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This paper will highlight some of the most pertinent issues that need to be addressed when competing in the international business environment pertaining to risk management.
In business, risks lurk at every turn, competitor innovations that threaten the viability of your products or services, new players in the market place, adverse trends in commodity prices, currencies, interest rates or the economy. Financial executives, who have not done so already, should begin to develop a holistic risk management program or one that allows them to mitigate and manage risk on a broad front.
Scenario analysis matured during Cold War confrontations between major powers, notably the USA and USSR, but was not widespread in insurance circles until the 1970s when major oil tanker disasters forced a more comprehensive foresight. Governments are apparently only now learning to use sophisticated risk methods, most obviously to set standards for environmental regulation, e.g. Risk management involves identifying, analyzing, and taking steps to reduce or eliminate the exposures to loss faced by an organization or individual. Basic risks such as fire, windstorm, employee injuries, and automobile accidents, as well as more sophisticated exposures such as product liability, environmental impairment, and employment practices, are the province of the risk management department in a typical corporation.
In the 1990s, the field of risk management expanded to include managing financial risks as well as those associated with changing technology and Internet commerce.
The main focus of enterprise risk management is to establish a culture of risk management throughout a company to handle the risks associated with growth and a rapidly changing business environment. Finally, it is important that the small business owner and top managers show their support for employee efforts at managing risk. Means of measuring and assessing risk vary widely across different professions The various means of doing so may define different professions, e.g.
In the nuclear industry, 'consequence' is often measured in terms of off site radiological release, and this is often banded into five or six decade wide bands. The technique as a whole is usually refered to as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), (or Probabilistic Safety Assessment, PSA). Risk in finance has no one definition, but some theorists, notably Ron Dembo, have defined quite general methods to assess risk as an expected after the fact level of regret.
As regret measures rarely reflect actual human risk aversion, it is difficult to determine if the outcomes of such transactions will be satisfactory.
The concepts of closeness to the core business and market attractiveness can be combined to analyze the risk of investing in new offerings. You can trace through the supporting analysis and its conclusions, adjusting your input until you are satisfied your description accurately characterizes your enterprise. Offerings in this category represent the least risk and will be ideal candidates for development. Offerings in this quadrant are risky to develop since they stray from the core business.
If the company can achieve operating profitability at one level, can profitability be maintained as the company grows and evolves? The universe of uncertainty that each company faces is comprised of endogenous and exogenous dimensions.
Industry level uncertainties originate primarily from technological innovation and changes in the relative prices of inputs and outputs.
Environmental uncertainty arises from the prospect of political, macro economic, social, natural, financial and currency volatility, and is often represented by the term country risk (Clark and Marois, 1996, Howell, 1998 and Robock, 1971). In the same survey, the item that was least associated with risk was the Knightian definition of risk as known probabilities and outcomes.
The analysis of country risk is a well established field within international business research which demonstrates a clear relevance to practice.
The formal evaluation of country risk grew out of the need to evaluate the creditworthiness of sovereign nations, and was extended within the financial sector to evaluate private foreign entities.
Clark and Marois (1996) summarize the methodologies employed by some of these organizations, which typically utilize a weighted average of objective economic and political data (e.g. Cosset and Roy (1991) found the primary determinants of the ratings generated by Euromoney and Institutional Investor are per capita income and the country's propensity to invest and level of indebtedness.
Due to the lack of competing methodologies, the country risk analysis techniques that were developed for use in the financial sector are now applied with few or no changes for the purpose of evaluating country level uncertainties in the operating environment (Clark & Marois, 1996). The commonly employed practice of accounting for the downside risk associated with potential private foreign direct investment based on country risk measures that were originally designed to evaluate sovereign risk is likely inappropriate, for four main reasons.
Second, lending situations are fundamentally different from other forms of international business, in that only downside risk is relevant in a lending context (i.e. Third, the generation of a generic country risk rating does not account for firm specific factors, such as exposure, aversion to risk, and ability to manage risk.
