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Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Simulation of Tsunami Impact on Sea Surface Salinity along Banda Aceh Coastal Waters, IndonesiaMaged Marghany1[1] Institute of Geospatial and Science Technology (INSTEG), University of Technology, Malaysia1. Thus, H is a k x k estimated matrix of MODIS radiance bands that used to estimate sea surface salinity, b^ and h are both k x 1 column vectors. TOKIO.- La Agencia nipona de Meteorologia activo este jueves un nuevo sistema de aviso de tsunami cuyo objetivo es el de ofrecer mejores mecanismos de alerta para poder evacuar a la poblacion en lugar de informar unicamente sobre la altura de las olas. El aviso “Enorme” se referira a olas de tsunami superiores a los tres metros, mientras que “Elevado” servira para alertar a la poblacion de olas entre uno y tres metros, detallo la agencia Kyodo.
La Agencia Meteorologica utilizara tambien expresiones mas claras y descriptivas para que la poblacion pueda realizar una evaluacion de la gravedad de la situacion. Asi, se lanzaran avisos como “Puede venir un tsunami del nivel del de El Gran Terremoto del Este” y “Terremoto que se estima provoque un enorme temblor con una magnitud de mas de 8”.
Japan, a world leader in earthquake engineering, has been paralyzed by a series of giant waves that followed one of the most violent earthquakes in a century. Residents of the port town of Kamaishi in Iwate prefecture watch in horror as the first huge tsunami waves sweep away cars and buildings.
The news recalls the estimated 250,000 people who perished, mainly on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, in the 2004 “Christmas tsunami” that followed a huge, offshore quake. Shortly after Japan stopped shaking at 2:46 pm local time on Friday, March 11, we began hearing about troubles at a series of nuclear plants. With the first nuclear meltdowns since Chernobyl, in 1986, under way, global stock markets were crashing. A helicopter flies over the city of Sendai, as it delivers more than 1,500 pounds of food donated by citizens of Ebina City, Japan, to survivors of the earthquake and tsunami. Although landslides and volcanoes cause some tsunamis, probably 95 percent result from underwater earthquakes that contain a strong vertical motion. Like the Sunda trench near Sumatra, the subduction zone in the Japan trench is notorious for large earthquakes, says Timothy Masterlark, an associate professor of geological science at the University of Alabama.
Masterlark, who has studied the giant, 2004 earthquake and tsunami in Sumatra, says the magnitude 9.0 earthquake in Japan likely broke a fault stretching at a shallow angle from the sea floor roughly 150 kilometers beneath Japan, along a trench several hundred kilometers in length. We asked Masterlark how, if the slip was mainly horizontal, the rocks had enough vertical movement to cause a tsunami.
To imagine how vertical movement of the seafloor causes a tsunami, imagine making waves by throwing a stone in a pond. The tsunami is usually most intense close to the earthquake: as waves spread from the epicenter in a typical arc-shaped pattern, their energy also spreads out. One factor that distinguishes tsunamis from more familiar waves is their extreme wavelength. In some earthquakes, the biggest killer is not the shaking, but the walls of water created by undersea earth movement. All that kinetic energy can hide in waves we can barely see because long-wavelength waves are extremely deep, and the massive amount of water moving beneath the surface contains enormous energy. Like all waves, tsunamis slow when the lower part of the wave encounters the upward-sloping ocean floor. In 1998, Harry Yeh, a civil engineering professor now at the University of Oregon, told us that tsunamis can have decidedly unconventional behavior. A series of massive earthquakes levels Lisbon during the celebration of All Saints’ Day.
Krakatau, a volcano in the Sunda Straits, explodes with a gigantic roar audible 3,000 miles away. The Sanriku tsunami starts, as many do, when the sea withdraws with a great sucking and hissing sound. A large earthquake on Unimak, an island in the Aleutian chain, shakes the remote, steel-reinforced concrete Scotch Cap lighthouse, which stands about 100 feet above the North Pacific. Following a 9.0 quake off the west coast of Northern Sumatra, over 230,000 people perished in the Indian Ocean tsunami, which struck 15 countries. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, established in Hawaii in the wake of the deadly 1946 tsunami, is a nexus in the global warning network. Tsunami warnings are now triggered automatically, says Masterlark, based on measurements of earth movement. Further confirmation of the size of the wave may come from special purpose ocean buoys, if they are in the right place, Masterlark says. In terms of generating tsunamis, not all underwater earthquakes are created equal, says Andrew Newman, assistant professor of earth and atmospheric sciences at Georgia Tech. These large tsunamis come from a smaller break in the ocean floor, and so contain relatively little energy and do not travel well across the ocean, Newman says.
Newman and colleagues have developed software to detect the peculiar signature of the tsunami earthquake, and are now running it on a research basis. Although the Japanese had little time between the earthquake and the tsunami, Newman says the national warning system did work. But the rising casualty counts highlights the deadly role of proximity to the quake, says Masterlark.
