides a theoretical framework for developing a personal standard of ethics that can be applied in real world communication situations. This is a€?Ethics of Mass Mediaa€?, chapter 14 from the book Mass Communication, Media, and Culture (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. A potential concern regarding this trend is that tabloid-style gossip is not confined to public figures in the entertainment industry; it can have far-reaching consequences. Should the government begin placing stronger regulations on tabloid reporting as privacy advocates have argued?
On the other side of the debate, many argue that the public-figure limitation should be balanced with the consideration of a storya€™s newsworthiness. TMZ, a website that publishes celebrity news in real time, was launched in 2005, and since its creation the site has received numerous criticisms from more prestigious news sources like The Washington Post and ABC News.
In the competitive and rapidly changing world of mass-media communications, media professionalsa€”overcome by deadlines, bottom-line imperatives, and corporate interestsa€”can easily lose sight of the ethical implications of their work. In the fall of 1999, when the major television networks released their schedules for the upcoming programming season, a startling trend became clear.
Despite these changes and greater public attention regarding diversity issues, minority underrepresentation is still an issue in all areas of mass media. Though advocacy groups like the NCLR and the NAACP have often been at the forefront of protests against minority stereotypes in the media, experts are quick to point out that the issue is one everyone should be concerned about. Racial stereotypes are not only an issue in entertainment media; they also find their way into news reporting, which is a form of storytelling. Since the late 1970s, the major professional journalism organizations in the United Statesa€”Associated Press Managing Editors (APME), Newspaper Association of America (NAA), American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE), Society for Professional Journalists (SPJ), Radio and Television News Directors Association (RTNDA), and othersa€”have included greater ethnic diversity as a primary goal or ethic.
Because the programming about, by, and for ethnic minorities in the mainstream media is disproportionately low, many turn to niche publications and channels such as BET, Univision, Telemundo, Essence, Jet, and others for sources of information and entertainment. In the ABC sitcom The Donna Reed Show (1958a€“1966), actress Donna Reed plays a stay-at-home mother who fills her days with housework, cooking for her husband and children, decorating, and participating in community organizations, all while wearing pearls, heels, and stylish dresses. Not only is the white male perspective still presented as the standard, authoritative one, but also the media itself often comes to embody the male gaze. In addition to the prevalence of gender stereotypes, the ratio of men to women in the mass media, in and behind the scenes, is also disproportionate. Creators of all forms of media know that sexa€”named, innuendoed, or overtly displayeda€”is a surefire way to grab an audiencea€™s attention. In the 1920s and 1930s, filmmakers attracted audiences to the silver screen with the promise of what was then considered scandalous content.
In the 1960s, when the sexual revolution led to increasingly permissive attitudes toward sexuality in American culture, the Hays Code was replaced with the MPAA rating system, with ratings such as G, PG, and R. Social psychologists are particularly concerned with the negative effects these unrealistic portrayals have on women, as womena€™s bodies are the primary means of introducing sexual content into media targeted at both men and women.
Young women and men are especially vulnerable to the effects of media portrayals of sexuality. Cultural critics have noted that sexually explicit themes in mass media are generally more widely accepted in European nations than they are in the United States. In American mass media, where the white male perspective is still presented as the standard, stereotypes of those who differa€”women, ethnic minorities, and gays and lesbiansa€”are an issue of ethical concern. Racial minorities are often absent, peripheral, or stereotyped in film, television, print media, advertising, and video games. Underrepresentation of women and racial and ethnic minorities is also a problem in the hiring of creative talent behind the scenes.
The media still often subordinate women to traditional roles, where they serve as support for their male counterparts. The objectification of women in various visual media has particularly led to concerns about body image, unrealistic social expectations, and negative influence on children and adolescent girls.
The issue of sexual content in the media has become a source of concern to media critics because of the frequency with which it occurs and also because of the unrealistic way it is portrayed. Choose a television show or movie you are familiar with and consider the characters in terms of racial and gender diversity. Now more than ever, with the presence of online news sources, news delivery is expected to be instantaneous, and journalists and news agencies face pressure to release stories rapidly to keep up with competing media sources. In 1916, audiences across America tuned in to their radios to hear the first-ever breaking-news coverage of an event as the results of the presidential election between Woodrow Wilson and Charles Evans Hughes were announced from the offices of The New York American.
