What is a risk assessment and why are they important,preparedness water storage,disaster response training institute,first aid kit equipment list - Step 1

A security risk assessment provides the framework for keeping your company at a desired security level by assessing the risks you face, deciding how you will mitigate them, and planning for how to keep your security practices up-to-date. Given that most small businesses cannot operate without technology, an IT risk assessment is critical. Here are five reasons why you should conduct an IT risk assessment for your small business. Additionally, small businesses should pay close attention to Payment Card Industry (PCI) regulations associated to credit card transactions, especially as more small businesses use mobile devices to swipe credit cards.
Today ita€™s vital that every small business conduct an IT risk assessment to ensure that its security is keeping its businesses network and data safe, preventing cyber threats, and meeting regulatory guidelines.
The IT pros at Gulf South Technology Solutions can help you execute a comprehensive IT risk assessment that will help keep your network safe. Founded in early 2005, Gulf South Technology Solutions is committed to providing its clients with high quality services while creating an enjoyable and productive working environment. As a regulated sector, there’s an attraction for training providers to enter the security market due to the perception of regular and ongoing business. Security education is used as a vehicle for return to work and employment schemes, attracting students ranging from those interested in working in the industry to those who are not. Also, cost pressures on centres impact upon awarding organisations wishing to go beyond the established norms in pursuit of effective quality assurance. The nature of some malpractice is such that it’s doubtful whether the common approach of awarding organisations – and the regulatory framework within which it is discharged – is sufficiently robust. The proposals that Industry Qualifications believes should be adopted broadly fit within three categories: the licensing of those involved in training and assessment, the collection and sharing of data across awarding organisations and a review to ensure that external verification is responsive to social, economic and cultural diversity. Training and assessment tends to be undertaken within security companies or is otherwise realised by educational providers, some of whom have strong links with the industry and others not. At present, under the provisions of the Private Security Industry Act 2001, there’s no requirement for trainers, invigilators or directors of training companies to hold a Security Industry Authority (SIA) licence. Where the training centre is a security company, it’s more usual for training staff to have an industry licence.
Our position on this matter is that a new category of licence should be developed by the SIA for trainers. Owners and directors of training companies should be required to hold a non-front line licence which will enable suitable checks to be undertaken on whether they’re fit and proper persons. The licensing of trainers and directors or owners of training companies would significantly reduce the potential for fraud by increasing the cost of entry and the risk to the individuals and organisations concerned if they behave in a fraudulent manner.
The Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation (Ofqual) currently requires awarding organisations to inform other awarding organisations operating in a sector when a centre has had its recognition withdrawn. The reasons for withdrawal of recognition range from malpractice through to non-payment of bills and more minor issues.
Other awarding organisations then make a judgement on whether they wish to recognise the centre concerned, and should take into account the evidence provided by the reporting awarding organisation.
The system provides reasonable real-time intelligence, but it’s not possible to review whether a centre (or the directors involved in the operation of a given centre) have historically been reported by another awarding organisation.
The proposal from Industry Qualifications is that Qualification Regulators consider maintaining an historical record of centres and directors who have been the subject of malpractice investigations that have indeed uncovered instances of malpractice. Quality assurance within centres is largely monitored through centre approval, external verification, assessment monitoring (checking examination scripts statistically and in terms of how they have been completed) and whistleblowing.
Awarding organisations should maintain statistical data on attendance rates at examinations. By maintaining average attendance rates for centres, if there are significant swings in attendance, particularly during an unannounced centre approval visit, it could be highlighted as a risk factor worthy of some additional investigation. A further part of the Industry Qualifications proposal relates to the need for an evidence-based study to understand whether activities such as whistleblowing are as effective in certain communities or economic and social strata. There’s some empirical evidence to suggest that malpractice tends to be geographically concentrated. We appreciate that these issues will need to be considered with respect, sensitivity and honesty. In making its proposals, Industry Qualifications fully recognises that most of the training and assessment in the security sector is conducted to a good or high standard, but it’s also widely acknowledged that assessment in this particular business space is high risk and that malpractice is perhaps more widespread than has been publicly recognised to date.
Such terminology can also be applied to the degree to which formal risk management is being undertaken in the business. The RMM Model assists in developing appropriate and relevant risk management strategies for the business, as well as assisting in planning and decision making in establishing short, medium and long-term goals for developing, integrating and embedding risk management into the business. Risk Consultant Of The Year 2014 Australian Government Develops Risk Management Policy Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) - Can They Be Integrated?
This chapter examines the range of human consequences of, and responses to, global environmental change. This complex causal structure makes projecting the human consequences of global change a trickier task than is sometimes imagined.
Building these scenarios, identifying the most probable ones, and assessing their outcomes would be an overwhelming analytic task. In our judgment, understanding human responses is key to understanding the human consequences of global change. People and social institutions may respond to environmental change as it is experienced (post facto) or as it is anticipated.
