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In cognitive psychology, there is one memory system, but it is normally divided into three functions for storage (Anderson, 2000): sensory, short-term (often called working), and long-term (often called permanent). Sensory Memory: The sensory memory retains an exact copy of what is seen or heard (visual and auditory). Short-Term Memory (STM) - Selective attention determines what information moves from sensory memory to short-term memory. Donald Hebb (1968) argued that it was doubtful that a chemical process could occur fast enough to accommodate immediate memory, yet remain stable enough to accommodate permanent memory.
George Miller's classic 1956 study found that the amount of information that can be remembered in one exposure is between five and nine items, depending on the information. Applying a range of +2 or -2, the number 7 became known as Miller's Magic Number, the number of items which can be held in Short-Term Memory at any one time. Miller himself stated that his magic number was for items with one aspect as his work is based on subjects listening to a number of auditory tones that varied only in pitch. After entering sensory memory, a limited amount of information is transferred into short-term memory. Working memory - An active process to keep it until it is put to use (think of a phone number you'll repeat to yourself until you can dial it on the phone). The process of transferring information from STM to LTM involves the encoding or consolidation of information.
Also, on a more concrete level, the use of chunking has been proven to be a significant aid for enhancing the STM transfer to LTM. The knowledge we store in LTM affects our perceptions of the world, and influences what information in the environment we attend to. Since LTM storage is organized into schemas, instructional designers should activate existing schemas before presenting new information. LTM also has a strong influence on perception through top-down processing - our prior knowledge affects how we perceive sensory information. An important factor for retention of learned information in LTM is rehearsal that provides transfer of learning. Myopia (short-sightedness) occurs when rays of light are brought to a focus in front of the retina because the optical power of the eye is too great, or the eye is too long.
Between the ages of seven and 11 years, six percent of the population has 0.5 dioptres (the unit used to measure short-sightedness) or more of myopia. The big jump in myopia comes between ages 12 and 13 with an increase of 25 percent in young people who have a 0.5 dioptres. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Another aspect of this theory is that it is explicitly analogous to a computer's processor. The best understood of the sensory registers (SRs) are for hearing (echoic) and seeing (iconic).
Short-term memory (STM) is also known as working memory, and is where consciousness exists. The final stage in the IP model is long-term memory (LTM), which is typically termed call memory. Cognitive strategies are more task-specific, and often refer to "direct manipulation of the learning material itself (Brown, 1987)." Examples of cognitive strategies are note-taking, repetition, guessing meaning from context, or using mnemonic devices.
Socioaffective strategies refer to strategies that use association with or input from teachers or peers. O'Malley and his colleagues have gone on to suggest that these strategies can be overtly taught to learners, facilitating one of the most important goals of learning, learner autonomy.
In the end, there are five types of knowledge in LTM--declarative, procedural, episodic, imagery, and strategic knowledge; there also exists one collective type called conceptual knowledge. We have two educational stories to help you, the reader, understand how information processing, particularly metacognition, can be applied in the classroom.
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False memory syndrome (FMS) is a term invented by the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF) to describe the situation in which adults who remember instances of abuse from their childhood are mistaken regarding their memory's accuracy.
In December 1990, after her second therapy session, Jennifer Freyd allegedly recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.
The False Memory Syndrome Foundation was formed in 1992 by Pamela and Peter Freyd after they found out their adult daughter Jennifer Freyd believed Peter had sexually abused her when she was a child. Peter denied the allegations, and Pamela became concerned about the damaged relationship between Peter and Jennifer. Peter and Pamela concluded that the allegations must have been made up during the course of Jennifer's therapy. Peter Freyd is a mathematics professor at the University of Pennsylvania (a highly prestigious job). On the surface, the Freyd family could represent a middle or upper-middle class American family that is obviously doing very well from a socio-economic perspective.
It illustrates the family conflicts that can arise when a child brings forth allegations of abuse against a parent. So with all this controversy, perhaps you're wondering what do scientists really know about human memory? I won't go into too much detail about it here since I wrote another article about human memory that goes into much more depth.