Fourth, the current ways in which country risk is measured do not effectively gauge the most commonly perceived definitions of risk. However, this measure confounds expected return with risk, and does not directly assess the predictability of GDP growth. At best, country risk rating methods help increase managers abilities to anticipate or identify changes in the operating environment. The conceptual concerns with country risk measures outlined in Section 1.2 are corroborated by empirical research evaluating the extent to which country risk measures are effective predictors of macro level volatility. A further demonstration of the shortcomings inherent in relying upon established measures of country risk is depicted in Fig. The figures include seven major emerging markets, which were chosen on the basis of each having experienced at least one major economic crisis during the sample period, and collectively these countries account for the most prominent emerging market economic crises in the past decade. As shown in the illustrative cases depicted in these figures, a well established measure of country risk failed to clearly predict any of the crises. The economy can reduce demand for your product or service during a recession, but it can also stimulate demand during an expansion.
Downside risks, while seen as the most likely to impact the top revenue driver, tend to be easiest to manage, because companies can take proactive measures to minimize or mitigate them, such as building redundancies into their supply chain or installing fire protection systems in offices and manufacturing plants.
Whatever the potential benefits of a strong risk management program, many organizations see plenty of challenges to implementing one. The primary objective of an organization, growth, for exampl will determine its strategy for managing various risks. Businesses have several alternatives for the management of risk, including avoiding, assuming, reducing, or transferring the risks. Assuming risks simply means accepting the possibility that a loss may occur and being prepared to pay the consequences. Transferring risk refers to the practice of placing responsibility for a loss on another party via a contract. Any combination of these risk management tools may be applied in the fifth step of the process, implementation. As with so many business initiatives, the success of a risk management programme depends on the active support of senior management. Effective risk management programs do not rely on the work and resources of any single person or group within the organization.
Risk management programs work best and companies reap the greatest possible benefit from them when their goals, processes and results are shared with all the company’s stakeholders. Effective risk management programs do not merely insure companies against downside risks, they also include proactive systems and processes to maximize the opportunities the opportunities presented by variable risks. SMEs and newly established ventures, on the other hand, typically exhibit resource scarcity but also maintain organic, decentralized, and flexible organizational structures, which may give them an advantage in the implementation of strategies that require a willingness to change, particularly when change is driven by information acquired in international operations, which are generally peripheral to the organization's core. Small businesses encounter a number of risks when they use the Internet to establish and maintain relationships with their customers or suppliers. Conducting business online exposes a company to a wide range of potential risks, including liability due to infringement on copyrights, patents, or trademarks, charges of defamation due to statements made on a Web site or via e mail, charges of invasion of privacy due to unauthorized use of personal information or excessive monitoring of employee communications, liability for harassment due to employee behavior online, and legal issues due to accidental noncompliance with foreign laws. Making a sound business case for having a strong risk management program has long been an elusive challenge for many organizations.
In pursuing this goal, companies, now more than ever, would do well to begin by identifying their top drivers, then pinpointing the top threats to those revenue drivers, and distinguishing between those that are predominantly downside risks and those that are predominantly variable risks.
While both categories of risk deserve attention, companies may discover the effectiveness of their risk management programs are most effective if they devote more of their attention to controlling risk rather than transferring it to insurance companies. Because companies indicate that they expect having trouble finding the time, budget and people necessary to implement or maintain a strong risk management program, senior management must demonstrate leadership in championing and funding this initiative. By implementing an effective risk management program, companies protect their ability to compete. This Business Acquisition Template is created to assist persons who decide buying an existing business or selling their own.
Business Analysis Template is composed to help you in monitoring strengths of your business, so you can decide whether you need an improvement in some segment of your organization.
Business audit is a process of analyzing and investigating a company’s activities in thee key areas including Management, Finance and Operations. A proven business consulting process lets an organization to indentify current problems and opportunities, analyze the data and then make an improvement plan. In this Business Continuity Plan Template you can learn about steps you can take to plan for continuity of your business organization. This Business Contract Template is composed to guide the organizational executives and private businessmen in their aim to document their deals in a clear and understandable manner, without too much or too little details. Every commercial organization that generates higher profits needs to have a development plan that outlines how business activities will be carried out in the future. This Business Disaster Preparedness Template can be helpful to all business managers who want to become ready for possible emergency and disasters. This Business Ethics Template gives tips and suggestions on how to create ethics policy that regulates relationships between an organization and its employees, customers, competitors, suppliers and other parties involved in business operations and activities. Successful business event planning includes a series of steps that you need to take to organize and conduct such events as workshops, conferences, promotion campaigns, negotiation meetings, phone calls, and so on. Sooner or later every business will face the need for expansion as initial and previous business plans may no longer be sufficient. Business expenses are examples of any tax-deductible operating costs that a company has to cover in order to ensure feasible sales activities and maintain successful business functioning. When implementing your plan for business growth opportunities, you are focused on expansion of your business and on the way you choose to achieve your business growth objectives. Risk management include such processes like risk assessment, loss control, risk transfer and risk monitoring. This Business Integration Template is composed to provide help to business managers who would like to accomplish a business merger successfully and to make sure that all involved assets will be smoothly integrated. If you want your company to be succeeding and competitive in the market, you need to be ready to make investments in developing business intelligence solutions. A business inventory is a formal document listing all items available within business premises owned by a commercial organization.