For decades, the public turned to the family radio when they wanted to hear the most recent coverage of important news. Today, with the widespread availability of Internet news, instant coverage is the norm rather than the exception, and the Internet and cell phones have generally replaced television and radio as the source of immediate information. The development of the Internet as a source of free and immediate access to information has forever changed the structure of the news media.
Not only are traditional news media restructuring, but news consumers are also changing the way they access information. This loss of revenue has become a problem in recent years because while newspapers and magazines generate some income from advertisements on their websites, the money is not enough to compensate for lost readership and print ads. Additionally, reduced budgets combined with greater pressure for immediacy have changed the way information gets reported and disseminated. As a result of this restructuring, certain stories may get distributed, replayed, and commented on almost excessively, while other stories go unnoticed and in-depth coverage that would unearth more facts and context gets neglected. Already strapped for funds, news organizations know they have to cater to public demands, and foremost among these demands is speed. American news organizations are losing their audiences to online media and have lost billions in advertising income. If the basis for the principles of ethical news reporting is giving citizens the information they need to function in a democratic society, then that information must be presented accurately. Reporting issues fairly requires not only factual accuracy, but also lack of favoritism toward any organization, political group, ideology, or other agenda. While CNN and other news networks took some criticism for their delay in reporting Michael Jacksona€™s death in 2009, others commended the news organizations for waiting for official confirmation. Along with an emphasis on the truth, codes of ethics stress loyalty and duty to citizens as a standard of primary importance.
Another challenge often posed by bottom-line concerns and the pressure for a good story is sensitivity toward, and protection of, those involved in the news.
On the other hand, there are times when the private lives of individuals must be made public in the interests of serving the common good. As shown in the scandal surrounding former South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford, drawing the line between exploiting individualsa€™ private lives to sell stories and disclosing information in the public interest is not always clear.
Because the press has a duty to serve the best interests of the citizens in a democracy, it is important that journalists act independently and that they remain neutral in their presentation of information.
The principle of journalistic independence is an important component of the news mediaa€™s watchdog role.
In addition to maintaining independence, the news media should allow for commentary and opposition. While principles of ethical journalism require journalists to remain neutral in their reporting, there is, as previously mentioned, always a degree of bias that will be present in any news reporting due to the element of personal perspective that any journalist will naturally bring to his or her work. The Internet has brought about profound and rapid changes in the structuring, delivery, and economics of news media.
The pressure for immediate delivery increases the tension between factual accuracy and a€?getting there firsta€? in news reporting. Because people can get instant news for free online, subscriptions to print media are down, and so are advertising revenues. Most journalistic codes of ethics are based on the premise that the news media exists to provide citizens with the information they need to function in a free and democratic society. All news stories contain some bias because of the diversity of journalistsa€™ perspectives.
Explain concerns related to surveillance and personal privacy rights introduced by the Internet. Online media has developed rapidly, with technology advancing at a rate that often surpasses the ability of legislation and policy to keep up with it. Concerns about online privacy issues in recent years have led some people to wonder whether the collection of personal information on websites has begun to infringe on individualsa€™ constitutional rights. Explain two ways in which presentation aids can increase audience understanding of a message. Presentation aids can fulfill several functions: they can serve to improve your audiencea€™s understanding of the information you are conveying, enhance audience memory and retention of the message, add variety and interest to your speech, and enhance your credibility as a speaker.
One reason for misunderstandings is the fact that perception and interpretation are highly complex individual processes.
Clarification is important in a speech because if some of the information you convey is unclear, your listeners will come away puzzled or possibly even misled.
If your speech is about the impact of the Coriolis effect on tropical storms, for instance, you will have great difficulty clarifying it without a diagram because the process is a complex one.
Figure 15.2 "Model of Communication" is another example of a diagram that maps out the process of human communication. Another aspect of clarifying occurs when a speaker wants to visually help audience members understand a visual concept.
When you use a presentational aid for emphasisTo impress the importance or to repeat the verbal message in visual form., you impress your listeners with the importance of an idea. Another way of emphasizing that can be done visually is to zoom in on a specific aspect of interest within your speech. The second function that presentation aids can serve is to increase the audiencea€™s chances of remembering your speech. Moreover, people often are able to remember information that is presented in sequential steps more easily than if that information is presented in an unorganized pattern. An added plus of using presentation aids is that they can boost your memory while you are speaking. For example, you may have prepared a very good speech to inform a group of gardeners about several new varieties of roses suitable for growing in your local area.