Changes in society that incidentally affect human responses to global change are important both directly and because they could become tomorrow's deliberate responses. Response to global change may be coordinated, as through the policies of governments or trade associations aimed at eliciting the same action from many actors, or uncoordinated, as with independent actions of households or small firms. Figure 4-1 elaborates on Figure 2-2 to show how human action can intervene at any point in the cycle of interaction between human and environmental systems to protect against threats to what humans value. The term mitigation is generally used to describe interventions on the human causes side of the diagram. For example, global warming is the direct result of a change in the earth's radiative balance; humans can mitigate global warming by any actions that slow the rate of change or limit the ultimate amount of change in the radiative balance. Mitigation of ozone depletion might, in principle, involve release of substances that interact chemically with CFCs, producing compounds with benign effects on the stratospheric ozone layer (type E), limiting emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other gases that deplete ozone (type P), or developing alternative methods of cooling buildings that do not rely on CFCs (type H). Another type of adaptive response is to prevent or compensate for losses of welfare that would otherwise result from global change. Yet another type of response, sometimes called anticipatory adaptation, aims to improve the robustness of social systems, so that an unchecked environmental change would produce less reduction of values than would otherwise be the case. All social systems are vulnerable to environmental change, and modern industrial societies have different vulnerabilities from earlier social forms. An important consequence of global environmental change is conflict, because global change affects what humans value, and different people value different things. One of the most heated policy debates about responses to a global change is between advocates of immediate efforts to mitigate global warming and those who would postpone such action.
In one view, the wise course of action on global warming is to conduct research on the phenomenon but not to take action to slow or mitigate it until the phenomenon is better understood. Social science can help illuminate the nature of environmental controversies and evaluate ways of managing them. Social scientists specializing in conflict have developed generalizations that might be more thoroughly applied to environmental conflict. More research seems warranted to use existing knowledge about conflict to illuminate the ways social conflict may result from global environmental change. Research on Conflict Resolution and Management Social scientists have also identified a number of approaches for resolving or managing policy disputes, some of which are beginning to be studied in the context of environmental conflicts. The nature of technological conflicts suggests, however, that over the long term, management is a more realistic goal than stable resolution. Prior to developing HACCP plans, the establishment shall develop and implement prerequisite programs to assist in controlling the likelihood of introducing food safety hazards to the product through the work environment and operational practices. The prerequisite programs shall be documented, updated whenever there are changes associated with the prerequisite programs and reassessed at least annually.
An establishment may develop their prerequisite programs using a structure other than the one described in this section as long as the prerequisite program requirements are covered as well as the monitoring, deviation and record keeping components.
Each prerequisite program is divided into Elements, Sub-elements and Bullets which include the requirements.
Note: The individuals responsible for specific control measures within a prerequisite program, monitoring and deviation procedures may be identified by a position title or the term designate. As the FSEP Manual applies to all food commodity groups, there will inevitably be situations where some of the specific requirements are not applicable. Screens on windows, doors that are tight, a roof that does not leak and air intakes located away from potential contaminants are examples of good establishment conditions which will minimize the potential for hazards such as rodents, pests, insects, non-potable water and the like entering the establishment and compromising activities.
The absence of cross-connections between the sewage system and other waste systems will facilitate sanitary operations, ensure segregation of waste and prevent potential for contamination. The adequate number, size, and location of drains and drain inlets will provide constant removal of the fluid wastes and prevent water from flooding the surrounding areas or pooling around the drain inlet. Floors that are designed to permit liquids to drain to trapped outlets will prevent water pooling or stagnant water on floors during operation.
Ceilings and overhead structures that are well designed will minimize the build-up of dirt, condensation and the shedding of particles. Windows that are sealed or equipped with close-fitting screens and doors that are tight fitting will prevent entry of contaminants and pests. Windows constructed of, or protected with, unbreakable materials will prevent foreign material contamination of food, ingredients, packaging materials and food contact surfaces. If lighting levels are inadequate for the inspection of food or if the light source alters or changes the natural colour of food, an incorrect assessment of the food may result. If a light bulb or lighting fixture breaks over exposed food, ingredients, packaging materials or food contact surfaces, then a physical foreign material hazard can occur. The correct location of air intakes, the correct size of filters, filter cleanliness and the use of food grade gases all contribute to the prevention of airborne contamination. Inedible product or food waste is defined as any food product that is not considered suitable for human consumption as defined in applicable legislation. Effective procedures will prevent the accumulation of waste, inedible or food waste products and the potential contamination of food handling areas, and will minimize the attraction of pests and prevent objectionable odours. Adequate washroom, change room and lunchroom facilities will ensure that an appropriate degree of personal hygiene is maintained to protect the safety of food.
Providing an acceptable area for employees to change into work clothes will prevent exterior contaminants from entering the processing areas.
Providing adequate lunch room facilities will discourage employees from eating and drinking in production areas which can lead to contamination of product.
Hand-washing stations are properly maintained and are provided with hot and cold or warm potable running water, soap dispensers, soap, sanitary hand drying equipment or supplies and cleanable waste receptacles. Sanitizing installations are properly maintained and are provided with potable water at temperatures and, where applicable, chemical concentrations appropriate for their intended use.