This Business Loan Template is created to help business managers who would like to get a loan from financiers with a purpose of extension or a new enterprise starting.
Business relocation can turn into a disaster with losses in revenue if there is no accurate and complete business moving plan.
In order to be a successful businessman and a prosperous leader of any business structure, it is necessary to learn how to trade and conclude successful bargains. This Business Operations Template will be helpful to everyone who desires starting up his own business.

This Business Plan Template can be helpful for individuals who need to create a business plan. Business process architecture is a blueprint that shows how a company can align its activities, human resources and technology with business goals and mission. A clear and concise description of business processes helps organizations establish, manage and achieve their business goals in an effective manner. Process identification, information gathering, process mapping, and analysis are four generic steps in creating a business process. In essence, a business process can be decomposed into a series of interrelated activities and tasks that are intended to accomplish a preset goal. Business process facilitation is a method of coming into an environment to analyze process status and understand what activities and events have a negative impact and what can be done to eliminate problems.
Harmonization of business processes means an attempt to make adjustment of inconsistencies and differences that exist between the processes to reach uniform and compatibility. Every commercial organization is governed by a set of business processes that are somehow defined, implemented, deployed, and maintained.
A typical business process includes a series of procedures that describe the process lifecycle and explain what to obtain by the process. In this Business Process Reengineering Template you will find out what steps your company can take to examine existing business processes and plan for redesigning and improving these processes.
Business process scenario is a sequence of events or actions that are intended to complete certain business objectives and produce desired results.
This Business Relocation Template is designed to help business owners who seek to relocate their enterprises to new places. This Business Risk Assessment Template can be used when researching probability and severity of risks threatening your business success. This Business Readiness Template is created to assist the business owners on tasks to be done right before launching their enterprises at full-power activity. This Business Registration Template will be helpful to beginner entrepreneurs who would like to legalize their own companies and want to have a common idea of how this procedure is typically accomplished.
This Business Resumption Template is created to help business owners who are going to be back into work after an emergency break.
This Business Security Template is created to support business owners & managers in their efforts for protecting their enterprises against some possible threats and mismanagements.
This Business Strengths and Weaknesses Template is created to help business managers who are in charge of analyzing different areas of their companies to define their strong and weak points. This Business Skills Template specifies key skills and abilities required for a business manager to reach success. To develop and implement your own business startup strategy that is complete and comprehensive, you will need to read many articles and visit many websites.
This Succession Planning Template will help business analysts, CEOs and strategic planners to identify key steps for managing performance and developing employee skills, knowledge and talents. If you wonder how to purchase a business and then integrate it into your existing organization, then this Business Takeover Template will be helpful for you. This template is elaborated for assessment of existing and establishment of the proper attitudes to business telephone calls within enterprise. In this Business Transition Template there are tips and suggestions on planning, implementing and reviewing the process of transiting a business to a successor. In this Business Turnaround Template you can read how to carry out the turnaround process in four steps. This Business Valuation Template is composed to support those who wish to appraise business assets to be included into a deal. The buying a business Template is intended for people who are going to buy existing business and need to inspect it previously.
Before choosing of a business where you can do your best you need to make honest assessment of yourself. Choosing a business location template is intended for research and consideration of a wide range of factors which support your business or can influence it. Choosing business premises template is created to consider the important things such as main capabilities of your business premises, easiness of access for customers and employees, available services and facilities etc. This Template can be used by enterprise managers and owners to inspect current state of their business and choose appropriate type of business strategy (long term plan to achieve important business goals). The decision to close a business should be taken only after other options have been examined and discussed fully.
