Thunderstorm safety precautions,emergency response preparedness ppt,five phases of army emergency management program - For Begninners

Lightning, heavy rainfall and high winds accompany the nearly 100,000 thunderstorms that occur annually in the United States.
The warm, humid conditions of the spring and summer seasons greatly favor the development of thunderstorms, though thunderstorms can occur at any time of year. America's Health Rankings Report found that there were improvements in preventable hospitalizations, decreases in cigarette smoking and increases in immunizations of children, yet the rate of drug deaths, diabetes, obesity and children living in poverty increased across the country. Winter Storm Jonas dumped as much as three feet of snow along the East Coast, leaving victims in its wake, stranding cities without power and shutting down transportation systems. BE INFORMED                                                                                                                      To lessen the danger you must understand any severe weather alert. Thunderstorm Watch – Conditions are favorable for severe thunderstorms in and near the watch area.  Stay informed and be ready to take shelter. Thunderstorm Warning – Sever weather has been reported or indicated by radar and indicates imminent danger to life and property. Determine a safe place in your home for household members to gather during a thunderstorm.  This should be away from windows, skylights and glass doors that could be broken by strong winds or hail.
We may benefit from the rain, but be respectful of the strong winds, hail, lightning , and flooding. Intensive sunshine, severe thunderstorms and extended rainfall during hot summers, is what to expect when the effects of climate change become evident.
Severe thunderstorms pose a threat to human lives and cause damage to buildings and infrastructure. A lightning flash is only centimetres thick, however, every metre shines as bright as 1-million 100 watt light bulbs since the lightning flash is electrically charged. Ground-to-cloud flashes, also referred to as upward flashes, may strike very high, exposed objects such as steeples, radio masts or mountain peaks.
If you do not hear thunder 30 seconds after you saw a lightning flash you are on the safe side as the thunderstorm is far enough away.
A common rule of thumb for roughly estimating the distance from a thunderstorm is to count the number of seconds between a flash of lightning and the next clap of thunder. If caught outdoors, there are two main dangers: First and foremost, being the highest point around and secondly, when lightning strikes near you.
Put down bicycles, golf bags or golf clubs and keep a distance of at least 1 m, or even better 3 m, from these objects.
Immediately crouch down if the time period between a flash and thunder is less than 5 seconds! A thunderstorm in the mountains is extremely dangerous because it appears surprisingly quickly. Sportsmen and sportswomen as well as spectators are highly at risk during a thunderstorm if they stand on the playing field, on uncovered stands or next to poles or flagpoles. Never erect your tent directly next to poles or pylons, at the edge of the forest or next to isolated trees.
If the time period between a flash and thunder is less than 30 seconds, get inside a club house or shelter. If the time period between a flash and thunder is only 5 seconds, crouch down immediately – preferably in a hollow.
If the time period between a flash and thunder is shorter than 5 seconds, crouch down, preferably in a hollow. Swimming or wading through water during a thunderstorm means you are placing your life at risk. Boats are vulnerable to lightning strikes since they present exposed points on the plain water surface. If on a bicycle or motorcycle, stop riding, seek shelter (for example under a bridge) or crouch down at a distance of 1 m, or even better 3 m, from your vehicle. Do not leave your car between seeing the flash and hearing the thunder if less than 15 seconds! Normally nothing happens if an aircraft is struck by lightning on the ground or even in the air since an aircraft also is a Faraday cage. In the event of a lightning strike, the external lightning protection system safely discharges the lightning current to the ground and protects your home from fire.