If there are enough hand-washing stations and they are located in areas that are easy to access, personnel are more likely to wash their hands. Sanitizing stations are used to control the potential for cross-contamination from operational equipment and employees. Hand-washing stations and sanitizing installation can become a source of contaminants if they are not properly maintained. Any chemically treated water that has direct product impact or is used on product contact surfaces is potable.
Collecting water samples from different outlet(s) for each test will ensure that the establishment's water distribution system functions properly and is not a potential source of water contamination. An adequate supply of potable water with appropriate facilities for its storage and distribution will prevent contamination of water and ensure the safety of food.
Adequate temperature control during transportation will minimize microbial growth, toxin formation and spoilage of the food product.
Transporting food products and loads of non-compatible materials in one vehicle or container can lead to contamination of the food product.
Proper handling of incoming and outgoing material will prevent damage and contamination of the food and materials.
When loads are not properly handled, loaded and unloaded, contamination can occur from a variety of sources.
Temperature abuse from prolonged loading and unloading times can lead to the growth of micro organisms.
Packaging materials that come in direct contact with food products or may come in contact with food products under the intended conditions of use (indirect contact).
Construction materials used in rooms where food is manufactured, stored, packaged, received or shipped. Non-food chemical products coming into contact with food or food contact surfaces such as processing aids, cleaners, disinfectants, sanitizers. Regardless of their inclusion in the current Reference Listing, food packaging materials used as part of a novel process may be subject to pre-market approval by Health Canada under Division 28 of the Food and Drug Regulations (see Division 28 of the FDR for a definition of a novel food).
For processing aids used as antimicrobial agents, a LOG provided by the manufacturer or supplier is not sufficient and must be supplemented by a Health Canada LONO. Note 1: Responsibility for providing letters of guarantee rests with the firm whose trade or firm name that appears on the material as it is marketed to the establishment. Note 2: The documentation supporting letters of guarantee may include, but is not limited to, chemical migration data, physical characteristics or evidences of approval from other jurisdictions such as the United States of America, Europe or Australia-New Zealand. Letters of guarantee for packaging material which is intended to come in direct or indirect contact with food products must at least contain the following information. The following products may be used in federally registered food establishments without the need for written guarantees.
Printing inks and adhesives used on the exterior surface of packaging materials such as shipping containers.
Pesticide products must bear a Pest Control Product (PCP) registration number on the label and be used in keeping with label instructions to preclude direct or indirect contamination of food products. Finished product is adequately protected against intentional or unintentional contamination and deterioration prior to shipping. Prevention of food, ingredient and packaging material contamination begins with control of incoming materials, including live animals.
Inadequate incoming material controls can result in product contamination, inadequate processing or misrepresentation of the product. Packaging materials shall not impart any undesirable substance to the food product, either biologically, chemically or physically and shall protect the food product sufficiently to prevent contamination. Returned product left the control of the establishment and may have been subjected to improper handling causing contamination or deterioration of the product.
Controls prior to shipping will demonstrate that the finished product met all specifications prior to shipping. When required for ongoing use in food handling areas, non-food chemicals are stored in a manner that prevents contamination of food, food contact surfaces or packaging material. Non-food chemicals are mixed in clean, correctly labelled containers and dispensed and handled only by authorized and properly trained personnel. Storing of foods in an appropriately controlled environment will prevent contamination and deterioration of foods.
Ingredients and finished products that are not properly rotated can reach their expiry date increasing the risk for the consumer. If chemicals are stored securely and separately from food, ingredients, packaging materials and food contact surfaces, contamination (e.g.
Utensils are constructed of non-toxic materials, do not present a foreign material hazard that could contaminate the food, and are easy to clean and sanitize. Well-constructed and maintained equipment will minimize the potential for biological, chemical and physical hazards. Pits, cracks and crevices can provide areas for residues to accumulate and micro organisms to grow.


Food residues that accumulate can contain allergenic components or microorganisms that can cause cross-contamination. Poor installation can result in parts or areas that cannot be properly cleaned, sanitized and inspected. Equipment food contact surfaces that are not suitable for the activities being performed can impart hazards to the products. Equipment used for cleaning and sanitizing that is capable of delivering the requirements of the sanitation program will facilitate a sanitary environment.
Records to be kept to demonstrate that the preventative maintenance tasks have been completed. Note 1: The maintenance procedures are based on the equipment manufacturer's manual or equivalent, or are based on operating conditions that could affect the condition of the equipment. Processing equipment used to prevent, eliminate or reduce the likely occurrence of identified hazards.
Equipment located above exposed food product that could contaminate food product if not well maintained. Note: The calibration procedures are based on the equipment manufacturer's manual or equivalent.