Facilities Management Template is composed for facility managers to assist them in conducting their routine tasks to maintain safety and organization in the business facilities being supervised.
This Green Business Template is designed to help company owners and executives to make their businesses "greener". After your initial risk and control evaluation, it is critical for each work group to provide recommendations upward for the BCM team’s consideration.
As you calculate the BIAs for each risk, each team will have to determine what the Recovery Objectives are for each business function with respect to time sensitive processes and the requirements to recover them in an acceptable time frame. Recovery Time Objective is the amount of time from the process disruption to the time when the process is operating. Recover Point Objective is the acceptable amount of data or information loss in relation to the point in time when the last good, offsite backup of data occurred. Throw in potential disruptions to supply chains that have been stretched across thousand of miles and country borders by globalization, and the opportunity for something to go wrong is, to say the least, worrisome. Organizations who are tempted to short change their risk management efforts will find potential consequences can be severe, from a loss of competitiveness to, in the extreme, having to cease operations altogether.
Usually the probability of that event and some assessment of its expected harm must be combined into a believable scenario (an outcome) which combines the set of risk, regret and reward probabilities into an expected value for that outcome. For example, human beings are completely vulnerable to the threat of mind control by aliens, which would have a fairly serious impact. The practice of risk management utilizes many tools and techniques, including insurance, to manage a wide variety of risks. Such losses and liabilities can affect day to day operations, reduce profits, and cause financial hardship severe enough to cripple or bankrupt a small business. Risk management is now a widely accepted description of a discipline within most large organizations.
As of 2000, the role of risk management had begun to expand even further to protect entire companies during periods of change and growth.
In response, risk management professionals created the concept of enterprise risk management, which was intended to implement risk awareness and prevention programs on a company wide basis.
To bring together the various disciplines and implement integrated risk management, ensuring the buy in of top level executives is vital. These include the nuclear power and aircraft industries, where the possible failure of a complex series of engineered systems could result in highly undesirable outcomes. Such methods have been uniquely successful in limiting interest rate risk in financial markets. The mathematical difficulties interfere with other social goods such as disclosure, valuation and transparency. The proximity of the new offering to the core business is measured by its proximity to current offerings and current markets. The low attractiveness of the market may be a benefit since it will be less lucrative for competitors. Competitive risk represents the degree to which competitors' actions cannot be predicted, and may therefore bring about unanticipated consequences.
Unlike gambling, business strategy entails outcomes of unknown or uncertain probabilities, and the nature of the outcomes themselves may be unknowable. Country risk analysis is intended to isolate idiosyncratic sources of potential volatility in a country's political, economic, or social environment. Most large international banks maintain departments specifically responsible for monitoring country risk, and many of these offer clients formal, standardized analyses of country risk. Country risk scores are typically used to discount the value of potential investments in a given foreign country, such that potential projects in higher risk countries are subjected to a higher discount rate (or must exceed a higher hurdle rate of return). First, the risk of default in international lending is not necessarily equivalent to other risks faced in international business.
For instance, an average of analysts' expectations of GDP growth is frequently incorporated into country risk measures (Clark & Marois, 1996), with lower growth reflecting higher risk. But these methods do not measure the predictability of the environment or the chance and size of a detrimental outcome. La Porta, Lopez de Silanes, Shleifer, & Vishny, 1997) to capture the various dimensions of country risk and identify potential volatility. In each case, the quarter in which the crisis first materialized is indicated with a special symbol.
In fact, in a majority of cases, the focal country was deemed to be exhibiting diminishing risk in the periods leading up to a major crisis. Some risks, such as those related to supply chain or property, only have downside consequences. Similarly, a new technology could either threaten the viability of your business model, or give you an advantage over the competition, depending if you where the first or last to embrace the technology.
The biggest risk management challenge is as expected, will be obtaining adequate resources, namely, time, budget and people. Besides addressing both variable and downside risks on an enterprise wide basis, programs are needed that should incorporate systems and processes for preventing, not just insuring against common risk factors.
Avoiding risks, or loss prevention, involves taking steps to prevent a loss from occurring, via such methods as employee safety training. Reducing risks, or loss reduction, involves taking steps to reduce the probability or the severity of a loss, for example by installing fire sprinklers.