Similarly, if you were speaking to a group of gourmet cooks about Indian spices, you might want to provide tiny samples of spices that they could smell and taste during your speech. If you focus your efforts on producing presentation aids that contribute effectively to your meaning, that look professional, and that are handled well, your audience will most likely appreciate your efforts and pay close attention to your message. Presentation aids should help audiences more thoroughly understand a speakera€™s basic message.
Presentation aids help an audience more clearly understand a speakera€™s message in two ways: they help clarify and they help emphasize.
Displacement of responsibility or attribution of blame just following orders, “he made me” 7. Stabilize Society “When people accept responsibility for their own conduct and for the well-being of others, ethics. Morals Definition: Motivation based on ideas of right and wrong Morals are more about good and bad than other values.
Daugherty Professor Department of Journalism & Mass Communication California State University, Long Beach. In this lecture… ? Our moral duty ? Categorical imperative ? Universal law ? Dignity and respect. Sources Used Trevino, Linda, Gary Weaver, David Gibson, and Barbara Ley Toffler, “Managing Ethics and Legal.
Through an examination of specific ethical values including truth, justice, freedom, care, and integrity, this first edition enables the reader to personally determine which values they are ethically committed to upholding. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Constitutiona€™s First Amendment guarantees Americans freedom of the press, which many would agree is an important ingredient in upholding democratic principles. As noted in Chapter 2 "Media Effects", the firing of General Stanley McChrystal from his post as commander of all U.S.



The Constitution, after all, while guaranteeing freedom of the press, also has been interpreted as guaranteeing individuals certain rights to privacy, and most journalists would agree that standards of ethical journalism include efforts to protect these rights. Of the 26 newly released television programs, none depicted an African American in a leading role, and even the secondary roles on these shows included almost no racial minorities. In fact, 45 percent of ethnic-minority adults prefer these niche media sources to mainstream television, radio programs, and newspapers.Ginny Whitehouse, a€?Why Diversity Is an Ethical Issue,a€? The Handbook of Mass Media Ethics, ed. Such a traditional portrayal of femininity no doubt sounds dated to modern audiences, but stereotyped gender roles continue to thrive in the mass media. Music videos on MTV and VH1, which promote artists and their music, capture audience attention with highly suggestive dance moves, often performed by scantily clad women. Prior to the 1934 Hays Code, which placed restrictions on a€?indecenta€? content in movies, films featured erotic dances, male and female nudity, references to homosexuality, and sexual violence (for more information on the Hays Code, see Chapter 8 "Movies" and Chapter 15 "Media and Government"). The rating system, designed to warn parents about potentially objectionable material in films, allowed filmmakers to include sexually explicit content without fear of public protest. Psychologists have long noted that teens and children get much of their information and many of their opinions about sex through television, film, and online media.
However, the increased concern and debates over censorship of sexual content in the United States may in fact be linked to the way sex is portrayed in American media rather than to the presence of the sexual content in and of itself. If so, do you think that the content is gratuitous or unrealistic, or does it serve the story?
With this added pressure, standards of accuracy and fairness become more difficult to uphold. Until that broadcast, news was delivered to American homes once per day in the form of a newspaper, and often this coverage lagged a day or more behind the actual incidents it reported. Newspaper, television, and radio news programs have all had to adapt and diversify to compete for a share of the market.
Increasingly, audiences want news on demand; they want to get news when they want it, and they want to be able to gather it from a variety of sources.
Subscriptions and advertising in traditional print media still account for 90 percent of industry funds, which means with less revenue in these areas, the support base for news organizations is dwindling.
Newsrooms are asking their staffs to focus on producing first accounts more quickly to feed multiple platforms. This has led a number of industry professionals to become anxious over the future of the news industry. This theory of the social responsibility of the press is often referred to as the vital information premiseThe widely accepted foundation for principles of journalism ethics, according to which the news media have a responsibility to society as a whole to provide the information it needs to function as a democracy.. Developing a thorough understanding of issues requires dedication and a sometimes lengthy investigation, and, especially in a world where rapid reporting is the norm, there can be a temptation to gloss over the finer points of an issue for the sake of efficiency.
Not only should newsroom staff represent a diversity of gender and races, but journalists should also speak for all groups in societya€”a€?not just those with attractive demographics,a€? as the Committee for Concerned Journalists puts it.