An effective maintenance program will ensure that equipment performs consistently as intended and prevents contamination of food, ingredients or packaging materials. Controlling devices must be accurate because they are used in critical processes which impact on food safety. Training increases awareness of potential hazards and the responsibilities that personnel have to minimize contamination risks. Training is delivered to ensure that personnel understand and are competent in procedures which they are designated to perform. Proper training reduces the risk of biological, chemical and physical contamination of food.
Employees, visitors or contractors that do not follow the establishment's rules can cause contamination of food. Developing and enforcing a food hygiene program will reduce potential hazards and minimize contamination risks. Improper or inadequate sanitation activities can lead to contamination of food, ingredients, packaging materials and food contact surfaces. Chemical contamination can also be caused by allergens that are not effectively removed from food contact surfaces. Chemical or biological contamination can be caused by cross-contamination from cleaning activities during operation. Note: For detailed information on developing a recall plan, please refer to the CFIA Web site. The CFIA representatives will use the information described on the CFIA Web site to assess completeness of the establishment written recall plan. Names of employees on the Recall Management Team including position, contact phone numbers and responsibilities.
The personnel identified by the operator as responsible for the coordination and implementation of the recall shall be available for contact with CFIA at any time during the food safety recall. Immediate notification of the CFIA Recall Coordinator in the area where the recalling establishment is located. Quickly re-gaining control of implicated lots of product is crucial in preventing the risk of hazard to consumers.
Food product must be correctly labelled to enable the next person in the food chain to handle, display, store, and use the product safely. Incorrectly coded expiry dates can result in consumers storing the product past the intended shelf life, leading to potential food safety hazards.
Incorrect labelling or coding can make product recall difficult or unfeasible if a hazard is associated with the mislabelled or miscoded product.
For hypersensitive individuals, certain foods and their derivatives can cause allergic reactions. This sub-element outlines the requirements that an Allergen Control Program must meet to control the use of ingredients identified as allergens in an establishment, as well as to prevent or identify the presence of undeclared allergen ingredients in finished food products. Unlike microbial hazards, there is no lethality or post processing step that will reduce or eliminate the presence of undeclared allergens in food products. Although sulphites are not considered to be true allergens, for sensitive persons they produce an adverse reaction which can be life threatening. Ingredients which can cause non-immune reactions such as lactose intolerance should be considered when developing this control program. A company may have to identify additional allergens of specific concern to its product or its target market.
NOTE 2: Reference to existing prerequisite programs or CCPs that cover the requirements mentioned in this section is acceptable. Communication links among all the steps in the chain of production once a new formulation or changes in a formulation have been approved. Consumers who have food allergies and intolerances rely on accurate label information on food products to avoid eating foods that contain ingredients to which they may be sensitive. If these foods, or their derivatives, are undeclared or declared incorrectly on the label, or if inadvertent cross-contamination occurs during production, the results can be serious and sometimes fatal.
The use of food additives identified in Health Canadaa€™s Lists of Permitted Food Additives for which a maximum level of use is determined. The use of nutrients listed in Part D - Vitamins, Minerals and Amino Acids of the Food and Drug Regulations for which a minimal and maximal amount is specified in Part B of the Regulations.
Modified atmosphere packaging: any atmosphere in an enclosed package which differs from normal atmospheric air mixtures.
Where applicable, documented procedures associated with Formulation and Addition of food additives and nutrients are developed and implemented to ensure that the concentrations remain within the allowable parameters specified in the Food & Drug Regulations.
Where applicable, documented procedures associated with modified atmosphere packaging systems are developed and implemented to ensure that the standards defining the modified atmosphere are met. Case in point: In a survey by the National Cyber Security Alliance and Symantec, 71 percent of small businesses said they were somewhat or very dependent on the Internet for day-to-day operations. If you retain confidential information from clients or customers, youa€™re often contractually obliged to protect that data as if it were your own. You may lose access to your data for reasons ranging from floods to electricity outages or second disk failure. Do you share your data with third parties, including contractors, partners, or your sales channel?
Risks include data transmitted between company sites, or between the company and employees, partners, and contractors at home or other locations. Intentional corruption, such as viruses or worms, could modify data in a way that benefits hackers. While cloud computing offers significant advantages for small businesses, it is important to understand that you are giving your data to a third-party. This most commonly includes malware, viruses, and Trojan horses that seek to harm or gain access to data that is stored on web servers, behind firewalls, encrypted, and transmitted via mobile networks. While most employees behave with integrity, there is always the chance that is employee could significantly impact IT security if they become careless or disgruntled. These include computer equipment thieves, contractors, hackers, former employees, and organized crime. With widespread adoption of laptops, smartphones, and tablets, a data breach can occur if one of these devices is stolen or lost.
Ita€™s critical that small businesses understand all of the privacy and security laws related to the data they store. Failure to comply with these regulations could have a significant financial impact on your business. Ensuring your businesses is meeting these security essentials will help prevent your business from being impacted by todaya€™s most common security risks. These and other factors combine to make the security sector a high risk one for awarding organisations.
Industry Qualifications is confident that it applies and usually exceeds the Joint Awarding Body Guidance, but recognises that there are limitations in the effectiveness of quality assurance where a centre is minded to commit systemic fraud.