Surge protective devices from DEHN prevent electrical devices and electronic systems from being damaged or destroyed by lightning.
If your home is equipped with an external and internal lightning protection system and surge protective devices such as DEHNguard M TT and DEHNgate, you can watch your favourite TV show without risk.
DEHN’s surge protective devices for the power supply and data lines protect your PC against negative effects of surges caused by remote lightning strikes. If the telephone system is connected to the equipotential bonding structure and is protected by surge protective devices it is safe to do so. It is safe to do so if the metal supply lines are properly integrated in the equipotential bonding structure. Common injuries from being struck by lightning can be nerve and muscle paralysis, impaired eyesight and hearing as well as raised blood pressure. DEHN’s key objective is to protect lives and material assets from lightning and surge damage.
This site contains materials which may be duplicated or redistributed for educational use only. Thunderstorms may occur singly, in clusters or in lines and usually only produce heavy rain for a brief period of time ranging from 30 minutes to an hour. South Africa has around 20-million direct lightning strikes to ground per annum and Gauteng between 8-10 strikes per km2 per annum.
Hail destroys roofs, gardens and cars, lightning strikes cause fire or surge damage to electrical and electronic devices.
It may come as a surprise that a lightning flash, with few exceptions, travels from the ground to the clouds! Positively and negatively charged areas are created due to an uneven distribution of ice and water as well as updraft and downdraft winds in the cloud. In the case of a cloud-to-ground flash, the electrically charged clouds equalise with the ground below. During the summer months, South Africa experiences more than one million partial lightning strikes each month. In this case, the current is conducted to the ground and quickly spreads out in all directions, forming a dangerous potential gradient. Put your feet as close together as possible, wrap your arms around your legs and tuck your head in. Keep a distance of at least  1 m, or even better 3 m, from other people and metal objects such as hooks, ladders and ropes. If you have just caught a fish, take it off the hook immediately, lay down your fishing rod and seek shelter on land!
A strike into the water may be deadly or may paralyze the swimmer up to 10 m from the point of strike. In case of heavy rain or rolls of thunder, it is advisable to stop at the next possible place or wait until the thunderstorm has disappeared to avoid being blinded by the light and therefore lose control. However, the occurring turbulences are much more dangerous than the lightning flash itself which is why experienced pilots try to avoid flying through thunderstorm cells.
Lightning protection systems must be installed by qualified personnel to make sure that only tested and approved DEHN components are used and installed in conformity with the latest standards.
However, a complete lightning protection system must be installed to protect your home in case of a direct lightning strike. In view of increasing lightning activity, this objective is more relevant than ever before. However, the most severe thunderstorms can affect one location for an extended period of time.
Luckily, the statistical chance of a direct strike to a normal house in the Gauteng area is less than once in 25 years.
Fractions of a second before the actual lightning flash there is a downward leader, however, this is hardly visible to the human eye. If the voltage differences become too high, an electrical discharge occurs (lightning flash).
Cloud-to-cloud flashes occur within a cloud or between two clouds; however, they do not occur between clouds and the ground.

On a day with a high thunderstorm activity, more than 200 000 partial lightning strikes may occur.
For this reason, never lie flat on the ground if you are caught in the open during a thunderstorm.
Check the barometer when stopping at shelter huts and strictly follow the instructions of hut personnel or your mountain guide.
Hunters should immediately leave open tree stands at the first sign of lightning and thunder. Shelters are only safe when equipped with a lightning protection system in conformity with the relevant standards.
Therefore leave the water right away and take cover at the first sign of lightning and thunder. Reliable lightning protection is only ensured if the external lightning protection system is combined with an equipotential bonding system and surge protective devices to form a comprehensive protection system. At any given time, nearly 1,800 thunderstorms simultaneously are occurring on Earth (American Red Cross, 2012), and can develop into conditions such as tornadoes and damaging hail. This article provides information on the physical basics of lightning: the formation and types of lightning strikes. The thunder cells only last about 30 minutes and cause two to three lightning flashes per minute during this time. Annually, more than 95% of all lightning flashes occur during the thunderstorm months September to March. Crouch down immediately, put your feet as close together as possible and wrap your arms around your legs. It is vital to keep a distance of at least 1 m, or even better 3 m, to walls, metal fences, etc. If you do not reach the next lightning-protected shelter hut in time, a cave or protruding rock may provide shelter.
Attention: If your tent or caravan has no metal structure, it is equally dangerous to stay there as in the open field.
If the time period between a flash and thunder is less than 30 seconds, go straight to a club house, shelter or car. Lightning strikes can be fatal, and there also is a variety of permanent injuries employees can develop as a result of a lightning strike. It gives tips on how to estimate how far the lightning flash is from your location and on what to do in a thunderstorm to protect human lives and property from this destructive force of nature. Avoid trees, groves, edges of the forest and wood poles of overhead lines since they are particularly vulnerable to lightning. Do not touch moist rock walls and any ladders or metal objects, for example along fixed rope routes. To get there do not walk in groups of people, avoid physical contact with each other and leave your golf equipment behind. The risk of being hit by a lightning strike inside a forest with trees of uniform height is considerably lower; however, keep a distance of 10 m from all trees and branches.
According to NWS, lightning kills more than 70 people and injures at least 300 others each year in the United States. In 2012, there have been at least five reported fatalities attributed to lightning strikes in the United States.
The deaths that occur during flash flooding are greater than any other hazard associated with thunderstorms. High winds can knock down trees and utility poles, which can cause extensive power outages and account for a handful of deaths each year.

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