For many journalists and members of the public, ensuring accuracy, even when it means delays, is a hallmark of responsible journalism.
Where they may differ on specifics, these codes of ethics agree that the news mediaa€™s top obligation is to report the truth. One example is The Huffington Post, a news website that, with over 2,000 bloggers, has the worlda€™s most linked-to blog. Of course, truth telling is an essential component of this loyalty, but additionally, the concern here is in reminding journalists whom their work serves.
Responsible journalists should strive to balance disclosure of the news with a respect for individual privacy.
One example was the 2009 media scandal surrounding South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford, who, after media investigations over his weeklong disappearance in June of that year, admitted to flying to Argentina to visit his mistress. Leaving space for citizens to voice concerns about journalistic conduct is an important part of serving the public interest and keeping the publica€™s trust. A 2005 in-depth study by political scientists at UCLA found that, of 20 media outlets, 18 had a perspective in their news reporting that was left of the national average.
In the UCLA study, news sources were scored based on their sources of information and expert opinion. However, while the picture a journalist or particular news outlet creates may not be entirely objective, journalists with integrity will strive to be fair and comprehensive, offering opposing views and citing their sources of information. While the news media is often criticized for representing a political bias in reporting, ethical journalists always strive to present issues in a fair and comprehensive way. Choose either a television network or newspaper known for more liberal tendencies, such as CNN or The New York Times, and a network or newspaper known for more conservative reporting, such as Fox News or The Washington Times.
As a result, issues like individualsa€™ rights to privacy, copyright protections, and fair use restrictions have become the subject of numerous court cases and public debates as lawmakers, judges, and civil liberties organizations struggle to define the limits of technology and the access it provides to previously restricted information.
If you have prepared and rehearsed your speech adequately, shouldna€™t a good speech with a good delivery be enough to stand on its own? If you are like most people, you can easily remember incidents when you misunderstood a message or when someone else misunderstood what you said to them. Most of us have seen the image in which, depending on your perception, you see either the outline of a vase or the facial profiles of two people facing each other. Presentation aids can help clarifyTo make clear so that the audience understands your meanings the way you intend. The diagram in Figure 15.1 "Coriolis Effect" would be effective because it shows the audience the interaction between equatorial wind patterns and wind patterns moving in other directions. In this image you clearly have a speaker and an audience (albeit slightly abstract), with the labels of source, channel, message, receivers, and feedback to illustrate the basic linear model of human communication. For example, if a speaker is talking about the importance of petroglyphs in Native American culture, just describing the petroglyphs wona€™t completely help your audience to visualize what they look like.
In a speech on water conservation, you might try to show the environmental proportions of the resource.
In Figure 15.5 "Chinese Lettering Amplified", we see a visual aid used in a speech on the importance of various parts of Chinese characters.
A 1996 article by the US Department of Labor summarized research on how people learn and remember.
When your graphic images deliver information effectively and when your listeners understand them clearly, audience members are likely to remember your message long after your speech is over. When you use a presentation aid to display the organization of your speech, you will help your listeners to observe, follow, and remember the sequence of information you conveyed to them. Using your presentation aids while you rehearse your speech will familiarize you with the association between a given place in your speech and the presentation aid that accompanies that material.
While it is true that a good speech and a well-rehearsed delivery will already include variety in several aspects of the presentation, in many cases, a speech can be made even more interesting by the use of well-chosen presentation aids. Although your listeners will undoubtedly understand and remember your message very well without any presentation aids, wouldna€™t your speech have greater impact if you accompanied your remarks with a picture of each rose? Taste researcher Linda Bartoshuk has given presentations in which audience members receive small pieces of fruit and are asked to taste them at certain points during the speech.Association for Psychological Science. That attention will help them learn or understand your topic in a new way and will thus help the audience see you as a knowledgeable, competent, credible speaker.
Presentation aids can help the audience to understand complex ideas or processes and can also show which ideas are most important in the speech. The doctrine-of-relative-filth trap (comparing your unethical behavior with someone else’s even more unethical behavior) 3. Blending communication theory, ethics as practical philosophy, and moral psychology, this text presents the practice of communication ethics as part of the lifelong process of personal development and fosters the ability in its readers to approach communication decision-making through an ethical lens.
