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If you're new to gardening, you may be wondering what all the fuss is with these zones, and how to find out which zone you are gardening in. Using The Heat-Zone Map   Use the AHS Plant Heat-Zone Map in the same way that you do the Hardiness Map.
The 12 zones of the map indicate the average number of days each year that a given region experiences "heat days"-temperatures over 86 degrees (30 degrees Celsius).
Thousands of garden plants have now been coded for heat tolerance, with more to come in the near future.
Gardeners categorize plants using such tags as "annual" or "perennial," "temperate" or "tropical," but these tags can obscure rather than illuminate our understanding of exactly how plants sense and use the growth-regulating stimuli sent by their environment. Many of the plants that we consider annuals-such as the petunia, coleus, snapdragon, and vinca-are capable of living for years in a frost-free environment. Plants vary in their ability to withstand heat, not only from species to species but even among individual plants of the same species!
Most important, the AHS Plant Heat-Zone ratings assume that adequate water is supplied to the roots of the plant at all times.
Although some plants are naturally more drought tolerant than others, horticulture by definition means growing plants in a protected, artificial environment where stresses are different than in nature.
Watering directly at the roots of a plant-through drip irrigation for instance-conserves water that would be lost to evaporation or runoff during overhead watering.
But as we all know, cold isn't the only factor determining whether our plants will survive and thrive. The effects of heat damage are more subtle than those of extreme cold, which will kill a plant instantly. How The Map Was Created   The data used to create the map were obtained from the archives of the National Climatic Data Center.
Because they were too difficult to map, data from weather stations at or near mountain peaks in sparsely populated areas were not incorporated.
In his book Metereology, Aristotle described the Northern Lights as a light which resembled the flames of burning gas. Xenophanes comments shows the character of the Ionian ‘intellectual revolution’, the transition from “mythos” to “logos”. The physical theory of Xenophanes appears to have had little impact to other scientists such as Plato and Aristotle. In the sixth century BC, the Greek philosopher Pythagoras recognised the sphericity of the Earth and the dominance of latitude in explaining climate variation (Sanderson 1999). Clouds may form and gather either because the air is condensed under the pressure of winds, or because atoms which hold together and are suitable to produce this result become mutually entangled, or because currents collect from tile earth and the waters ; and there are several other ways in which it is not impossible for the aggregations of such bodies into clouds to be brought about.
As in the whole survey, so in this particular point, the facts invite us to give a plurality of explanations. And it may easily be seen that its occurrence is possible in many other ways, so long as we hold fast to facts and take a general view of what is analogous to them. Winds arise from time to time when foreign matter continually and gradually finds its way into the air; also through the gathering of great store of water. Hail is caused by the firmer congelation and complete transformation, and subsequent distribution into drops, of certain particles resembling wind : also by the slighter congelation of certain particles of moisture and the vicinity of certain particles of wind which at one and the same time forces them together and makes them burst, so that they become frozen in parts and in the whole mass.
Snow may be formed when a fine rain issues from the clouds because the pores are symmetrical and because of the continuous and violent pressure of the winds upon clouds which are suitable; and then this rain has been frozen on its way because of some violent change to coldness in the regions below the clouds.
Dew is formed when such particles as are capable of producing this sort of moisture meet each other from the air: again by their rising from moist and damp places, the sort of place where dew is chiefly formed, and their subsequent coalescence, so as to create moisture and fall downwards, just as in several cases something similar is observed to take place under our eyes. Ice is formed by the expulsion from the water of the circular, and the compression of the scalene and acute-angled atoms contained in it; further by the accretion of such atoms from without, which being driven together cause the water to solidify after the expulsion of a certain number of round atoms. The rainbow arises when the sun shines upon humid air; or again by a certain peculiar blending of light with air, which will cause either all the distinctive qualities of these colors or else some of them belonging to a single kind, and from the reflection of this light the air all around will be colored as we see it to be, as the sun shines upon its parts. The Pythagorean philosopher Hippon (5th century BC) recognizes that all waters originate from the sea. Aristotle (384-323 BC) in his treatise Mereorologica clearly states the principles of hydrological cycle, clarifying that water evaporates by the action of sun and forms vapor, whose condensation forms clouds; also, he recognizes indirectly the principle of mass conservation within hydrological cycle.
