Volcano disaster movie,us riverside embankment,government alert system,disaster preparedness plan example - And More

Among the most gentle and the most useful of the animal kingdom are camels, which are able to go for weeks and many miles without water. A serious threat in the coastal waters of Australia for those who wish to explore is the little blue ring octopus.
Wearing gas masks to protect against constant noxious fumes, the crew endured blistering day temperatures of more than 40 degrees. The Siberian Traps are the remnants of huge volcanic eruptions - flood basalt eruptions - that can last for millions of years and may have contributed to the devastating Permian mass extinction. Dr Iain Stewart explains how the Earth developed its inner heat during a time known as the Hadean eon, about 4.5 billion years ago. Dr Iain Stewart explains how volcanic activity on the early Earth may have played an important role in the emergence of life about four billion years ago.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. If you find the content in the 'About' section factually incorrect, defamatory or highly offensive you can edit this article at Wikipedia. Explore the BBC News News Sport Weather Shop Earth Travel Capital iPlayer Culture Autos Future TV Radio CBBC CBeebies Food iWonder Bitesize Travel Music Earth Arts Make It Digital Taster Nature Local Terms of Use About the BBC Privacy Policy Cookies Accessibility Help Parental Guidance Contact the BBC Advertise with us Ad choices Copyright © 2016 BBC. The Gazelle Restoration Authority Project Implementation Unit released its 1997 Second Quarter Report in July 1997. Last April the people of Tavana, Valaur and Latlat, whose villages, estates of coconut and cocoa, permanent houses and buildings, dwellings, garden sites, sacred grounds and cemeteries are buried under 20 metres of volcanic ash and dust deserted their relocation site of Warena and cawed in tents in what used to be their homes.[2] They protested to force the government to remove the road linking Rabaul and Kokopo, and which runs through what used to be their homes. Where the temporary road is today, our homes, dwelling grounds, garden and cemeteries lie below and we consider this an insult and trespassing. Since the GRA was established by an Act of Parliament in 1995 and charged with restoration in Rabaul and Gazelle in the aftermath of the eruptions, much of the K50 million being spent so far has been committed to infrastructure projects.
K75,880 of the K50 million had been paid to hire an Australian engineering firm, Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation (SMEC), to conduct a feasibility study on rebuilding the volcano-devastated town of Rabaul.
Funding has been mainly sourced from the PNG national government, the Australian Government through AusAID, Japan, the European Union, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and Germany. Major beneficiaries include contractors New Britain Quarries, Shorncliffe, Asia Pacific Surveys, CPS Palanga Survey, Talili Transport, Douglas Partners, Ove Arup and Partners Pacific, Ravalley Transport, Central Management Systems, the National Mapping Bureau, Dalmine Enterprises, and Daltron Electronics. According to the GRA Project Manager, Robert Cohen, the projects listed in immediate term program were planned to be carried out between 1995 and 1997 at a cost of K100 million, while medium-term projects are planned to be implemented between 1998 and the year 2000. Long-term programs are expected to be carried out by the Provincial Government which will eventually absorb the GRA implementation unit capabilities in its administration. The high risk and heavily devastated areas include Matalau, Korere, Talwat, Bai, Nodup, Matupit and parts of Malaguna, Central Gazelle and North Coast. The Governor for East New Britain, Francis Koimanrea, meanwhile has called on the GRA to establish an office in Rabaul.
However, the Governor was reported also to have reacted to the GRA second quarter report for 1997.
The GRA's second quarter report on the priority of the restoration Process seems to be ironical.
Second, the GRA sponsored infrastructure related projects which consumed most of the K50 million revenue funds are based in Kokopo and the adjacent areas.
Other considerations for the selection of Kokopo being developed as the new centre for East New Britain include, the area being vulnerable to landslides along the Kokopo road in the event of earthquakes. If there is a really big eruption there's no point in moving the town to a place like Kokopo - the difference in the life expectancy of a building is a matter of minute or two.
According to Professor Russell Blong who wrote an analysis of the impact on Rabaul of a volcanic eruption similar to those in 1937, the earthquake hazard is actually grater than the volcanic hazard in that area.
The rationale embedded in the focus of the field study transpired from the human reality of experiencing a natural disaster like volcanic eruptions. The latest Rabaul volcanic eruptions case is perceived as a disaster since it occurred as a sudden or major misfortune which disrupted i-lie basic fabric and normal functioning of the Tolai society.