Most of the clinical research has focused on normal memories, and only a little has been done on traumatic memory (memories caused by child abuse, rape, wartime violence, etc.) While scientists disagree on the accuracy and reportability of traumatic memories, the growing body of evidence suggests that repressed memories can and do occur in victims of child abuse.
That's why it's important when looking at the claims of so-called memory experts that you note how accuracy is being measured. What do professional organizations such as the American Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association, British Psychological Society, and American Psychological Association have to say on the subject of repressed memories and false memory syndrome? The professional medical and mental health establishment may have some slight differences with respect to the finer points of the false memory syndrome issue, but it is fair to say they take a balanced approach. All agree that there is a consensus among researchers and clinicians that repressed memories can occur in victims of child abuse.
All agree that because a therapist can have a substantial influence over their patients, great professional care should be taken when working with patients' memories, especially those regarding abuse.
All agree that medical and mental health practitioners should put their patients' medical and mental health needs above all.
In surveying the information out there regarding false memory syndrome, this author can only conclude that to say that all recovered repressed memories in therapy are false or that all recovered repressed memories in therapy are true is an extreme position which is not representative of the truth. The repressed memory concept is a complicated subject, and there are often contradictory claims from research studies. The bottom line though is that all the information out there suggests repressed memories do exist, however the mechanisms by which they occur are not well understood. This newsletter is packed with valuable tips and advice for abuse survivors, with feature articles to help you.


Plus, all subscribers receive an additional report as well as a sneak peak from my new e-book, All You Need Is One. Wendy Rulnick is the marketing choice for sellers on the Emerald Coast who want to list and get their homes and condos sold in Destin, Sandestin, Bluewater Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, 30-A, Watercolor, Seaside, Rosemary Beach, Seacrest Beach, Kelly Plantation, Regatta Bay, Destiny and more. Lynn - This poor lady is seeing an attorney this week, and mailing a check for all the missed payments. STM is most often stored as sounds, especially in recalling words, but may be stored as images. Each tone was presented separately, and the subject was asked to identify each tone relative to the others he or she had already heard, by assigning it a number.
But if more aspects are included, then we can remember more, depending upon our familiarity and the complexity of the subject (in Miller's research, there was only one aspect — the tone). Note that the goal is not really to move the information from STM to LTM, but merely put the information to immediate use.
This is not a function of time, that is, the longer a memory stayed in STM, the more likely it was to be placed into LTM; but on organizing complex information in STM before it can be encoded into LTM.
Remember, STM's capacity is limited to about seven items, regardless of the complexity of those items. This can be done in a variety of ways, including graphic organizers, curiosity-arousing questions, movies, etc. The latest research finally proves that contact lenses can slow down the progression of Myopia and, in some cases, halt it all together. We think that at this age the increased over-growth of the axial length of the eye during the puberty growth spurt.
The Inspiration web above shows how Information Processing can be likened to the model of a computer. While other theories in this e-book are learning or instructional in nature, IP theory seeks to explain how the mind functions. The basic IP model has three components: sensory register (SR), short-term memory (STM) or working memory, and long-term memory (LTM). You perceive and attend to stimuli; that information is then actively processed based on information stored in LTM. He offers a dual coding hypothesis asserting that when we see an image, both the image and a label for that image are stored in memory. For example, there exists a concept called "bird," which can be reduced to declarative statements such as: "It has feathers," "It has wings and flies," "It lays eggs," and the like.
The title of the chapter is, "Psychological Foundations of Instructional Graphics" Lloyd has also made a nice interactive model for the dual coding theory. In other words, the foundation is saying that recovered or repressed memories of child abuse survivors can be inaccurate. She claimed her father had molested her starting from when she was 3 until she was 16 years old, when she went away to college.
You wouldn't think of them as a family that would have these kinds of problems, even though abuse occurs in families across the socio-economic spectrum. For instance, Peter Freyd's brother, William, wrote a letter to the PBS show Frontline criticizing their one-sided presentation of repressed memories during the broadcast of Divided Memories which seemed to favor false memory advocates.