Theophrastus (372-287 BC) adopts and completes the theories of Anaximenes and Aristotle for the forming of precipitation from vapor condensation and freezing; his contribution to the understanding of the relation between wind and evaporation was significant.
Epicurus (341-270 BC) contributed to physical explanations of meteorological phenomena, contravening the superstitions of his era. Archimedes (287-212 BC), among other significant contributions, founded hydrostatics introducing the principle named after him. North American summers are hot; most summers see heat waves in one or more parts of the United States. This website is designed to inform you about the health dangers of heat, prepare you for excessive heat events, and tell you what to do during an excessive heat wave.
The following activities were designed to facilitate as well as enhance teacher instruction on a variety of topics under the larger heading of "Greenhouse Gases and Earth's Changing Climate." Topics range from the simplistic to the more complex- from Dr.
All of the materials in the "Greenhouse Gases and Earth's Changing Climate" curriculum were prepared by a science education specialist in collaboration with scientists and technicians at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration David Skaggs Research Center in Boulder, CO.
Students will define a living thing, provide evidence for a thing to be living or not, and evaluate whether an ecosystem is alive. Students will make a simple model of the Earth system, which will require them to observe, keep records, and analyze the activities of their models and variables that affect them.
Students will identify and understand the divisions of geologic time scale and analyze what geologic and biologic changes have occurred throughout geologic time. Students will understand how satellite imagery is used to observe and interpret Earth’s atmospheric conditions, and they will evaluate the advantages of different types of satellite images. Students will identify the needs of a society on development and technology, and they will identify the positive and negative impacts of development and technology on society and the environment. Students will show how atoms and molecules in the Earth’s atmosphere absorb energy through resonance.
Students will demonstrate the relationship between wave frequency and energy in the electromagnetic spectrum. Students will illustrate how the gases in the atmosphere scatter some wavelengths of visible light more than others. Students will observe various lights and elements through spectroscopes to compare the various spectrums that each light source has.
Students will construct and cumulative line graph depicting changes over time, identify major geologic events on the same graph, and plot the percentages of various gases present in the Earth’s atmosphere.
Students will model the relationship between the states of matter (specifically water) and heat energy. Students will simulate the capacity of air to hold water vapor and see that it varies with temperature. This unit is about the Earth’s atmosphere and its various patterns of temperature, pressure, and height.
Students will describe the formation of the Earth’s atmosphere, explain how chemical reactions in the atmosphere produced nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide, and describe the formation of the ozone shield.
Students will research the Earth’s atmospheric gases and illustrate that information in a spreadsheet. Students will identify the characteristics of the layers of the Earth’s atmosphere and analyze the spatial relationships of the atmospheric layers and interfaces. Students will construct a graph which illustrates the temperature and air pressure patterns in the Earth’s atmosphere, and they will draw conclusions from those graphs regarding the temperature, pressure, and altitude relationship. Students will calculate the approximate value of storm precipitation, estimate the surface water evaporated to supply the storm, evaluate the amount of fresh water runoff from the storm, and explain how topographic features affect precipitation amounts.
Students will describe and illustrate the distribution of solar energy received by the Earth. Students will create and use a small scale model to observe the factors affecting both energy absorption and emission in Earth materials. Students will form a model of the heating of the Earth’s atmosphere and be provided with an opportunity to build and test a physical model analogous to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Students will understand the greenhouse effect and recognize the difference between a scientific face (the greenhouse effect) and an unproven scientific hypothesis (global warming). Students will understand that gases un the atmosphere affect the temperatures at the Earth’s surface and model the Earth’s greenhouse effect by using student’s bodies as the Earth. Students will create a data table of information on the atmospheric trace gases that are radiatively active and play a significant role in global change.