Seismologists are loathe to predict earthquakes, but in the past decade or two, they have recognized that earthquakes occur in series along major faults in Turkey and Sumatra, as big quakes place extra stress on the adjacent fault. The large quake in 2005 did not cause a major tsunami, but its timing, just three months after the Dec.
MODIS satellite data (a) pro tsunami event, (b) during Tsunami event and (c) post tsunami event.
Isohaline contours (a) pro tsunami event, (b) during tsunami event and (c) post tsunami event.
Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) retrieved from MODIS data (a) pro tsunami event, (b) during Tsunami event and (c) post tsunami event.
IntroductionConstantly later the catastrophe of the Indian Ocean tsunami of Boxing Day 2004, research in tsunami geoscience has augmented evidently [1].
Con este nuevo mecanismo, la Agencia ofrecera durante los tres minutos posteriores a que se produzca un terremoto de 8 o mas grados en la escala abierta de Richter informacion sobre un posible tsunami con solo dos terminos: “Elevado” o “Enorme”. He loves to write about Big Data and the Internet of Things, and explore how these technologies are evolving and helping businesses to become more agile. 11, 2011, apparently did not collapse high-rise buildings, the ensuing tsunamis flattened vast areas along the northeast coast.
After the reactors automatically shut down during the quake, emergency systems for removing heat still being generated in the reactors were routinely switched on. Such quakes often occur where one of Earth’s tectonic plates dives, or “subducts,” beneath another.
Even though earthquakes disturb the bottom of the water, the analogy works: just as a larger stone, thrown faster, makes a larger wave, the size of the tsunami depends on extent and speed of the ocean-floor movement.
They can be spaced as much as one hour apart, so subsequent waves can kill those who return to help victims of earlier waves. Striking a totally unprepared town during a festival, the wave kills 27,000 and destroys more than 10,000 houses.


Minutes later, a huge wave obliterates the lighthouse, leaving practically no trace of the five Coast Guardsmen inside. At the time, Indian Ocean nations lacked an ocean-wide warning system, causing the tragedy to strike without warning. Since almost all tsunamis originate in earthquakes, the warning centers rely on data from seismographs, many of them located on the unstable ring of fire. But they also offer less warning because local people do not feel the massive shaking associated with a major tsunami. However, the upper stories of tall, reinforced concrete hotels can provide refuge if you have no time to move inland or to higher ground. 26 monster, suggests a compelling reason to focus intensively on the earthquake zone in the Japan trench, says Masterlark. Scientists have attempted to comprehend the mechanisms of the wide scale of the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004.
The wave height along Kenya coast was between 2 and 3 m (Table 1).Further, the Christmas tsunami was so powerful it actually sped up the rotation of the Earth reducing the length of its sidereal day. Before joining SiliconANGLE, Mike was an editor at Argophilia Travel News, an occassional contributer to The Epoch Times, and has also dabbled in SEO and social media marketing. The death toll is swelling steadily as bodies wash in on the surf, and citizens and Japan’s Self Defense Forces scour a landscape turned upside down by inconceivably powerful waves.
As fires ignited by overturned candles ravage the city, residents seek relief from the heat near the waterfront. Fishermen at sea don’t notice the deadly wave and return to an ocean strewn with the corpses of loved ones and the wreckage of their homes. Five hours later, the tsunami slams into Hilo, Hawaii, obliterating the waterfront and killing 159.
Ignoring warnings, many residents stay in homes near the bay, increasing the death toll by 61. Even a warning system would have had limited utility to close-in coastal communities, given the jet-like speed of the waves. Nevertheless, with great efforts done by scientists since Boxing day 2004, the Japanese tsunami with great disaster occurred. The earthquake that spawned it also caused the Earth to vibrate all over by as much as 1 cm. He usually bases himself in Bangkok, Thailand, though he can often be found roaming through the jungles or chilling on a beach. When the water turns to steam, the explosion causes tsunamis that cause most of the 37,000 deaths on nearby Sumatra and Java. In this regard, the critical question may be raised is what the tsunami effects on the ocean physical properties such as temperature and salinity?
Finally, root mean square of bias (RMS) is used to determine the level of algorithm accuracy by comparing with in situ sea surface salinity.
Much of the video you see is from helicopters, or people watching from two or three stories up in buildings. But as in Japan, the most powerful and destructive aftermath of this massive earthquake was the tsunami that it caused. Further, linear regression model used to investigate the level of linearity of sea surface salinity estimation from MODIS data.
Both parameters can produce vertical current movement because of the their gradient changes.
Definitions of tsunamiIt is well known that the tsunami is the natural phenomena consisting of a series of waves generated when the waves are rapidly displaced on a massive scale.
