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admin | Category: Container Cost | 15.02.2016
In 1969 Richard F Gibney, working at Shipbuilding and Shipping Record in the UK, simplified the statistics involved with comparing differing container sizes he coined the phrase Twenty Foot Equivalent (TEU) and this is the term that is still used to describe containers. The shipping container floors are made of planking or plywood wood, which is very strong and resilient, does not dent, and may be easily replaced during repairs. The forklift pockets of standard ISO steel shipping containers are easily visible and allow handling of empty shipping containers with forklift trucks. Gooseneck tunnel of standard ISO steel shipping containers: Many 40' containers have a recess in the floor at the front end which serves to center the containers on so-called gooseneck chassis. Grappler pockets of standard ISO steel shipping containers: Most all shipping containers are handled by top spreaders using what’s called corner fittings or corner castings.
Intermodalism is the use of several modes of transportation to accomplish a single movement of cargo.
A worst-case scenario would arise if port access was denied, forcing the war reserve materiel to be downloaded at Diego Garcia or Guam and airlifted to a forward operating location. A QUADCON is called a QUADCON because four QUADCONs have the same external dimensions as a 20-foot shipping container (20 foot long by 8 foot high by 8 foot wide).
The Army goal is to optimize use of strategic lift, focusing primarily on sealift, to improve force closure time for unit equipment and sustainment supplies and meet national defense objectives. Substantial portions of the Marine Corps Assault Follow-On Echelon (AFOE), Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS), and follow-on sustainment supplies will be transported in 20-foot International Organization for Standardization (ISO) containers. The 20-foot-long by 8-foot-wide ISO container is the primary container for the Marine Corps during development. Unlike a flatrack, a containerized roll-in-roll-out platform, known as a CROP, fits inside a container and is used primarily to haul ammunition. Both 20- and 40-foot containers can be placed onboard C-17 Globemaster III and C-5 Galaxy aircraft, but, because of their heavy tare weight, they are not normally transported by air.
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By the 1950’s McLean had developed a large haulage business on the East Coast of the USA but had never forgotten the days of being a driver waiting for a whole day for goods to be loaded and unloaded at the port of New Jersey. In 1960 a new agreement was reached between the dockside unions and shipping companies where the companies could bring in new machinery but a large pension fund was set up for longshoremen and they were given reduced working hours. At the time Matson’s on the west coast were using 24 foot containers and Sea-Land on the east were using 35 foot containers.
Forklift pockets are installed only in 20' x 8’ x 8’ standard ISO steel shipping containers and are arranged parallel to the center of the container in the bottom side rails.


One major challenge is the inter-modal problem; that is, sealift and land utilize 20- or 40-foot containers, and airlift requires 463L pallets.
The Army objectives are to optimize the use of origin-to-destination containerization to support peacetime, war planning, transition to war, and wartime Army transportation requirements, and to develop origin, in-transit, destination, and force structure containerization capabilities consistent with Army transportation requirements. The Marine Corps goal is to optimize the use of containers to improve the utilization of strategic lift, improve force closure for unit equipment and sustainment supplies, improve field warehousing, and improve materiel distribution.
CROPs and the ammunition stored on them are removed from containers after the strategic leg of a force movement, such as from the continental United States (CONUS) to a sea port of debarkation (SPOD). The Army refers to its unit-owned family of containers as Equipment Deployment Storage System (EDSS) containers. This was manual work carried out by “longshoremen” using pulleys, cargo hooks and a significant labor force.
He patented a container with reinforced corner posts that could be craned off a truck chassis and had integral strength for stacking. This modularization of cargo reduced the time required to load and unload, it also reduced the number of longshoremen required, which resulted in the strike of 1971-72. The military were interested in containers but in a time of war the varied sizes would not be efficient. Most containers are sprayed for insects because when lumber is used, it must comply with the quarantine regulations in most countries. For example, cargo loaded into a container is moved by truck, then by vessel, and finally by train to its final destination. The Army reviews regularly Army container requirements against commercial availability and capability to ensure an adequate number of containers are available on a timely basis to support peacetime and wartime requirements.
However, user capability to handle and transport these containers shall be the overriding consideration; for example, what is the availability or capacity of container-handling equipment? The Marine Corps does not currently have the optimum equipment capability to handle 40-foot containers. Some flatracks have end walls, some have four corner posts, and others have fixed A-frames on their ends and no sides. Examples include the interval slingable units (ISUs), containers express (CONEXs), quadruple containers (QUADCONs), triple containers (TRICONs), and other specialty containers used for such purposes as mortuary affairs, refrigeration, or medical services. An average ship had 200, 000 individual pieces of cargo and it would take around a week to load and unload.
Since there were specific docking requirements, namely large cranes, containerization required investment.


Longshore jobs were allocated on a rota basis by the unions but containerization saw the needs for specialist crane operators thus the ports wanted to hire staff on a permanent contract. This is due to the fact that the location of the pockets are relatively close together and such large containers would be difficult to balance.
The Army maintains unit integrity by keeping a unit's equipment together in the same container or the same ship.
The ISO container is already a standardized part of the world's commercialized shipping and transportation system.
It measures 108 inches long and 88 inches wide and can hold items stacked to a maximum height of about 8 feet. The New York Harbour Authority realized this need and the potential of containerization and so built the first container port 'Port Elizabeth' in New Jersey in 1962. The shipping owners won their rights to employ the specialist staff and the containerization of shipping continued to move forward  .
In this case a carrier may subcontract portions of the move, while presenting the shipper with a single Bill of Lading under which the move is performed. CONEXs are older containers that are generally now used for unit storage, rather than for deployments. They are designed to be transported by helicopters, either internally or externally, and can be placed on top of 463L pallets.
When shrink-wrap and cargo netting are used, a 463L pallet can hold a gross weight of 10,000 pounds. In contrast to the separate evolution of the laws of common carriage by land and by sea, ocean intermodalism developed as a result of land based transportation practice, not separate from it. A 20-Foot Shipping Container (or Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit - TEU) is the most commonly used container for military deployments. Just imagine trying to move a large number of bowling balls - it is a lot easier to put them into a container and just move the container using Container Handling Equipment (CHE), then to attempt to move them individually.



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