Students will understand the concept of resonance frequency and simulate the resonance frequency of certain molecules using models with different characteristics. Students will provide a visual model of the specific units (millions, billions etc) used in the measurement of the abundance of gas species in the atmosphere.
Students will relate climate change to the theory of feedback mechanisms through a problem solving activity.


Students will define adaption and describe several adaptions that would help a creature live on Venus or Mars.
Students will identify the factors that affect the climate of a region and identify and analyze the effects that various factors have on the climate of a hypothetical region of the globe. Students will identify the Earth’s climate zones by isotherm boundaries and analyze a map of the Earth’s climate zones. Students will understand the relationship between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration in classifying climate types.
Students will create climatograms of ten identified regions of the globe and focus attention on the relationship between climatic factors and biota. Students will plot the locations of the earthquakes around the globe, analyze fossil evidence and hypothesize regarding the events that determined their locations, and determine the arrangement of the Earth’s continents in the past as a result of fossils evidence.
Students will locate major volcanoes around the world using latitude and longitude, explain how the latitudinal location of the volcanic activity may affect global climate conditions, and use the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) to predict the potential of a volcanic eruption to affect global climate. Students will analyze the growth of tree rings and determine what information can be determined about growth and environment conditions from analyzing a cross section of a tree trunk.
Students will simulate investigations using tree ring core samples, conduct a 50 year climate history, and record the chronology of the tree rings on a time line to highlight significant social, personal, and scientific events. Students will learn about changes that have taken place in greenhouse gas and average annual temperatures within the recent past (to 160,000 years ago).
Students will understand the concept of radioactivity and radioactivity and radioactive decay and simulate the radioactive decay process using the imaginary chemical element "Zorkium". Students will compute the percent growth for each of the greenhouse gases for different time segments from 1850 to 2030. Students will analyze greenhouse gas emissions on a global scale, compute the total greenhouse gas emissions for 50 countries, and rank countries by their per capita greenhouse gas emissions.
Students will describe the characteristics of sound waves and their movement through different mediums, apply the use of sound waves to map the ocean floor, and analyze the relationship between the speed of sound in water and temperature. Students will analyze a graph of US Consumption from 1875 to 1980 and evaluate the energy content of different types of fuels.
Students will identify hydrocarbon molecules by the number of carbon atoms and create structural formulas for 10 hydrocarbon molecules.
Students will discuss how fossil fuels are formed and why they are considered an environmental problem. Students will observe the effects of incomplete combustion, evaluate the effect of temperature increase on by-product production, and analyze the effect of continued use of energy inefficient fuels on the environment. Students will use dice to model exponential growth, change the variables and attempt to slow down and stop exponential growth, and relate this problem to human population trends and other human behaviors.
Students will make predictions and analyze the age make up of different populations, create an age pyramid, and evaluate the factors in the environment and in human society that affect the size of the population. Students will create two pie graphs comparing the causes of death in developing and developed nations, analyze data comparing the causes of death in developing and developed countries, and create a map illustrating the availability of health care around the world. Students will graph 18O and mean annual temperature data, analyze the relationship between the 18O Value and the mean annual temperature, and trace the steps in ice core acquisition and analysis. Students will evaluate the data from two graphs based on analysis of an ice sample taken by Russian scientists at Vostok Station in East Antarctica and hypothesize about the correlation between CO2 concentrations and global surface temperatures.
Students will observe air bubbles trapped in ice cubes and compare them to air trapped in glacial ice. Students will briefly describe the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, illustrate how information on ancient climates is preserved in ice cores, and interpret an “ice core” from the Greenland Ice Record. Students will discuss and compare the physical and chemical properties of carbon and silicon, identify as many sources of carbon and silicon as possible, and view a videotape about carbon v.