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Freedom from government censorship allows the news media to keep citizens informed about the state of their society. However, some paparazzi photographers and celebrity journalists disregard journalistic codes of ethics in their efforts to get a story.Patrick J.
Alack has argued, a€?If a€?social valuea€™ is what constitutes newsworthiness, it is hard to imagine a more perverse concept of social value that incorporates a€¦ Paris Hiltona€™s late-night dining preferences or Lindsay Lohana€™s driving habits.a€?Patrick J. With the immediacy of Internet news coverage, mainstream media outlets face increasing pressure to release major news while it is still fresh.
Considering the profound influence mass media like television have on cultural perceptions and attitudes, it is important for the creators of media content to grapple with ethical issues. Griffitha€™s The Birth of a Nation, a film that relied on racial stereotypes to portray Southern whites as victims in the American Civil War, stereotypesa€”especially those disseminated through mass mediaa€”become a form of social control, shaping collective perceptions and individual identities.
In response to this ommission, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), an advocacy group for Hispanic Americans, organized protests and boycotts. Baynes argues, a€?Since we live in a relatively segregated countrya€¦broadcast television and its images and representations are very important because television can be the common meeting ground for all Americans.a€?Leonard M.
Women are still often represented as subordinate to their male counterpartsa€”emotional, noncompetitive, domestic, and sweet natured.
Feminist critics have long been concerned by the way women in film, television, and print media are defined by their sexuality. Most often, sexualized advertising content is served up in the form of the female body, in part or in whole, featured in provocative or suggestive poses beside a product that may have nothing to do with sexuality. Since the replacement of the Hays Code, sexual content has been featured in movies with much greater frequency. Sex, as many films, television shows, music videos, and song lyrics present it, is frequent and casual.
Adbusters, a magazine that critiques mass media, particularly advertising, points out the sexual objectification of womena€™s bodies in a number of its spoof advertisements, such as the one in Figure 14.3, bringing home the message that advertising often sends unrealistic and harmful messages about womena€™s bodies and sexuality. Unrealistic portrayals that fail to take into account the actual complexity of sexual relationships seem to be a primary concern. If not, describe what elements would prevent the portrayal of a female or ethnic minority characters from being stereotypical. RSS (which stands for really simple syndication, a standard for the easy syndication of online content) feeds, home pages for major news-delivery sites like Yahoo! As Jeffrey Cole, director of the Center for Digital Communication put it, a€?For the first time in 60 years, newspapers are back in the breaking news business.a€? Online, newspapers can compete with broadcast media for immediate coverage, posting articles on their home pages as soon as the stories are written, and supplementing the articles on their websites with audiovisual content. The Center for Excellence in Journalism has called the news industry today a€?more reactive than proactive.a€?Pew Project for Excellence in Journalism, The State of the News Media 2010. Additionally, most consumers of news, increasingly busy and overwhelmed by the amount of information available, want stories that can be quickly digested and easily comprehended.
It is the duty of the press to ensure that business is conducted in the open and that government actions are public.
When journalists say this, of course, they dona€™t mean truth in an absolute, philosophical sense; they mean practical truth, the truth that involves reporting the facts as faithfully and accurately as possible. Blogging is sometimes criticized by more traditional journalists for the tendency, among some blogs, to include biases, unreliable information, and unfounded opinionsa€”in other words, for instances of violating journalistic codes of ethics. Especially in the current environment, in which media outlets face increased financial pressure, there is a tension between responsible journalism and the demands for profit. More recently, however, there has been wider acceptance of the fact that reporting always occurs through a lens of personal experience, culture, beliefs, and background that ultimately all influence the way any individual subjectively perceives a situation.Howard A. One example involving conflict of interest centers on recent talk of government bailouts for the news media, similar to the bailouts for the auto and banking industries. Of those 20, only Fox News and The Washington Times scored to the right of the average U.S. The news outlets with the most liberal slanta€”CBS News and The New York Timesa€”cited liberal think tanks and policy groups with a much greater frequency than they cited conservative ones.Tim Groseclose and Jeffrey Milyo, a€?A Measure of Media Bias,a€? Quarterly Journal of Economics 120, no. Members of the public should remember that they also have a responsibility to be active, rather than passive, consumers of information. In the following section you will look at some of the most prominent issues in todaya€™s online media environment.
Constitution does not explicitly guarantee a general right to privacy, the Bill of Rights establishes privacy of beliefs, privacy of the home, and privacy of person and possessions from unreasonable searches.