The Gazelle Restoration Authority was a creation of an Act of Parliament and the National Executive Council. The human experience for the displaced is that they have been torn away from their traditional roots.
There are two intervening factors towards infrastructure concentration in rehabilitation and reconstruction. The Governor's explanation is echoed in a letter to the Editor of the Post-Courier by John Koimbe of the University of Papua New Guinea. Last October, 1996, Dr Bruce Yeates of the University of Papua New Guinea, presented a paper during the Mini Youth Conference which was held in the Granville Motel. Having outlined the four basic development philosophies in contemporary Papua New Guinea, the GRA Project Implementation Unit is perceived to be within the contexts of the Sty al Adjustment Vision with the goal of Economic Growth, in the light of its latest report on the Gazelle restoration and implementation expenditure.
The timely implementation of an appropriate Restoration Program designed to return the self-efficiency and well-being of the East New Britain people to at least as high a standard as enjoyed prior to the 1994 volcano disaster, whilst ensuring the sustainability of the outcomes; and minimizing the adverse impacts of future volcanic eruptions on lives, properties and livelihoods.
Such a mission statement does not specifically address the plight of the displaced Tolai communities.
For instance, most of the displaced Population were land based for cash crop cultivation and food production prior to the disaster.
In PNG's experience, the analogy would be that the State is weak, due to its incapacity to use and apply its penetrative, regulative, extractive and appropriative resources in society as evidenced by the steady occurrences of social, political and economic conflicts.
Semos cites Wari Iamo, of the National Research Institute, as being very critical of the regulatory and appropriation capabilities of the PNG State. In applying the same theory Bill Standish (1989), provided great insights into the Bougainville conflict and revealed how this great conflict illustrates and reflects the deeper political, economic and social naemorrhaging of the PNG State.
In the main, society is assumed to be an honest and passive participant, but becomes an indefensible victim of State haemorrhaging when faced with 'external forces' (dressed as internal problems] within society.
In reference to Tolai displaced communities, the community traditional methods of social integration and cohesiveness are located in the three principle socio-political and economic mechanisms: Land, Big Man Leadership and Tambu.
It could be added in here that it is not only in government circles that an extension of the kinship mentality is experienced to be buttressed in wantokism.


In reference to the case study of the Tolai displaced communities, three specific areas or social institutions within Tolai social structure appeal prominently to have been impacted upon. During the field work it became very obvious from discussions with informants that the displaced needed sufficient land for cultivation to generate both money cash (national currency) and tambu (traditional wealth). In spite of its strong advocacy, economic growth, as the goal of Structural Adjustment as a development philosophy in its strategies (and it is obviously the vision being implemented by the GRA for the Gazelle Restoration projects) is an illusion, according to Dr David Korten, another expert on development strategies. In the context of the recovery processes currently being implemented on the Gazelle Peninsula, a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach(covering both infrastructure projects and support of social services to rehabilitate and reconstruct from the human sector impacts on the displaced) would certainly meet the objectives of what recovery entails in its intrinsic contextual values. Rehabilitation and reconstruction program which encourage the affected population to act together in their own interest would help victim to be psychologically fit, socially coherent and economically self-sustained.
The late volcanic eruptions, just like all major disasters, would have certainly had psychological in-pacts on the affected people, particularly communities which had been relocated. The danger in failing to address reconstruction in its complexity can have adverse consequences.
First, it may result in large investment on buildings and infrastructure projects, similar to what the GRA is currently engaged in, without the necessary inputs to help the victims (displaced) to become psychologically fit, socially coherent and economically self-sustained. Recovery, as the period and action taken following the emergency and relief phase, is aimed to enable victim to resume normal lives and means of livelihood. Now for the discussion on the non-physical sector losses in the aftermath of the eruptions the direction I have taken is in line with the listing being made by Yasemin Aysan and Ian Davis (1993: 14-16) [1st Ed]. The damage and destruction resulted in a number of tangible (direct) and consequential (intangible or indirect) losses.
Consequential Losses: Cohesion, family structure, community coping capacity, breakdown of leadership, development of fatalism and dependency.
Consequential Losses: Economic outputs, opportunities and competitiveness in international, national and local markets, exports, jobs, taxes, financial stability.
Death and injury are categorically identified as physical impacts of volcanic eruptions (for example, Blong 1984: 70).