Trainers would continue to require to be qualified in training delivery and have appropriate sector competence, but in addition they would be required to apply for a licence.
Again, revocation of a licence on the grounds of malpractice or fraud would remove offenders from the industry. This means that a rich source of risk-based data isn’t available to awarding organisations when they’re making decisions about the approval of a centre. It’s the considered view of Industry Qualifications that the following actions need to be taken across all awarding organisations, irrespective of what those awarding organisations choose to add to the quality assurance process.
While this is the case for Industry Qualifications centres, there is some evidence to suggest such a policy is not uniformly observed across all awarding organisations. The backgrounds of (and motivations for) those attending licensed security programmes is varied, and lifestyles can be chaotic. No part of this website may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. In consequence, people have migrated or changed their ways of living as polar ice advanced and retreated, endured crop failures or altered their crops when temperature and rainfall patterns changed, and made numerous other adjustments in individual and collective behavior. We begin by developing the concept of human consequences and showing why, to understand them, it is critical to understand the variety of human responses to global change. One way in which the actions that cause global change are different from most of these is that the effects take decades to centuries to be realized. It is misleading to picture human impacts as if global change were like a meteorite striking an inert planet, because social systems are always changing and are capable of anticipation. Assume that four sets of scenarios are developed for the futures of the natural environment, social and economic organization, values, and policies. Rather than trying to set a research agenda for that task, we undertake in this chapter a less demanding but still very difficult task: to focus on human responses to global change broadly conceived. We do not mean to downplay the importance of certain kinds of research that do not focus explicitly on responses. We consider the following analytic distinctions useful for thinking about the range of responses available. For instance, people can build dikes to keep out rising seas or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate global warming. For example, gasoline taxes, which were not initiated with the global environment as a consideration, could be increased to cut CO2 emissions. Both types of response can be either anticipatory or post facto; both can affect global change either deliberately or incidentally. Mitigation includes all actions that prevent, limit, delay, or slow the rate of undesired impacts by acting directly or indirectly on environmental systems. Such actions are sometimes generically called adaptation, but there are important distinctions among them. This debate arose within the committee, even though we were not charged with recommending strategies for response to global change.
The nature and extent of global warming in the future is highly uncertain because of incomplete knowledge of the relevant properties of the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, and other relevant systems.
One pits Third World countries against the developed countries that are now becoming concerned with limiting use of fossil fuels and restricting the felling of tropical forests.
True, some of the disagreements might fade with better knowledge about the global environment and the likely effects of different feasible responses. This research would investigate the ways environmental changes may affect organized social groups and their resource bases and would hypothesize links between those effects and conflict.
Relatively little is known about the structure of particular conflicts about global change at the local, national, and international levels or about which means will be most effective in dealing with them. Establishments must ensure that their prerequisite programs reflect the current work environment and operational practices within their establishment and comply with specific commodity policies, manuals, procedures and associated regulations. Any additional food safety related programs, procedures or tasks shall be referenced within the respective bullet. In this case, the establishment must be able to demonstrate that individuals have received adequate training.
The requirements indicate where such questions are likely to arise by using the phrases where necessary, where appropriate or where applicable. These materials should not be used in the construction of the establishment's internal fittings where food products are manufactured. This includes but is not limited to garbage, discarded packaging, broken pallets, discarded construction materials etc. Such materials include, but are not limited to, the following: paper wraps, waxed cardboard boxes, plastic films, synthetic casings, nettings, trays, absorbent pads, pouches and bags. This includes materials used for the construction of floors, walls and ceiling surfaces as well as coating and joint sealants. Alternatively to the previous option, some processing aids used as antimicrobial agents have received generic acceptance from Health Canada for specific applications within the meat and poultry commodity. The use of these products must not directly or indirectly contaminate food products during either their application or storage. Pests in or around an establishment can lead to contamination from dropping, larvae and dead insects or animals. Allergen hazard control is dependent on prevention throughout the process as well as appropriate product labelling to ensure full disclosure of a product's contents.
It is the serious outcome of the reaction that has resulted in the inclusion of sulphites on the priority allergen list. Manufacturers exporting outside of Canada should be aware that the list of priority allergens in other countries may be different from those listed in Canada.
In cases where an operator determines that a certain requirement does not apply, the result of the risk assessment must be available for CFIA review. The purpose of the allergen control program is to gather all of the allergen controls in one location in the HACCP system.
Also, unintentional corruption might be due to a software error that overwrites valid data.
If a cloud vendora€™s security is breached, there is a potential that your data will also be breached or a back door to your systems could be opened. Small businesses should explore ways to protect any sensitive company data housed on physical devices.
These include state breach notification laws, FTC Red Flags Rule, and the HIPAA-HITECH data breach requirements. The sector suffers from the over-supply of training provision, leading to aggressive cost-cutting and pressure on centres to demonstrate high achievement rates. What we need to do is encourage a wider review and identify those adjustments and enhancements that can be made to reduce the risk of malpractice and fraud. This process would enable a Disclosure and Barring Service (formerly Criminal Records Bureau) check to be undertaken (which is currently not the case across all training providers).