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While it is true that impressive presentation aids will not rescue a poor speech, it is also important to recognize that a good speech can often be made even better by the strategic use of presentation aids.
This shows how interpretations can differ, and it means that your presentations must be based on careful thought and preparation to maximize the likelihood that your listeners will understand your presentations as you intend them to. The diagram allows the audience to process the information in two ways: through your verbal explanation and through the visual elements of the diagram.
Instead, showing an example of a petroglyph, as in Figure 15.3 "Petroglyph", can more easily help your audience form a clear mental image of your intended meaning. When you use a conceptual drawing like the one in Figure 15.4 "Planetary Water Supply", you show that if the world water supply were equal to ten gallons, only ten drops would be available and potable for human or household consumption.
On the left side of the visual aid, we see how the characters all fit together, with an emphasized version of a single character on the right.
This is why some instructors display a lecture outline for their students to follow during class. For example, if you are giving an informative speech about diamonds, you might plan to display a sequence of slides illustrating the most popular diamond shapes: brilliant, marquise, emerald, and so on. You can imagine that your audience would be even more enthralled if you had the ability to display an actual flower of each variety in a bud vase. However, even if you give a good speech, you run the risk of appearing unprofessional if your presentation aids are poorly executed. Identify three ways that the slides could be improved to be more effective presentation aids.


That pressure is compounded by celebrity gossip sites like TMZ that may resort to unorthodox methods to gather information; the shelf life of breaking news is growing increasingly shorter.
In American mass media, the white man is still shown as the standard: the central figure of television narratives and the dominant perspective on everything from trends, to current events, to politics.
Pressureda€”and embarrasseda€”into action, the executives from the major networks made a fast dash to add racial minorities to their prime-time shows, not only among actors, but also among producers, writers, and directors. Racial minorities are often absent, peripheral, or take on stereotyped roles in film, television, print media, advertising, and even in video games.
In contrast to these types, other women are represented as unattractively masculine, crazy, or cruel. Few female role models exist in the media who are valued primarily for qualities like intelligence or leadership. In Hollywood, for instance, only 17 percent of behind-the-scenes creative talent is represented by women.
Movie trailers may flash brief images of nudity or passionate kissing to suggest more to come in the movie. Rarely do these media point out the potential emotional and physical consequences of sexual behavior. The media may help shape teenage and adolescent attitudes toward sex, but they can also lead young people to engage in sexual activity before they are prepared to handle the consequences. As Jean Kilbourne has argued, sex in the American media a€?has far more to do with trivializing sex than with promoting it.
Columnist Ellen Goodman notes that there has always been a tension in journalism between being first and being right. CBS correspondent Dan Rather took television audiences live to a€?the corner window just below the top floor, where the assassin stuck out his 30 caliber rifle,a€? and for the first time, people were able to see an event nearly as it occurred. News aggregatorsA website that compiles news headlines from a number of sources for display on its pages. Once news is released online by one source, it spreads rapidly, and other organizations scramble to release accounts, too, in order to keep up, often leaving staff less time for fact-checking and editing. Perhaps surprisingly, the initial report of Jacksona€™s death was released by celebrity gossip website TMZ. Furthermore, although news organizations have a professional responsibility toward advertisers and shareholders, their commitment is always to citizens first. One famous example of the media fulfilling its watchdog role was The Washington Posta€™s investigation of the 1972 Watergate scandal.
This notion of truth includes an accurate representation of information from reliable sources, but it also includes a complete representation, one that presents multiple perspectives on an issue and does not suppress vital information. On one hand, journalists should never expose private information that could be harmful to individuals for the sake of sensationalizing a story. Although the publicity surrounding this private matter was clearly painful for the governor and his family, releasing information about the incident, particularly regarding the misuse of public funds, was in the best interest of the citizens.
However, many journalists are concerned that government support of this kind would present a conflict of interest and interfere with the mediaa€™s watchdog role.David Nicklaus, a€?Bailing Out Journalism Would Threaten Its Independence,a€? St. This drawing is effective because it emphasizes the scarcity of useful water and thus draws attention to this important information in your speech. As you finish describing one shape and advance to the next slide, seeing the next diamond shape will help you remember the information about it that you are going to deliver. This means that in addition to containing important information, your presentation aids must be clear, clean, uncluttered, organized, and large enough for the audience to see and interpret correctly. The death of Princess Diana in 1997 brought fierce criticism against the paparazzi, and tabloid reporting in general, when it was found that the princessa€™s car had been pursued by paparazzi vehicles before the crash that caused her death. Four of the networksa€”ABC, CBS, NBC, and Foxa€”added a vice president of diversity position to help oversee the networksa€™ progress toward creating more diverse programming.Leonard M.