Disaster victims, like the Tolai displaced population, feature a common pattern of behaviour. Devastation is the first pattern of attitudes and it is identified as being manifested by general shock. Realization is the second stage of the attitudinal patterns and occurs especially when the victims return to their former dwelling sites. After the eruptions had subsided the victims took stock of the events and assessed their past, present and future. Beliefs and superstitions are a strong phenomena to be experienced among the affected during times of volcanic eruptions. Some of the Orokaiva survivors of the Mount Lamington eruption episodes maintained the eruption was a manifestation of the anger of their traditional deity, Sumbripa, over the breaching of certain taboos. Third, community life is generated through relationships by those comprised in the community. Fourth, relationships are created, maintained and mended through exchanges which are seen to be reciprocal giving and receiving.
Accusation is the fourth of the main attitudes attributed to victims in the aftermath of a disaster. The fifth stage or pattern of attitude, accumulation, is described as the most unsavoury, for any observer, agent or researcher involved directly or indirectly in dealing with disaster victims. The Rabaul volcanic eruptions might not have been a real agent of change in the life patterns of the displaced population, but it would have certainly been a catalyst also for changes -for better or for worse -in their socio-ultural life (Blong 1984: 180).
On the question of the relocation exercise for Rabaul to Kokopo and the displaced communities into the hinterland there are important points to be considered pertaining to relocation versus reconstruction on the same site.
The vulnerable site may also be essential for the economic livelihood of the affected communities. The cultural, symbolic and historical value of the damaged site –Rabaul (and fringing villages) cannot be easily transferable to a new site. Attachment to the place, neighbours, lineages, kins, extended families, friends, may be more important than safety. Relocation requires substantial investment in infrastructure (as the GRA latest report indicates), but it seems the very people who miss out on the benefits are the displaced communities themselves. Relocation of communities or settlements can affect local and regional balances negatively. The proposed area is sufficiently close to the existing settlement to enable livelihood patterns to be retained.
The benefits of relocation outweigh the rebuilding of the original location as it is under constant threat. Psychological impact of the event (eruptions) associated with the original site might be too strong on community. The area has been under considerable decline before the disaster struck due to, for instance, environmental degradation, pollution, economic changes, etc. When the community base is revitalized, strengthened and consolidated, pertinent social ills which could become offshoots of a breakdown of the web of relationships due to the natural disaster strike of 1994 could be prevented.
When people are so fanatical about their faith and practice, they do not question what is said or practiced since it comes from the above authority. Dr Jerome Semos of the University of Goroka elaborates on the interrelated theories pertaining to society-State social relationships. Kathy Gaius lived and worked with mothers and youths for eight weeks in various care centres during the emergency and relief phases of recovery, during and after the September 1994 volcanic eruptions in Rabaul. According to traditional knowledge, Tolai elders as repositories of their culture explain how and why there are volcanoes and eruptions in Rabaul according their cognitive interpretation of kaia. Kaia, the Tolai name for powerful spirits is comprehended to be in a hierarchical order in three main categories. Klaus Neumann (1992: 99) elaborates on the Tolai three identity foundations - matanitu, lotu and balanagunan. During the Mataungan uprising on Gazelle in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the tumbuan was adopted as emblem for the movement.
You’ll have to agree with us that natural disaster can be a horrible thing that can happen because it creates so much damage and takes so many lives. Although these natural disasters are awful to experience, a good picture is able to capture not only the essence of the disaster – but the emotions felt by all by this experience.


Some types of volcano make new sections of the tectonic plates that make up the surface of the Earth. To capture an unusual perspective on this extremely hostile environment, the camera was extended out above the springs on a Jimmy Jib crane.
Red is virtually invisible in deep sea, so these extraordinary gardens of red gorgonians and orange sponges are effectively camouflaged.
He visits hot springs in Rotorua, New Zealand, to meet Dr Bruce Mountain, who explains the theory. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. The various entities have provided services mainly for infrastructure-related projects through GRA.
I would like to know and I am sure the people of Papua New Guinea would like to know, when short term private gain should take precedence over people's lives and livelihoods. Also Kokopo, lacking Rabaul´s magnificent, deep harbour, may in the end be no more secure from volcanic eruptions than Rabaul. This paper is part of a thesis, which attempts to document some preliminary data emanating from an exploratory field research. This is based on the fact of a danger in the temptation pertaining to the concentration of resources only on one sector(infrastructure)_without realising the importance of the other(human sector).