In addition, water density changes are function of gradual changes of temperature and salinity.
Tsunami (pronounced soo-NAH-mee) is a Japanese word which is meaning harbor (‘tsu”) and wave (“nami”).
Tsunamis are fairly common in Japan and many thousands of Japanese have been killed by them in recent centuries. Hypotheses and objectiveConcern with above prospective, we address the question of tsunami ‘s impact on Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) pattern changes pro and post tsunami event of 2004. In this context, the term was coined by fishermen who returned to port to find the area surrounding the harbor devastated, in spite they had not been aware of any wave on high seas [2]. Haugen et al., [8] stated that tsunamis are long waves set in motion by an impulsive perturbation of the sea, intermediate between tides and swell waves in the spectrum of gravity water waves. Subsequently, Zahibo et al., [5] defined tsunami waves as surface gravity waves that occur in the ocean as the result of large-scale short-term perturbations (underwater earthquakes, eruptions of underwater volcanoes, landslides, rock falls, pyroclastic avalanche from land volcanoes entered in water, asteroid impact, and underwater explosions.
Comments on tsunami definition In earlier times, seismic ocean waves were called “tidal” waves, incorrectly implying that they had some direct connection to the tides. Study area The study area is located along the western coastal zone of Aceh with boundaries of latitudes 3° 30? N to 6° 30? N and longitudes of 93° 30? E to 99° 30?E (Figure 10). In fact, when the tsunami approach coastal zone they began to characterize by a violent onrushing tidal rather than the sort of cresting waves that are generated by wind stress upon the sea surface. The Sunda trench is running north-south along the coastal waters of Aceh towards the Andaman Sea.
However, to eliminate this confusing the Japanese word “tsunami is used to describe the giant wave (Figure 1) in which is referring to a seismic wave and meaning harbor wave to replace the misleading term tidal wave. Running in a rough north-south line on the seabed of the Andaman Sea is the boundary between two tectonic plates, the Burma plate and the Sunda Plate. These plates (or microplates) are believed to have formerly been part of the larger Eurasian Plate, but were formed when transform fault activity intensified as the Indian Plate began its substantive collision with the Eurasiancontinent.
In this regard, a tsunami is a seismic sea wave containing tremendous amounts of energy as a result of its mode of formation i.e.
As a result, a back-arc basin center was created, which began to form the marginalbasin which would become the Andaman Sea, the current stages of which commenced approximately 3–4 million years ago (Figure 11). On December 26, 2004, a large portion of the boundary between the Burma Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate slipped, causing the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Tsunami characteristicsThe physical parameters of duration, length, propagation speed, and heights are the keys description of tsunami.
Between 1300 and 1600 kilometers of the boundary underwent thrust faulting and shifted by about 20 meters, with the sea floor being uplifted several meters.
The northern and eastern parts are shallower than 180 meters (600 ft) due to the silt deposited by the Irrawaddy River. Therefore, Zahibo et al., [5] stated that tsunami waves of the seismic origin are usually very long (50–1000 km).
Less than 5% of the sea is deeper than 3,000 meters (10,000 ft), and in a system of submarine valleys east of the Andaman-Nicobar Ridge, the depth exceeds 4,000 meters (13,200 ft). To accurately model tsunami propagation over such large distances, the Earth’s curvature should be taken into account. Further, the climate and water salinity of the Andaman Sea and Aceh are mostly determined by the monsoons of southeast Asia. Generation mechanisms of tsunamis are geological events like land-and rockslides in fjords and lakes, submarine gravity mass flows and earthquakes.


Sea currents are south-easterly and easterly in winter and south-westerly and westerly in summer.
While the mechanism for generating the initial water waves by purely tectonic motions is reasonably well comprehended. Conversely, the modelling of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides is not yet explicated. Co-seismic deformation of the seafloor usually occurs rapidly relative to the propagation speeds of long water waves (Figure 2), allowing for simple specification of initial conditions by transferring the resultant permanent seafloor deformation to the free surface. However, sub-aerial and submarine landslides move less rapidly and the time-history of seafloor deformation (Figure 2) is important, necessitating the addition of source terms in the equations of motions.
In the northern part, it decreases to 20–25‰ due to the inflow of fresh water from the Irrawaddy River.
Compared with the understanding of earthquake-induced initial tsunami waves, the understanding of landslide-generated waves is marginal. Briefly, in terms of the semi-analytical empirical studies transferred the energy released by a moving block sliding from its initial position to its final position to solitary waves and calculated the height of the wave [9]. Least square modelIn this section, we present the theoretical model of split window method that relates MODIS sea surface salinity with in situ salinity measured by thermal infrared sensors, these include multi-channel methods.
We assume the MODIS image radiance I within multi-channels i have a linear relationship with measured sea surface salinity (SSS).