Additionally, according to a 2002 study by the University of California, Los Angeles, the problem is not only a visible one, but also one that extends behind the scenes. There are clear correlations between mass media portrayals of minority groups and public perceptions. In television dramas and sitcoms, women continue to fill traditional roles such as mothers, nurses, secretaries, and housewives. Inundated by images that conform to unrealistic beauty standards, women come to believe at an early age that their value depends on their physical attractiveness.
Video games feature female characters like Lara Croft of Tomb Raider, whose tightly fitted clothes reveal all the curves of her Barbie-doll figure.
Griffitha€™s Intolerance (1916) includes scenes with topless actresses, as does Ben Hur (1925). Furthermore, the recent increase in entertainment featuring sexual violence may, according to some studies, negatively affect the way young men behave toward women.Barrie Gunter, Media Sex: What Are the Issues? According to one study, kids with high exposure to sex on television were almost twice as likely to initiate sexual activity compared to kids without exposure.Rebecca L. Additionally, with smartphone applications like those for The New York Times and USA Today, people can access the latest news coverage from almost anywhere. The initial story is then followed quickly by commentary from both professional news organizations and nonprofessional sources on blogs, Twitter, and other social networks. While some may disagree with Sullivan, in-depth journalism remains an expensive and time-consuming venture that many online news sites, faced with uncertain revenue streams and a growing consumer demand for real-time news updates, are reluctant to bankroll extensively.
Here are some that are particularly important for journalists in the current media climate. This means that journalists must report the facts truthfully and without omission, even if they are not in the best interest of advertisers, shareholders, or friends. During Richard Nixona€™s presidency, journalists at the Post uncovered information linking government agencies and officials to the break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex as part of an attempt to sabotage the Democratic campaign and guarantee Nixona€™s reelection.Richard M.
Issues like family life, sexual behavior, sexual orientation, or medical conditions, for instance, are generally considered tabloid material that would violate the privacy of those involved. The International Federation of Journalists offers three factors as a rough guideline in cases where privacy is in danger of being violated: the nature of the individuala€™s place in society, the individuala€™s reputation, and his or her place in public life. If this were not the casea€”if there were only one standard way everyone perceived, investigated, and reported on a storya€”what would be the value of including racial and gender diversity in the newsroom? Political bias can also be observed by examining which stories a network or newspaper chooses to report. If a story is presented conscientiously in the news, a reader or viewer will have the resources he or she needs to research an issue further and draw his or her own conclusions.
Here, you should reflect on the ethical issues in mass media raised in the two preceding sections and how they are manifested in the areas of personal privacy, copyright law, and plagiarism. What do these constitutional rights mean when it comes to storing a persona€™s credit card data online, or tracking his or her Internet searches, or using cookies to collect information about his or her purchasing habits? Misspellings and poorly designed presentation aids can damage your credibility as a speaker.
Lastly, by making a speakera€™s overall speech more polished, presentation aids can increase an audiencea€™s perception of the speakera€™s credibility.
In recent years, tabloid reporting has become increasingly invasive and sometimes dangerous. Many argue that because celebrities are a€?public figures,a€? the same privacy rights that protect the general public dona€™t apply. Yet in network television broadcasts, major publications, and other forms of mass media and entertainment, minorities are often either absent or presented as heavily stereotyped, two-dimensional characters. In 1999, after hundreds of complaints by African Americans that they were unable to get taxis to pick them up, the city of New York launched a crackdown, threatening to revoke the licenses of cab drivers who refused to stop for African American customers.
Because of this underrepresentation behind the scenes, the news media is led by those whose perspective is already privileged, who create the narratives about those without privilege.
According to one Newsweek article, eating disorders in girls are now routinely being diagnosed at younger ages, sometimes as early as 8 or 9.
Additionally, actors and models depicted in sexual relationships in the media are thinner, younger, and more attractive than the average adult. Collins and others, a€?Watching Sex on Television Predicts Adolescent Initiation of Sexual Behavior,a€? Pediatrics 114, no.