Essentially, most scientists subscribe to an information processing model of memory, meaning they think of the human brain as a computer of sorts. Some scientists believe that when you recall a memory, everything about it has to be reconstructed in your brain. In other words, you may be able to recall what you were doing last Christmas, but as you are asked to recall more specific things (such as what color were the pants some of the guests were wearing), you are likely to forget or remember incorrectly. Are the researchers more concerned with the central features of a memory, or the peripheral details?
However, researchers such as Brown remind us that most of the research on memory suggestibility comes not from abuse survivors with recovered memories, but from studies on memory suggestibility with college students. This is why the methodology and context of the study is crucial to understanding its conclusions. At this current date, it appears impossible to distinguish a true memory from a false one without external, corroborating evidence. An elderly person probably had a friend say they "heard" somewhere you had to simply stop making mortgage payments, then you "qualify" for a short sale! This is FALSE information. It sure sounds like this lady got taken advantage of and then compounded the damage by getting bad advice. This is so typical of individuals giving advice when they're cluesless with the advice their giving out and have no idea what troubles they're creating. It works basically the same as a computer's RAM (Random Access Memory) in that it provides a working space for short computations and then transfers it to other parts of the memory system or discards it. After about five or six tones, subjects began to get confused, and their capacity for making further tone judgments broke down. For example, we can remember way more human faces as there are a number of aspects, such as hair color, hair style, shape of face, facial hair, etc. In this process of organization, the meaningfulness or emotional content of an item may play a greater role in its retention into LTM.
Chunking allows the brain to automatically group certain items together, hence the ability to remember and learn better.
It contrasts with short-term and perceptual memory in that information can be stored for extended periods of time and the limits of its capacity are not known. Learning components such as rehearsal and elaboration are associated with IP; however, most emphasis is placed on understanding how information is processed rather than how learning happens. The corresponding components of the computer are input devices or registers, the CPU, and hard drive storage, respectively. In the cup example, light reflecting off the cup hits my eye; the image is transferred through my optic nerve to the sensory register.
At this point, it is difficult to talk about the cup in STM memory without referring to long-term memory (LTM). For most cognitive psychologists, the world of LTM can be categorized as one of three types of memory: declarative, procedural or episodic.
He has extended the hypothesis, suggesting that dual codes may exist for the other senses as well. Many researchers, especially in the field of second language (L2) acquisition, recognizing this fact, turned their attention to learners, attempting to answer the question, "Why is it that some learners succeed in learning regardless of the methods used to teach them?" Joan Rubin (1975) and H.H. Kelsey does her best at taking notes but when it comes time to study, her notes from the lecture are so poorly written that she becomes confused and frustrated and thus gives up on studying her notes.
The FOIL method, when used as a mnemonic, will take the student through the appropriate steps to solve the problem. The concept of "bird" can also include our episodic experiences with birds--the parakeet I had when I was a child, the sparrow I found dead by the fence one morning, etc.
Capacity and duration are considered unlimited in LTM, and the cause of forgetting is failure to retrieve.


When I think about teaching learners, I need to know what they already know so that they can relate the new information to their existing knowledge.
An input or stimulus event occurs, and the event is filtered into short term memory, and possibly, long term memory. Each time you recall it, you accurately recall the gist of the memory, but certain minor (or peripheral) details will be left out. He cautions that there have been no direct empirical studies on suggestibility in psychotherapy, which is often one of the avenues defenders of false memory syndrome take when trying to discredit the idea that recovered memories in therapy are genuine.
Brown6,7 believe that they can only be created under very specific conditions with a highly suggestible patient or a patient who receives a lot of interpersonal pressure. If you're an abuse survivor who thinks that they are currently recalling repressed memories of abuse after burying or forgetting about them for so long, then you should consult a mental health professional like a psychologist or psychiatrist. It is thought to be about seven bits in length, that is, we normally remember seven items. As instructional designers, we must find ways to make learning relevant and meaningful enough for the learner to make the important transfer of information to long-term memory. Related schemas are linked together, and information that activates one schema also activates others that are closely linked. This metaphor is superficially valid, but as it is taken to its limits, the mechanical comparison breaks down. For example, learners attempting to master a complex topic might choose to use a strategy such as drawing pictures to help them understand the complex inter-relationships of the various components of the topic. Stern (1975) formulated lists of the characteristics and strategies that "good" language learners use in their study; Rubin and Thompson (1982) offered guidance to foreign language students on how to make themselves better learners. Since 50% of the test comes from the lecture material in class, Her test grades are declining dramatically. The student has used a cognitive strategy to recall the mnemonic that is most useful in this situation.