Students will describe the natural cycling of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the Earth system and analyze changes in the Earth’s carbon cycle as a result of human activity. Students will calculate the per capita heating value contributed by several different countries and illustrate that data in several different formats. Students will build a simple methane generation system, simulate methane production in the natural environment, and determine some of the conditions necessary for the optimum production of methane.
Students will read and discuss a scientific article about ruminant animal contributions to global methane concentration, evaluate the process being used at present to measure methane emissions from ruminant animals, and calculate the average amounts of CH4 contributed by different animal species on a daily basis. Students will create a line graph of atmospheric methane concentrations over the past 450 years and analyze the correlation between world population trends and the rise in methane concentrations.
Students will describe the steps in the Earth’s nitrogen cycle and create a simple diagram of the nitrogen cycle.
Students will examine the structure and function of root nodules in legumes and evaluate the effect of over-use of fertilizers in the natural cycling of nitrogen.
Students will understand the relationships between atoms in simple carbon compounds, compute the number and types of atoms in CFC and HCFC compounds using their code numbers, and arrive at the chemical formulas for CFC and HCFC compounds using the Rule of 90. Students will gain an understanding that there are many questions about the reliability of computerized climate models. Students will analyze the effects of global warming on Australia as predicted by climate models, understand why computer models of global warming show a wide range of predicted effects for Australia, and analyze the difficulties in planning for the possible effects.
Students will gain an understanding of how difficult it is for climate models to predict sea level increases on the future and examine the possible impact of sea level rise along the Gulf Coast alone. Students will model the relationship between certain variables in the Earth system affecting climate and use a spreadsheet model to test hypotheses about how changes in the Earth[s temperature and energy balance will affect the Earth’s temperature. Students will infer what will happen to various kinds of organisms as conditions in their habitats change and predict which kinds of organisms will survive and which will become extinct. Students will trace the effects of a gradual climatic change on a model ecosystem which is simplified from a real situation and explain ways in which environmental factors interact to set limits on geographic ranges. Students will describe the change in water level when water is exposed to heat, differentiate between thermal expansion and melting snow and ice fields as they relate to sea level rise, and predict the impact of rising sea level on coastal areas. Students will simulate the melting of the polar ice caps and the effect it would have on the world’s coastal regions. Students will gain an understanding if the relationship of ice to water and density as the ration between mass and volume. Students will communicate the concept of a chain reaction regarding environmental events and evaluate environmental events and how they might influence life on Earth. Students will be provided with insights into the effects of global warming on a society and culture very different from our own, and they will be provided with experience of looking at environmental issues from viewpoints that may be very different from their own. Students will research information about different interest groups to be represented at a world conference on global warming, plan their strategy for participation in the world conference, and plan proposals for effect, positive and cooperative global actions that will be satisfactory to all interest groups represented. You will see the heat zone designations joining hardiness zone designations in garden centers, references books, and catalogs. The Heat Map will differ from the Hardiness Map in assigning codes to "annuals," including vegetables and herbs, and ultimately field crops as well. Unusual seasons-fewer or more hot days than normal-will invariably affect results in your garden.
The accuracy of the zone coding can be substantially distorted by a lack of water, even for a brief period in the life of the plant. In addition, plants take in water more efficiently when it is applied to their roots rather than their leaves.
Daylength is a critical factor in regulating vegetative growth, flower initiation and development, and the induction of dormancy.
While a gentle spring breeze can "cool" a plant through transpiration as it does us, fast-moving air on a hot day can have a negative effect, rapidly dehydrating it. The ability of plant roots to take up water and nutrients depends on the relative alkalinity or acidity of the soil.
Plants vary greatly in the ratio and form of elements they need for consistent, healthy growth. Particularly during seasons of drought, we are all aware of the impact that heat has on our plants.
Heat damage can first appear in many different parts of the plant: Flower buds may wither, leaves may droop or become more attractive to insects, chlorophyll may disappear so that leaves appear white or brown, or roots may cease growing. If these flames spread and at the same time sent out sparks and rays, they were called jumping goats.