The most common example of risk transference is insurance, which allows a company to pay a small monthly premium in exchange for protection against automobile accidents, theft or destruction of property, employee disability, or a variety of other risks. The final step, monitoring, involves a regular review of the company's risk management tools to determine if they have obtained the desired result or if they require modification.
While often led by a risk management officer, the best programs draw on the input and co operation of every part of the organization. Large, established firms are likely to have greater resources and more market power, which will likely lead them to pursue strategies such as diversification and control to manage country risk. An overview of the eight strategies, their objectives, and their scope is presented in Figure. Increased reliance on the Internet demands that small business owners decide how much risk to accept and implement security systems to manage the risk associated with online business activities. Awareness of risk has increased as we currently live in a less stable economic and political environment.
This can be a way to extend existing business activity by merging assets of another firm, or a way to start a new affair, but along with acquired company’s facility you may get a bunch of problematic liabilities, so this template was designed to guide you on pre-purchase due diligence and clauses to be included into acquisition agreement. With a help of this template you can analyze areas that are critically important to your business success: the business team, current products and services, marketing and financial performance.
The following Business Audit Template gives you a range of tasks to conduct the audit of your organization.

This Business Development Template includes 6 steps to help business owners develop their companies, increase sales, generate more leads, reclaim lapsed customers, identify product opportunities etc. Read business expansion tips in this Template to find out how to develop an effective business expansion strategy for your business and use business expansion advantages. In this Business Expense Template we describe the key expense categories to help you plan for successful business management.
You should always keep in mind while designing business growth plan that your efforts can be paid off by keeping your business growth ideas in the right direction.
With a help of this template you will obtain some ideas on what aspects you need to take care about. The following Business Intelligence Checklist will help you take first steps for the development. The following Business Inventory Template describes 7 steps for creating such a document and also gives tips for storing the document. The following Business Moving Template is designed to help you avoid failure when you move your company to a new location. The secret is based in how effectively you carry on negotiations on the price and debts returning.
With a help of this template you will learn what functions and activities are necessary for a company to be established, successfully growing and secure.
In this Business Process Description Template you can find out how to describe and specify processes. Process decomposition is a great way to understand how to manage performance gaps and process exceptions. The success of process management depends on how well an organization understands the lifecycle of its processes. In this Business Process Procedure Template we present 4 procedures and tasks that are common to most types of business process.
The following Business Process Scenario Template explains what actions to consider when planning for process scenarios.
This can be quite a complex effort, so this template covers a set of the major tasks from the many ones you may need to address when moving your business to new or alternative premises. Using this template will help you to identify and measure your risks in a simple easy-to-grasp manner.
Through using this all-round template you will get an understanding of how well your business is ready to enter the market with readiness of its location, equipment, personnel, etc. With a help of this all-round template you can learn some precautions to be undertaken at your business site and processes in order of making them secure and safe. With a help of this template you can know what business aspects need to be inspected and what strengths or weaknesses can be discovered potentially. It also gives five basic tips and suggestions on how to improve those skills and abilities. If you don’t want to spend your time on attempts to find business startup training guides and tutorials, you can read Business Startup Template just now. The following suggestions are based on generally accepted business and interpersonal ethics. If you decide to sell or hand over your current business, you can use the template to get insight into the transition process.
The template will be helpful for business managers and owners who need to implement their plans for growing their businesses.
With a help of this template you can learn how business assets are classified and what elements they comprise to be evaluated. This Template explains what general business information should be gathered and considered in order to help buyer to make decision. This template includes the number of points which should be gone through to ensure proper assessment and selection of location for your business.
This template is not exhaustive and cannot include all possible options, but it can be taken as basis for further elaboration and can be easily modified to meet your specific requirements.
In this template you can find reactionary and preventative actions peculiar to facility management. The Template covers such topics as "Reasons for Going Green", "Ideas of Energy-Efficient Practices", and "Suggestions regarding Employees and Communities". All of these factors serve as important guides in understanding the holistic nature of your vulnerabilities and the probability of individual risks impacting your organization, companywide. The results will give your team a good idea of what resources are needed for the defined recovery and resumption of business. BluSky utilizes a wide array of technologies to help in our restorative efforts and we use every ounce of that technology to your advantage. BluSky handles and cleans up the most delicate and complex projects, carefully and thoroughly. Our First Aid Disaster PlanTM  immediately assists your company’s personnel in the wake of sudden property damage, thanks to our understanding of the unique requirements of mobilizing following a national catastrophe.