Content on this website, including materials available for download, are supplied solely for the private use of visitors to this site, and must not be redistributed by third party sites, or as part of any marketing or promotional material, without permission in writing from the publisher.While every care has been taken to ensure accuracy in the preparation of material included in Risk UK (both the hardcopy publications and this website), the publishers cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information contained herein, or any consequence arising from it. Until very recently, people have responded to global phenomena as if they were local, have not organized their responses as government policies, and have not been able to respond by deliberately altering the course of the global changes themselves. We then offer a framework for thinking about human responses and discuss the pivotal role of conflict. This fact causes many concerned people to consider taking action now to protect the values of those who might be affected by global environmental change in years to come. So, for example, an estimate of the number of homes that would be inundated by a one-meter rise in sea level and the associated loss of life and property may be useful for alerting decision makers to potentially important issues, but it should not be taken as a prediction, because humans always react. Joining together all combinations of one scenario from each set, and adding assumptions about people's immediate responses, would generate an extensive set of grand scenarios.


We do not discuss ways to improve forecasts of the state of the natural environment; that topic is outside the range of human dimensions. Policy makers and others are now faced with a variety of options, some of which involve anticipatory action and some of which depend on awaiting the experience of global change.
Human actions can also affect human responses to global change incidentally to their intended purposes. Studies of the incidental effects of such actions might inform decision makers about what could happen without deliberate intervention and about which present policies might make societies more robust in the face of global change. Moreover, coordinated and uncoordinated responses can be connected to each other, in that coordinated actions by governments and industries can create new options for uncoordinated actors, prohibit responses, or raise or lower their costs. They can intervene in the proximate causes (type P), by regulating automobile use or engine design to cut carbon dioxide emissions or limiting the use of certain nitrogen fertilizers to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. One type of response, which can be called blocking, prevents undesired proximate effects of environmental systems on what humans value.
It can be distinguished, at least in theory, from type H mitigation in that it does not necessarily alter the driving forces of global change. Although these complex sociotechnical systems contain great flexibility through the operation of global markets, they may have vulnerabilities that reveal themselves in the face of the changes that these systems have helped create. The far side of vulnerability is also little studied: When a system fails to resist environmental pressure, under what conditions does it return to its previous state? It is wasteful for society to expend resources to prevent changes that will not occur anyway. Human systems can adjust to global climate changes much faster than they are likely to occur.
It makes no sense to act like the generals who built the Maginot Line for the wrong war or to construct dikes for cities whose populations will have moved or dams to water crops that will be grown elsewhere. Further research may identify more effective and less costly interventions than those now available. Actions that can be postponed will be less burdensome because of continuing economic progress. It is in the nature of exponential growth processes that the earlier the growth rate decreases, the greater the final effect.
Mitigation in the face of possibly catastrophic outcomes is like taking out insurance against flood and fire. Humans are now conducting large-scale uncontrolled experiments on the global environment by changing the face of the earth and the flows of critical materials at unprecedented rates. The discount-rate argument is specious in the general case because the costs and benefits of postponing action are not always commensurable. A good example is investments in energy efficiency that provide an excellent return on investment even with narrow economic calculations.
The Third World position, of course, is that other countries used fossil fuels and undeveloped frontiers for their economic development, and fairness dictates that the poorer nations now have their turn.
As it became clear that expected global warming over the next 50 years could not cause the breakup of the West Antarctic icecap, the flood-prevention rationale for slowing greenhouse gas emissions became considerably weaker.
And even when new knowledge reduces uncertainty, controversies persist because not only facts, but also important interests and values, are at stake. Defining an environmental conflict as either one of understanding or one of interests and values affects which groups and arguments are considered legitimate in policy debates (Dietz et al., 1989). A first step is to construct an analytical framework for identifying the possible routes from particular environmental changes to particular types of conflict. This work suggests that institutions responsible for decisions about global change will also have to manage conflict.
Therefore, we recommend increased empirical research, including both field studies and laboratory-simulation studies, to clarify the sources and structures of particular environmental conflicts and to test the efficacy of alternative techniques for their resolution and institutions for their management. In deciding whether a requirement is necessary or appropriate, an assessment of the risk and the regulatory requirements must be made and the result of the assessment must be recorded. Registered establishment may contact the appropriate CFIA Specialists for further information on these chemicals. With over 20 years experience in our industry and strategic partner certifications, we are fast becoming a leading provider of consulting, networking, hosting and custom programming services. Most importantly, it would also allow for a licence to be revoked should malpractice or fraud be uncovered. The next section examines three cases that illustrate many of the major factors influencing the human consequences of global change.