In its interrelated contexts tambu functions to establish, sustain and manipulate social relationships for the vunatarai (group identity) and Tolai ethos and identity. Today the women are able to incur debts which oblige reciprocal payments towards them when the opportunities arise. PNG's situation in 1989 raises important questions about how to handle conflicts between a State and its citizens, and about the viability of post-colonial States dependent upon resource extraction and exports. Even in ecclesiastical and religious groupings that the practice of wantokism as a phenomenon is detected, where locals have assumed responsibilities of authority to exercise their will over their subjects. During the field work, informants in the Sikut settlement explained that the victims simply survived due to their praying, hymn singing and other devotional practices, such as recitation of the rosary and paying homage to prominent patron saints. In practical terms it connotes, to enjoy good health, long life and an abundance of cultural goods: spouses, children, land, crops, animals, game and fish, physical beauty, power, local wisdom and knowledge, kaia, prestige, etc.
Often times the common assumption, which could be based on conventional sociological wisdom and liberal dogma, is that starting afresh resolves all the inherent problems attached to rebuilding in a vulnerable site, place or environment. No wonder the displaced communities in the settlements of Gela Gela, Warena and even Ulagunan complain over insufficient land been allocated to them by the GRA or the Provincial Government to compensate their loss of original land holdings in the eruptions. It is precisely for these reasons that one observes and experiences the current social mobility in Rabaul of the displaced people, between relocation sites and their pre-1994 dwellings.
Volcanoes and eruptions are not without explanation and meaning in Tolai worldview and within their emotional and cognitive contexts. Epstein (1978, 1992) discuss Tolai papalum or ethic of work which embrace the political, socio©economic and cultural spheres of their life. 1995 Kaia From Within: The Rabaul Volcanic Eruptions of 1994, Wandering Albatross, Sydney, NSWS, Australia, p.
1995 The 1994 Eruption of Rabaul Volcano - A Case Study in Disaster Management, University of Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby.
A doctoral thesis submitted to the Centre of Melanesian Studies and the Department of Tropical Environment Studies and Geography, James Cook University, North Queensland, (September 1996), pp. On the other hand, you have to admire the power of the nature because it manages to produce all that destruction.
Without volcanoes and our planet's plates, the dry land we live on would not be renewed, and weathering and erosion by water, wind and ice would eventually carry it all into the oceans leaving Earth a water world.
For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere (or troposphere); however, they also absorb heat radiated up from the Earth, thereby warming the upper atmosphere (or stratosphere). The criteria by which they wanted us to use was to restore infrastructure services, rather than assist individual victims. A report in one of the newspapers, once again illustrates the negative aspect of the convergence of the traditional kinship system being operative in the wantok system in Papua New Guinea. One is Reminded of the current situation in South Africa where the social evils of poverty, lack of education and unemployment are the root causes of an escalating crime rate as an offshoot.
However, to be comprehensive, integrated and holistic, human sector rehabilitation and reconstruction are momentously complementary as an integral component of natural disaster aftermath restoration.
Tambu (in depletion) is the cultural and symbolic representation and personification of Tolai group and ethnic identity.
Today we have something extreme for you all, and those are pictures of natural disasters so make sure that you don’t miss them.Today you’ll see 15 breathtaking pictures of natural disasters, so let’s have a closer look at them, shall we? Of course, year 2010 is famous for other disasters such as Eyjafjallajokull Volcano in Iceland, lightning storm in Roswell, New Mexico, flooding in Rajanpur district, Pakistan, earthquake in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
Instead of positively responding victims could be left to continue expecting miracles and be on the receiving end of free handouts without contributing their own inputs.
Of course, there are some pictures of earlier disasters such as tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia and tsunami in Hat Rai Lay Beach in southern Thailand. 1977 What Did the Eruptions Mean, Michael Lieber (Ed.) Exiles and Migrants in Oceania, Honalulu, University of Hawaii Press, pp. These are all horrible disasters, and they leave only havoc after them, so make sure that you check these pictures out and admire the frightening power of the nature. Paragraph 2Give 2 significant examples in history of your natural disaster (Hurricane Katrina, Mt.
Davies 1995: 30), the death toll in the Rabaul volcano disaster was low [five] - four deaths resulted directly from eruption related circumstances and one from a lightning strike. The GRA will be fully meeting the aspired needs of the displaced populace if it heeds assisting them through the initiative of a support system of social services towards the revival of the socio-cultural and human sector being impacted upon as well.



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