Locally generated tsunami have short warning times and relatively short wave periods; remote tsunami have longer warning times and relatively long periods. Typical periods for tsunami range from 15 minutes for locally generated tsunami to several hours for remote tsunami.
The unknown parameters in equation 2, that are b0 and bi may be estimated by a general least square iterative algorithm. Typical run-up height for tsunami range up to 15 m at the coast, although most are much smaller. Storm surges on the other hand are caused by variations in barometric pressure and wind stress over the ocean. This is usually a slow and large-scale effect and thus does not usually generate waves in the frequency range typical of tsunami.
However, there can be short-period meteorological events (such as meteorological tsunami – rissaga) with time-scales of a few hours that may be important. Wind stress on the other hand has a wide range of time-scales and causes coastal sea-level setup as well as wind waves, where the setup depends on the wind direction, strength, and wave height. The bk^ found by solving the normal equations (5) are the least-squares estimators of the parametersbi. The only convenient way to express the solution to the normal equations is in matrix notation. Note that the normal equations (5) are just a k x k set of simultaneous linear equations in k unknowns (the{ bk^ }). It might be internal wave named by internal tsunami due to its traveling along the a thermocline layer.In a somewhat similar fashion, dropping a stone into a puddle of water creates a series of waves which radiate away from the impact point.
In this context, the impact point of puddle of water is representing a sudden shifting of rocks or sediments on the ocean floor caused by cataclysmic event, such as a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, or a submarine landslide, can force the water level to drop ? 1 m generating a tsunami-a series of low waves with long periods, and long wavelengths (Figure 3). Thus the tsunami height in the open ocean is approximately less than 1 m which it is not noticeable in open ocean.
The tsunamis, however, grow to height of ? 10 m as it impinges on a shoreline and flood the coast, sometimes with catastrophic results, including widespread property damage and loss of life.
Geological descriptions of Sumatra earthquakeIn previous sections, the fundamental mechanism of tsunami was explained. Therefore, this section is devoted for tsunami of 26 December 2004 which is known as Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Consequently, this disaster is called as Asian Tsunami in Asia region and also known as a Boxing day in the Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, because it took place on Boxing Day.
This earthquake was also reported to be the longest duration of faulting ever observed, lasting between 500 and 600 seconds (8.3 to 10 minutes), and it was large enough that it caused the entire planet to vibrate as much as half an inch, or over a centimeter.
Epicenter of the giant tsunami The epicentre of the earthquake of the exceptionally high magnitude of 9.0 (Figure 4) is situated inside the trough as indicated between the northern edge of Sumatra and the small island of Simeulue, one member of the chain of islands next to the trench. Neither this trough relief reveals anything unusual nor does the comparatively moderate depth of the Sunda Trench of less than 5, 000 m, the shallower sister of the conspicuous, adjacent Java-Trench southeast of it (Figure 5). The enormous, ongoing collision results in subduction-caused (Figure 6) earthquakes that are frequent and huge. On 26 December 2004, 1.200 km (740 mi) long fault rupture began as 100 km (62 mi) long portion of the plate tectonic boundary ruptured and slipped during a minute (Figure 6).
At the northern end of the rupture, the fault movement slowed drastically and only traveled tens of meters during the next hour. It appears that a bend or scissors like tear in the subduction plate may have delayed the full rupture in December 2004.
The increasing obliquity of the convergence northwards from the Sunda Strait results in the formation and development of a number of arc-parallel strike-slip fault systems (Figure 7). The most significant are the Sumatra and the West Andaman Fault systems, accom-modating arc-parallel strain offshore central-southern Sumatra.
On the fault the earthquake had a maximum slip of approximately 15 to 20 meters with an average slip of >5 meters along the full length of the rupture. Further, velocities of displacement along 1200 to 1300 kilometres of the fault with at least three major energy bursts during the propagation of the rupture (50 to 150 seconds, 280 to 340 seconds, and 450 to 500 seconds.
In general Figure 9 shows that the tsunami reaches Phuket and Sri Lanka coasts in two hours after the earthquake, and African coast in 8-11 hours. The red color means that the water surface is higher than normal, while the blue means lower. As the fault runs north-south, the waves Travelled out across the ocean in mainly easterly and westerly direction with duration of 7 hours that shook the world. At+15 minutes later, the Indonesia Island of Sumatra, close to epicenter of the quake, is hit by the full force of tsunami. Many towns and villages in Aceh province on the western tip of the island are completely washed away, and the capital, Banda Aceh, is destroyed. The remote Andaman which is lying only 100 km from the epicenter of the earthquake was struck within+30 minutes later. It had lessened slightly in height and power but still struck the Thai coast with incredible force and the sea surged out for about 200 m. One of the worst-hit places was Sri-Lanka, which lay almost directly west of the earthquake’s epicenter.



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