A decision to put aside an older way of thinking about events grounded in a belief in divine beings in favor of an approach to understanding the world that employs wide-ranging inquiry and direct observation and resorts to strictly physical causes and forces. Two centuries later Aristotle expanded on Pythagoras's foundation and introduced five climate zones, ranging from tropical to northern frigid. And that being so, rain may be produced from them sometimes by their compression, sometimes by their transformation; or again may be caused by exhalations of moisture rising from suitable places through the air, while a more violent inundation is due to certain accumulations suitable for such discharge. Lightning precedes thunder, when the clouds are constituted as mentioned above and the configuration which produces lightning is expelled at the moment when the wind falls upon the cloud, and the wind being rolled up afterwards produces the roar of thunder; or, if both are simultaneous, the lightning moves with a greater velocity towards its and the thunder lags behind, exactly as when persons who are striking blows are observed from a distance. And when they descend upon land, they cause what are called tornadoes, in accordance with the various ways in which they are produced through the force of the wind; and when let down upon the sea, they cause waterspouts.


The rest of the winds arise when a few of them fall into the many hollows and they are thus divided and multiplied.
The round shape of hailstones is not impossibly due to the extremities on all sides being melted and to the fact that, as explained, particles either of moisture or of wind surround them evenly on all sides and in every quarter, when they freeze.
Or again, by congelation in clouds which have uniform density a fall of snow might occur through the clouds which contain moisture being densely packed in close proximity to each other; and these clouds produce a sort of compression and cause hail, and this happens mostly in spring. And the formation of hoar-frost is not different from that of dew, certain particles of such a nature becoming in some such way congealed owing to a certain condition of cold air. The circular shape which it assumes is due to the fact that the distance of every point is perceived by our sight to be equal; or it may be because, the atoms in the air or in the clouds and deriving from the sun having been thus united, the aggregate of them presents a sort of roundness.
And this happens at certain parts either because a current has forced its wry in from without or because the heat has gained possession of certain passages in order to effect this. He also studied several meteorological phenomena, generally supporting and completing Anaximenes’s theories; his theory about thunders, which fought the belief that they are thrown by Zeus, probably cost him imprisonment (430 BC). Committee on Opportunities in the Hydrological Sciences, 1992) as the first who formulated the discharge concept and made flow measurements. Committee on Opportunities in the Hydrological Sciences (1991) Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences. Heat is one of the leading weather-related killers in the United States, resulting in hundreds of fatalities each year and even more heat-related illnesses.
This site includes vital information about the dangers of leaving children, pets or anyone with limited mobility alone in a car even for a few minutes in what might seem like mild weather. Seuss' "The Lorax" to computation activities focusing on the formation of CFCs and the Rule of Ninety.
Their instructional use and application is left entirely to the discretion of the classroom teacher. Students will then report their results to the class and write a summary of their research.
Students will also interpret the graph relating the events to the changes in the atmosphere and make a prediction about the outcome of the investigation. Students will also practice setting up a controlled experiment, recording data, graphing, and analyzing results. Students will also use climate ratios to classify climates into four types: arid, semiarid, subhumid, and humid. Students will also understand that the movement of the Earth’s crustal plates over time has influenced regional climate conditions.
Students will also examine the dispersal of aerosols throughout the atmosphere after a volcanic eruption.
Students will also learn about the processes and interactions involved in maintaining the Earth’s energy balance and gain an appreciation for their complexity. And even more than with the hardiness zones, we expect gardeners to find that many plants will survive outside their designated heat zone.
Heat damage is always linked to an insufficient amount of water being available to the plant.
Either too much or too little water can cut off the oxygen supply to the roots and lead to a toxic situation. First, it is essential for photosynthesis-providing the energy to split water molecules, take up and fix carbon dioxide, and synthesize the building blocks for growth and development. The long days of summer add substantially to the potential for heat to have a profound effect on plant survival. Air movement in a garden is affected by natural features such as proximity to bodies of water and the presence of surrounding vegetation, as well as structures such as buildings and roads. On the other hand, structures of brick, stone, glass, concrete, plastic, or wood will emit heat and raise the air temperature. Most plants prefer a soil close to neutral (pH 7), but there are many exceptions, such as members of the heath family, which prefer acidic soil.
