Volcanoes erupting,risk assessment plan template word,company emergency response plan sample - Step 2

Desktop users: right click on the image and choose "save image as" or "set as desktop background". A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet’s surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface. There are a few well known warning signs, such as earthquakes in the vicinity of a known volcano.
But a study out of the UK could give scientists an even better idea of how to predict eruptions.
Specifically, the researchers looked at the magma chambers beneath the volcanoes to see how they channel magma up to the surface. Using satellite images, they built computer models and found that magma chambers can exist only .62 miles underground. The satellite images and computer models also revealed that the ground near a volcano often begins rising and swelling about four months before an eruption. A Moment of Science is a daily audio podcast, public radio program and video series providing the scientific story behind some of life's most perplexing mysteries.
Mount Semeru, seen with an ash plume, is the highest volcano on the Indonesian island of Java and has been in a constant eruption since 1967.  It lies at the southern end of the Tengger caldera, which contains smaller volcanoes Mount Bromo and Mount Batok (both seen in the foreground), and several others. With a hiss of steam, lava flows into the Pacific Ocean in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Perched above the lighted city of Catania, Italy, Mount Etna hurls a fountain of fire skyward as rivers of lava spill down its flanks. A few hundred degrees separates this pool of fiery orange magma in Italy’s Mount Etna from its hardened, gray crust.


A bright bolt of lightning crackles within the ash cloud from the eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland in April 2010.  Volcanic lightning occurs when roiling ash particles rub against each other and become electrically charged. Climbers mount whorls of lava on the caldera of Ethiopia’s Ertale Volcano as steam escapes from a lava lake in the volcano’s crater, which can reach temperatures of 1,868°F (1,020°C). Cleveland Volcano releases a plume of ash that rises almost 20,000 feet (6,000 meters) above the North Pacific Ocean in this aerial photograph.
A stream of neon-orange lava cascades down Ol Doinyo Lengai, in Tanzania’s Great Rift Valley. A volcanic eruption and the eruption of light from charged particles in the atmosphere—called the Northern Lights—occur at the same time in Iceland. Geese fly past the ash cloud from the eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano that began in April 2010. The Arenal Volcano in Costa Rica erupts suddenly in February 2010, turning the sky an ominous yellow-brown. The National Geographic Society aims to be an international leader for global conservation and environmental sustainability.
The researchers were looking at volcanoes along the mid ocean ridge a long chain of volcanoes lined up along where two of the Earth’s tectonic plates pull apart.
That’s really shallow, considering that earlier models had shown that magma chambers along the rift lay much deeper. Measuring group uplifting is key to predicting eruptions, although these precursors don’t always occur before an eruption. Studying the plumbing systems beneath these volcanoes helps scientists better understand how the Earth renews its surface.


RSS makes it possible to subscribe to a website's updates instead of visiting it by delivering new posts to your RSS reader automatically. In spite of its dazzling displays, Mount Etna is a relatively safe volcano with rare, compact eruptions and slow-flowing lava that gives people a chance to escape. Volcanic explosion craters such as Dallol form during phreatic eruptions—where rising magma comes into contact with water beneath the surface of the Earth, causing a steam explosion.
Cleveland Volcano, located in the Aleutian Islands southwest of Alaska, failed to produce an eruption and the plume of ash detached from the volcano two hours after it formed. The island nation was created by volcanic activity and today has 35 active volcanoes, which provide the country with plentiful geothermal power. The mountain, which is part of the Elburz mountain range south of the Caspian Sea, is the highest volcano in Asia and the highest peak in the Middle East. A violent prehistoric eruption caused the Earth's crust to collapse and form a crater that filled with water. Lava tubes serve as underground pipelines, allowing molten rock to flow under and away from volcanoes. When individuals pledge to use less water in their own lives, our partners carry out restoration work in the Colorado River Basin.



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