However, despite these criticisms, it is likely that unrealistic portrayals of sexual content will continue to be the norm in mass media unless the general public stops consuming these images.
As you read the following sections, decide if you agree with Goodmana€™s assessment of the state of the news media today. Nevertheless, responsible journalism requires journalists to avoid favoritism and to present news that is fair and offers a complete picture of the issue. According to media analyst Seth Ackerman, the right-leaning Fox News network reports news stories that favor the Republican Party or show the Democratic Party in a negative light.
As you continue reading the chapter, keep in mind the ethical obligations of those who work in mass media and the potential consequences of their failure to uphold them. Because online media is developing so rapidly, many of these issues have not been settled by federal legislation and remain the source of numerous courtroom battles. Us Weeklya€™s editor in chief, Janice Min, has argued, a€?A celebrity is like an elected official. Rarely are minorities depicted as complex characters with the full range of human emotions, motivations, and behaviors. This lack of representation among producers, writers, and directors often directly affects the way minorities are portrayed in film and television, leading to racial stereotypes. In the news media, racial minorities are often cast in the role of villains or troublemakers, which in turn shapes public perceptions about these groups.
The models who appear in magazines and print advertising are unrealistically skinny (23 percent thinner than the average woman), and their photographs are further enhanced to hide flaws and blemishes. Trouble in Paradise, a 1932 romantic comedy, was withdrawn from circulation after the institution of the Hays Code because of its frank discussion of sexuality. This creates unrealistic expectations about the necessary ingredients for a satisfying sexual relationship.
News and Google News that compile news headlines from an array of legacy news organizations to display on their pages, have become popular information outlets. These factors, in recent years, have resulted in public scandals surrounding other political leadersa€”Representative Anthony Weiner, former Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, and presidential hopeful John Edwards, to name a few. The article goes on to note that information stored in long-term memory is also affected by how we originally learn the material. In addition, make sure that you give proper credit to the source of any presentation aids that you take from other sources.
In July 2011, paparazzi were detained for chasing Paris Jackson (Michael Jacksona€™s daughter). If youa€™re getting paid $20 million a movie, you have to rely on public goodwill to stay in office. Meanwhile, the stereotyping of women, gays and lesbians, and individuals with disabilities in mass media has also been a source of concern. Media critics Robert Entman and Andrew Rojecki point out that images of African Americans on welfare, African American violence, and urban crime in African American communities a€?facilitate the construction of menacing imagery.a€?Clifford G.
Meanwhile, the majority of women appearing on television are under the age of 30, and many older actresses, facing the pressure to embody the youthful ideal, undergo surgical enhancements to appear younger.Jennifer L.
Although these websites dona€™t hire reporters to produce news stories themselves, they get about the same amount of online traffic as websites for legacy news organizationsNews organizations that were around before online news caused a shift in the industry. Using a statistical chart or a map without proper credit will detract from your credibility, just as using a quotation in your speech without credit would. Despite these incidents, the publica€™s interest in celebrity gossip has not diminished; rather, the growth of online news sources has led to a proliferation of celebrity gossip websites. Christians, a€?Communication Ethics,a€? in Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics, ed.
Hispanics, and Vivid, the most widely circulated African American periodical, appeal to ethnic minority groups because they are controlled and created by individuals within these groups.
Hyde (1931), which featured a prostitute as one of the main characters, was also banned under the code.Daniel P. When discussing invasions into the private lives of stars like Britney Spears, Levin proclaimed that a€?Britney is gold; she is crack to our readers.
Similarly, a study by the National Association of Hispanic Journalists found that only 1 percent of the evening news stories aired by the three major U.S.
One recent example is television news host Greta Van Susteren, a respected legal analyst who moved from CNN to Fox in 2002. Media coverage of the scandal increased publicity and ultimately put pressure on the government that led to an investigation and the prosecution of many who were involved.a€?The Government and Watergate,a€? in American Decades, ed.
Learning in fourth and sixth graders as a function of sensory mode of stimulus presentation and overt or covert practice. Indeed, younger stars, such as Ashley Tisdale (High School Musical), singer Ashlee Simpson, and reality star Heidi Montag, have all availed themselves of plastic surgery. In the past decade, the media has uncovered incriminating information about various Senators and Congressmen, resulting in charges of corruption, tax evasion, conspiracy, and fraud.



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