When these are present in appropriate quantities, they are recycled over and over again as the residue of woody material and dropped leaves accumulates and decays, creating sustainable landscapes. By using the map to find the zone in which you live, you will be able to determine what plants will "winter over" in your garden and survive for many years.
Within the contiguous 48 states, only NWS stations that recorded maximum daily temperatures for at least 12 years were included.
Atmospheric phenomena (halos, coronae, etc) commonly have been considered signs of the intentions of the gods such as Iris, the daughter of Thaumas (“marvel”). The rainbow appears after the flood as a sign that God will not kill again all humans or parts of them as in the case of Onan, the cities Sodom and Gomorrha or with the flood that left only Noah, his family, and a representative set of animals alive. It is not coincidental that in the early 20th century German scientist Koeppen also used 5 climate zones in his classification, identified with the letters A-E. Thunder may be due to the rolling of wind in the hollow parts of the clouds, as it is sometimes imprisoned in vessels which we use; or to the roaring of fire in them when blown by a wind, or to the rending and disruption of clouds, or to the friction and splitting up of clouds when they have become as firm as ice.
And when frozen clouds rub against each other., this accumulation of snow might be thrown off. In particular, he correctly assumed that winds are caused from differences in the air density: the air, heated by the sun, moves towards the north pole and leaves gaps that cause air currents.
Here you will find information about protecting yourself from the heat, educational materials and resources on how the National Weather Service keeps you aware of potentially dangerous situations. Each group of activities is preceded by a Teacher Background section intended to provide a thorough yet condensed version of the science incorporated within the teaching activity. Activities are intended to be modified to meet the variety of learning styles and ability levels present in a typical classroom. Students will also evaluate and draw conclusions about the behavior of sunspots based in the background information and the data provided. Finally, students will learn about and appreciate computer modeling as an investigative tool. You can control the amount of oxygen your plant roots receive by making sure your plants have good aeration-adequate space between soil particles. Gardeners wanting plants to produce early or survive in cold zones will often plant them on the south side of a brick wall.
The successful cultivation of any plant requires that it be grown in a medium within a specific pH range. You will also find games and activities to help educate your children about the dangers of heat and links for more information. It is assumed that the teacher has at least a general knowledge of scientific terminology and processes within the disciplines of Earth and Physical science.
If you live in USDA Zone 7 and AHS Zone 7, you will know that you can leave tulips outdoors in your garden year-round. Plant tissues must contain enough water to keep their cells turgid and to sustain the plant's processes of chemical and energy transport.
Light from the entire spectrum can enter a living body, but only rays with shorter wavelengths can exit. Obviously, this would not be a good place for a plant at the southern limit of its heat zone!
While it is possible to manipulate the pH of soil with amendments, it is easier to choose plants appropriate to your soil type. Today nearly all American references books, nursery catalogs, and gardening magazines describe plants using USDA Zones. When desiccation reaches a high enough level, the enzymes that control growth are deactivated and the plant dies.
Exclusion of myth is the sole condition necessary; and it will be excluded, if one properly attends to the facts and hence draws inferences to interpret what is obscure.
The “enigma” of Nile’s floods (which, contrary to the regime of Mediterranean rivers, occur in summer) was also thoroughly studied by Herodotus (480-430 BC), who seems to have clear knowledge of hydrological cycle and its mechanisms. If you, or someone you know, have been a victim of excessive heat, please share your story so we can prevent others from becoming a heat victim.
It can withstand summer heat throughout the United States, but will over winter only in our warmest zones. Cloud cover, moisture in the air, and the ozone layer-factors we gardeners can't control-affect light and temperature. But you can adjust light by choosing to situate your plant in dappled shade, for instance, if you are in its southernmost recommended heat zone.



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