But because of uncertainty about how global environmental systems work, and because the people affected will probably live in circumstances very much different from those of today and may have different values, it is hard to know how present-day actions will affect them. Before the sea level rises, people may migrate, build dikes, or buy insurance, and the society and economy may have changed so that people's immediate responses--and therefore the costs of global change--may be different from what they would be in the present. The human consequences of global change could then be defined as the difference between the state of humanity at the end of one grand scenario and the state of humanity at the end of a base case or reference scenario with a different natural-environment component.
Neither do we devote much attention to improving forecasts of social and economic organization or of human values, even though these topics clearly belong to the social sciences and are critical to understanding the effects of global change. The impact-assessment tradition involves projecting the human consequences of a range of natural-environment scenarios under given assumptions about human response.
For example, European settlement of the Americas gave Europeans and, later, others access to a wider variety of food crops, making human survival less dependent, at least in principle, on a small number of staples that might be vulnerable to altered growing conditions caused by environmental change. It may involve direct interventions in the environment (type E in the figure) to counteract the effects of other human actions, direct interventions in the proximate human causes (type P), and interventions in the human systems (type H) that drive global change, intended to have an indirect or downstream effect on the proximate causes.
They can intervene in human systems (type H) and indirectly control the proximate causes, by investing in research on renewable energy technologies to replace fossil fuel or providing tax incentives for more compact settlements to lower demand for transportation. Examples include evacuation from areas stricken with flood or drought, food shipments or financial assistance to those remaining in such areas, and development of synthetic substitutes for products previously obtained from extinct species. For instance, modern societies have become highly dependent on fossil fuels and vulnerable to a serious disruption of supply or distribution systems. They may express a desire--or even claim a right--to influence the choices of people or governments continents away. The projected doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will take place about 80 years from now. Technological and social changes often eliminate problems without any specific mitigation efforts by changing the offending technology or making it obsolete. For example, it has recently been suggested that adding iron to the oceans to fertilize phytoplankton that would absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere may be a way to address the greenhouse effect (Martin et al., 1990). If people living in the 1890s had invested in preventing today's environmental problems, their expense on our behalf would probably have been made on the wrong problems, and it would have been an inequitable transfer of resources from a poorer generation to a richer one. Bringing down the birth rate in India to two children per couple in 1995 rather than in 2005 can make a difference of 300 million people by the time the Indian population stabilizes (Meadows, 19851. By the time it becomes clear that a response is needed, it may be too late to prevent catastrophe if the change is proceeding rapidly. It is prudent to limit the pace and extent of such experiments because of the likelihood of unanticipated consequences. Some important and meaningful tradeoffs can be made on economic grounds, for instance, between investing in renewable energy development and in directly limiting the burning of fossil fuels.
Such actions can achieve the benefits of mitigation at no extra cost, while providing other benefits. Many analysts believe that if large-scale climate change results from human activities, the poorer countries are likely to suffer most because they lack resources they could use to adapt. A response such as dike building seems much more appropriate when the sea threatens only a few areas.
Informed people disagree because the remaining uncertainty leaves room for judgment, because they may assume different scenarios about the future of society, and because an outcome that harms what one person values may enhance what another values. These institutions will need to provide accurate information, but should not expect information to resolve conflict. Further, as the CFIA must be able to evaluate and use the product distribution records in an efficient and timely manner, it is preferred that all distribution records be provided in a commonly accessible format like MS Excel, MS Access, or XML. These proteins (antigens) are capable of stimulating the production of antibodies in the body, thereby, triggering allergic reactions. The following sections describe the human systems that are affected by or respond to global change, and how they interrelate. By this definition, a particular change in the natural environment has different consequences depending on the scenarios assumed for society, values, and responses. We bypass these issues because the need for improved social, economic, and political forecasting is generic in the social sciences, and addressing this broad need would take us far beyond our charge to focus on human-environment interactions.
The tradition of post hoc case analysis involves assessing the actual human outcomes after past environmental changes land given the responses that actually occurred), in the hope of drawing more general conclusions. World markets have subsequently reduced the number of major staple foods so that, in practice, people may eat no larger a variety of foods than before (Plotkin, 1988).
If global climate change produces sufficient warming and drying (drought) on a regional scale, it may threaten the region's crops; development and adoption of drought-resistant crops or crop strains can break the connection between environmental change (drought) and famine by preventing crop failure. Farmers, regions, and countries that rely on a range of crops with different requirements for growth may or may not produce less greenhouse or ozone-depleting gases than monoculturists. They also support much larger and denser populations than ever before; such populations may be vulnerable to ecological changes affecting the viability of their food supplies. And the people or countries subjected to those claims may resist, especially when they feel that changing their behavior will mean suffering. By contrast, financial markets adjust in minutes, administered-market prices in weeks, labor markets in years, and the economic long run is usually reckoned at no more than two decades.
For example, boilers no longer explode on trains because they no longer use steam engines; horses are no longer the main polluters of urban streets. That proposal, whatever its ultimate feasibility or desirability (Lloyd, 1991), demonstrates that improved understanding of biogeochemical systems might generate promising new proposals for mitigating global change. It probably makes no more sense for the current generation to sacrifice to benefit a future, even wealthier generation. To achieve the same effect by starting later would impose greater restrictions on the people living at that time.