But as we haven't yet met aliens, we can assume that they don't pose much of a threat, and the overall risk is almost zero. It did not reach most professions in general until the 1990s when personal computers proliferated.
Every business encounters risks, some of which are predictable and under management's control, and others which are unpredictable and uncontrollable.
But while many large companies employ a full time risk manager to identify risks and take the necessary steps to protect the firm against them, small companies rarely have that luxury. As the role of risk management has increased, some large companies have begun implementing large scale, organization wide programs known as enterprise risk management. As businesses grow, they experience rapid changes in nearly every aspect of their operations, including production, marketing, distribution, and human resources. Farmer used the example of hill walking and similar activities which have definable risks that people appear to find acceptable.
Financial markets are considered to be a proving ground for general methods of risk assessment. Such an individual would willingly (actually pay a premium to) assume all risk in the economy and is hence not likely to exist. Uncertainty in the external environment refers to the risk present in the operating environment of a given country.
In line with the manner in which most practitioners conceptualize risk, the principal objective behind country risk analysis has been the minimization of downside risk.
A measurement of financial risks is unlikely to accurately represent economic, social, currency and political risks. Therefore, country risk measures are unlikely to truly capture the nature of risk as conceived by practitioners. The measures shown represent a composite measure of country risk, which consists of an aggregate of political risk, economic risk and financial risk. Successful organizations often get that way by using their skills in forecasting, planning, marketing and research and development to leverage variable risks to their own advantage. New risks will be introduced through the development of new products, the introduction of new technology, and changes attributable to merger and acquisition activity. Insuring against the downside impact of risk factors should be a company’s last and not first line of defence. An Earthquake may be identified as a potential exposure to loss, for example, but if the exposed facility is in New York the probability of an earthquake is slight and it will have a low priority as a risk to be managed.
As another example, a pharmaceutical company may decide not to market a drug because of the potential liability.
Because of its costs, the insurance option is usually chosen when the other options for managing risk do not provide sufficient protection. Nation's Business outlined some easy risk management tools for small businesses: maintain a high quality of work, train employees well and maintain equipment properly, install strong locks, smoke detectors, and fire extinguishers, keep the office clean and free of hazards, back up computer data often, and store records securely offsite. Learn more about business growth planning and business growth management in the following business growth design template. Proper insurance policy and highly-professional insurance agency are the basis for securing your business and providing efficient risk management.
Read this Business Process Harmonization Template to learn about basic steps of the business harmonization activity. In this Business Process Lifecycle Template we describe the lifecycle as a series of five steps. Observance of these suggestions will make your clients feel comfortable and satisfied with communicating your company by phone. This information can be obtained by interviewing the seller, employees and learning business documents. This template consist of two parts and includes aspects which should be considered when you choosing a business and want to find business partner. Of course this template cannot include all possible factors and circumstances, so it can be easily altered and elaborated to fit more specific requirements. For example, how quickly does the Tulsa distribution center need to be reopened in order to minimize business interruption costs—in 10 hours or in 2 days? As an IICRC firm (Institute for Inspection, Cleaning, and Restoration Certification), our trained technicians follow current guidelines to properly test and safely remove mold and asbestos contaminations and biohazards. Being well prepared with a solid working plan and agreement before property loss occurs could protect your ownership group. Instead, the responsibility for risk management is likely to fall on the small business owner. The authors found that none of the sampled measures was effective in predicting periods of significant volatility. Companies should focus on eliminating as many downside risks as possible so they can maximize the time spent managing and exploiting variable risks, adds real value to the business.
When leadership does not embrace a culture of risk management, risk improvement initiatives can be doomed from the outset.
Heins in their book Risk Management and Insurance, the risk management process typically includes six steps.
Awareness of, and familiarity with, various types of insurance policies is a necessary part of the risk management process.
Here is insurance Template for every business that helps make a choice of insurance agency and find out what a company should to insure. How long can email, data transfer, and other communication lines be disabled before it costs the business?

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