It can also include the hundreds of images that we have seen of birds, as well as all instances of real birds we have seen. A good mental health professional should help you explore the memory in a safe setting and help you live out the rest of your life in a responsible and fulfilling way. However, knowing that this model is a cognitive processing model and knowing that the model is based on an explicit metaphor with a computer is helpful in understanding IP theory. In the narrative that follows, I will refer back to this cup as it is being cognitively processed. From the sensory register, the image is moved into Short-term Memory (STM) as information about the cup is drawn from Long-term Memory (LTM). In fact, my cup is on my desk most of the day, and I see it without really "seeing" it many times during the day.
Strategic readers might stop and mentally summarize what they have just read in order to ensure comprehension. Extensive study of this notion of learning strategies in the 1980s led Michael O'Malley and his associates (1985) to formulate a list of 24 strategies used by English as a Second Language (ESL) students in their study.
Kelsey, adamant about making high grades, seeks counsel from the teacher on how she can improve her note taking skills. All of this collectively is what we know of as "bird." It is the concept of bird, the tightly woven collection of knowledge that we have for birds. Charles Whitfield believe it is far easier to implant false ordinary memories than to implant false traumatic memories. Social Security numbers work on the same principle — xxx-xx-xxxx (3 groups of numbers). These schemas guide us by diverting our attention to relevant information and allow us to disregard what is not important. The process of elaboration occurs when information is retrieved from the LTM in order to link to the new information. Each memory stage has four attributes: representation, capacity, duration, and cause of forgetting. Stoll takes his class outside to an open field behind the school and gives them a task of moving a 400 lb.
For the visual sensory register, for example, representation is iconic-- limited to the field of vision, and lasts for about 250 milliseconds. This is memory for specific events in one's life: a memory of your first kiss or of your graduation. This does not necessarily mean that the learner must be physically active; rather, it implies that they should be actively relating this new piece of information to other ideas that they already know. One section of the page should be labeled MAIN IDEAS, one section of the page should be labeled DETAILS, and one section should be labeled SUMMARY. Representation in the auditory register is echoic (based on sound); its duration is 2-3 seconds, it is only limited to the sounds we actually can hear and decay is the primary cause for forgetting.
The teacher explains to Kelsey that she should write words such as terms and major topics under the MAIN IDEAS section, and then under the DETAILS section she should put the definitions of the terms or the supporting information about the major topics.
In order to remember something, ideas are linked, one to another until the sought-after information is found. The statement that the coffee is 3 hours old required me to look at the current time, and retrieve from LTM that subtracting the current time from pouring time tells me how old the coffee is. The teacher stresses that the linked information in the MAIN IDEAS section and the DETAILS section should be lined up. Failure to remember information does not mean that it has been forgotten; it is merely the procedure for retrieval has been forgotten.
Performing the subtraction used no STM processing space, because experience in doing arithmetic allows me to do this automatically. Rehearsal primarily serves a maintenance function; it can be used to keep information in STM. The teacher then explains to Kelsey that when she goes to study she should fold the paper so that the MAIN IDEAS section is only visible on one side and the DETAILS section visible on the other. In the phone number example, if someone interrupts you to ask you a question while you are rehearsing the number, responding interferes with rehearsal, and the phone number is lost.
The teacher then explains how she can quiz herself on the notes taking by reading the information in the MAIN IDEAS section and give the definition or supporting information in the DETAILS section. Last the teacher explains that once she feels comfortable about the information in the notes she should write a summary of the information in the SUMMARY section. During the next several lectures Kelsey applies the Cornell Note Taking method during the lectures. When Kelsey received her grade from the test she had applied her new note taking skills on, she was very pleased.



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