Even if catastrophe is unlikely, mitigation that slows the rate of change makes it more likely that adjustments can be made in time. If species are valued for themselves, their loss is irretrievable; even if they are valued only for what benefits they may have for humanity, species loss may be irretrievable. Like natural mutations, most of these experiments are probably destined to fail, and there is only one global environment to experiment on.
And if it became clear what each policy option--at the local, national, and international levels--would accomplish if enacted, some of them could easily be rejected. Case analyses of past social conflicts can be used to assess hypotheses drawn from such analytic frameworks.
The institutions will need to make a place for the stakeholders to be represented from the earliest stages of the decision process, ensure openness in processes of policy decision, include mechanisms for the main actors to have access to relevant information from sources they trust, and use the conflicting perspectives and interpretations of current knowledge and uncertainty to inform the ongoing debate (National Research Council, 1989b; Stern, 1991). Should the distribution records be password protected it will be necessary to include the password with the provided records. Immediate response to an allergic reaction can range in severity from a skin rash or itching of the mouth, to migraine headaches, a drop in blood pressure, anaphylaxis (a very severe allergic reactions to food involving failure of multiple organ systems), and death. We conclude by offering some general principles for research and some research implications.
We offer only limited discussion of how future global change might proximally affect what humans value, because the variety of possible global changes and the uncertainty about the effects of each make it far too difficult to go into detail.
Research in these traditions, combined with analysis of human response, can offer valuable insights into the human consequences of global change. High taxes on gasoline in Europe and Japan, enacted for reasons unrelated to the global environment, encouraged development and purchase of small, fuel-efficient automobiles that incidentally slow the pace of global warming. Similarly, loss of stratospheric ozone threatens light-skinned humans with skin cancer, through exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoidance of extreme exposure to sun and application of sunscreens help prevent cancer, although they do not mitigate the destruction of the ozone layer. But polycultures are more robust in the face of drought, acid deposition, and ozone depletion. The further global change proceeds, the more likely it seems that it will be a source of conflict, including international conflict, over who has a right to influence the activities implicated as causes, who will pay the costs of responding, and how disputes will be settled.
The implication for action is that what individuals and organizations do on their own in anticipating climate change may be sufficiently successful that organized, governmental responses will be superfluous. Concern about the greenhouse effects of fossil fuel burning will prove premature if development of fusion or solar energy technology can replace most fossil fuel use over the next 50 years. Improved understanding of social systems has reasonable potential to discover other classes of effective response.
It is therefore easier to mitigate the effects of exponential growth the sooner the effort is made. This is clearly the case for nonhuman organisms, such as tree species that can adjust to climatic change by migrating, as seedlings move to more favorable locations. Other environmental values, such as loss of the life-supporting capacity of wetlands or large bodies of water, may also be irretrievable; often we do not know until the values are lost.
As the extent of human intervention in the global environment continues to increase, so does the strength of this argument. If current economic activity destroys the life-support systems on which human life depends, what investment at compound interest could ever recoup this cost?
There is no cure for food allergies and the only way for an allergic individual to protect themselves is strict avoidance of the allergen. Instead, we review basic knowledge about how human systems respond to external stresses, in the context of discussing human responses. By bringing about technological change, these taxes also incidentally have helped make it easier for all countries--even those without high gasoline taxes or companies that produce fuel-efficient automobiles--to respond to the challenge of global warming with improved energy efficiency . Tropical deforestation threatens species with extinction by eliminating their habitats; creation of forest preserves would provide many species sufficient habitat to survive, while doing little to slow net deforestation.
The impact of climate change will reach people through slow price increases for the factors of production; in reasonably well-functioning markets, economic actors adapt readily to such changes. It assumes that expenditures made now could otherwise be invested at compound interest in improvements in human well-being.
Such species have a maximum rate of migration, so can adjust to climatic change below that rate.
The argument supports mitigation efforts that slow ongoing human interventions in the environment, but generally not those that would stop greenhouse warming by new interventions in the global environment. Economic arguments also cannot deal with some things--including the balance of nature--on which people place intrinsic or spiritual value.
In short, the debates are not only about the workings of human and environmental systems, but also about political and economic interests, conflicting values and faiths, differing assumptions about the future, and different judgments about resiliency in the face of the unexpected. Similarly, families and communities that have both agricultural and nonagricultural income are harmed less by the same threats than purely agricultural groups. They invent industrial processes that economize on scarce inputs, find substitutes, purchase energy-efficient equipment when energy prices are rising, and so forth.
If the growth rate for such investment exceeds the average rate at which environmental problems develop, people will be better off in the future if they do not spend on mitigation now.
To the extent people want to preserve such values, mitigation is the only acceptable approach. In the past, such adjustments have contributed to human progress, and there is every reason to expect that pattern to continue. Moreover, economic accountings systematically undervalue things--such as genetic resources--for which there are few property rights or for which economic value is only potential.




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