Safety precautions for severe thunderstorms,natural disaster preparedness list,earthquake preparation kit,emergency preparedness week ideas - Review

This timeline was created for the Museum of The San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications. Special thanks to Tiffany Do for her research and interest in creating the timeline, and Hillary Jenks and Alexis Moreno for their help in writing the entries. 50,000 a€“ 15,000 BC People of northeast Asia follow herds of caribou, bison & mammoth and migrate across the present day Bering Strait.
1542 Juan Cabrillo claims Southern California territory for the Spanish kingdom, beginning over three and half centuries of occupation.
1822A  Spanish rule in California becomes Mexican rule with the rise of the Republic of Mexico and the country's successful War for Independence from Spain.
1833 The Mexican government secularizes the missions, making them public property and allows for land to be distributed to Indian neophytes and Mexican soldiers as payment for service in the military.
1843 Manuel Micheltorena, governor of southern California, decrees the restoration of southern missions to church control.
1846 Governor Pio Pico sells most of the San Fernando Valley land to Eulogio de Celis before the Mexican War. 1846 - 1848 The Mexican American War results in California becoming part of the United States, along with more than half of former Mexican land. 1847 Agreement of peace (Cahuenga Capitulation) between Fremont and Pico gives Americans control of California in the war.
1849 The gold rush in Northern California draws people, and the Valley is cow country full of ranchos that feed them.
1850 California joins the United States; Los Angeles County (which includes the San Fernando Valley) initially comprises 4,340 square miles and the first United States Census measures its population at 3,530. 1851 Alexander Bell and David Alexander become the first American landowners in the Valley after Vicente de Osa sells Rancho Providencia. 1854 Rancho Ex-Mission de San Fernando falls into hands of Andres Pico who becomes known for his hospitality and entertainment. 1855 A new road allows lines of stages, trains of wagons and pack mules to travel to Kern River gold fields.
1860 Geronimo Lopez’s adobe home becomes known as the Lopez Station for housing the stagehouse for the Valley. 1880 San Fernando Farm Homestead Association officially distributes property to stockholders. 1887 A real estate boom partitions up the Valley, beginning with the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company, which buys land from the Los Angeles Farm and Milling Company.
1897 Squatters of the Land Settlers league attempt to squat in the San Fernando Valley under the belief that it is public land for settlement. 1907 Los Angeles approves a 23 million dollar bond issue for aqueduct construction from Owens Valley. In 1915, the city of Los Angeles annexes the San Fernando ValleyA  - a crucial development as this enables the Valley to gain access to the water coming from Owens Valley from the Los Angeles Aqueduct (completed two years earlier under the direction of William Mulholland). 1916 Due to the influx of water provided by the LA Aqueduct, Valley residents begin growing oranges.
1918 The Valley reports record crops including 55,000,000 pounds of beans, and a variety of fruits and vegetables including apricots, citrus, peaches, potatoes, and sugar beets. 1926 The town of Sherman Oaks and the street Sherman Way bear legacy to pioneer of the San Fernando Valley General Moses Hazeltine Sherman.
1931 Residents protest changing the name of Cahuenga to Highland because of the uniqueness of the name Cahuenga. 1941- May 29 Disney Studio animators strike Disney due to Walt Disney's inconsistent monetary rewards for better workers. 1941 When the United States joins World War II, the Valley changes from a place of agriculture to manufacturing as part of the war effort and defense institutions like Lockheed.
1941 Old Trapper’s Lodge Motel with giant trapper sculptures is built as an attraction. 1945 Despite the wartime ban against strikes, set designers from the Conference of Studio Unions strike against Warner Brothers film studio for 30 weeks.
1956 The San Fernando Valley Campus of the Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences (CSUN) opens. 1959 Valley leaders and parents protest the increase in mailed pornography in the community. 1966 A coalition of property owning and tax paying associations come together to create a mass group to protest hikes on property taxes. Between 1967 and 1971 there are six massive demonstrations at San Fernando Valley State College (now known as California State University Northridge) against the lack of representation or curricula related to ethnic studies and the war in Vietnam. 1971 The Sylmar Tunnel Disaster strikes when Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Company tunnels to bring water from the Feather River to the Los Angeles basin. 1979A  Valley residents march against Rocketdyne’s Canoga Park facility on the anniversary of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings to protest the dangerous activities of operations involving nuclear energy. 1991 Motorist Rodney King is pulled over on Foothill Boulevard in Lake View Terrace where 15 LAPD officers in patrol cars converged on him. 1992 The Rodney King trial takes place in Simi Valley with a jury of ten whites, one Latino, and one Asian.
1994 a€“ 57 people lose their lives in the wake of the 6.7 magnitude Northridge Earthquake. 1996 Unrest occurs at California State University Northridge when Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke speaks on campus. See How to be patient for some more general ideas on letting a little more patience into your life.
If you do not allow children to do things their way, this takes away their autonomy and potentially stunts their ability to discover things for themselves. If you feel that a situation is getting out of hand with a child, take a step back and create space between you and the child. A child who is given time with an adult soaks up the message that the busyness of adult life can wait, that childhood is a good time, and that there is no need to grow up too quickly. Another kind of patience that can be hard to find is when dealing with an infinitely stubborn child. If impatience is running your life and threatening your relationships, consider seeking professional help to gain some insight as to why. Article provided by wikiHow, a wiki building the world’s largest, highest quality how-to manual.
We recommend that your child eat 3 meals per day plus snacks in between, from a variety of foods.
Offer your child plenty of variety, and don’t worry if they refuse some things – they’ll make up for it by eating other foods. Present your child’s food in different ways, like offering meat as hamburgers or meatballs. To help prevent choking offer food that matches children’s chewing and grinding ability, and avoid small, round, hard foods like nuts and grapes. Young children need some fat in their diets for energy and growth, but it’s important not to have high-fat and high-sugar foods (eg, chips, lollies and ice cream) every day. Try to offer snacks and treats well before mealtimes so your child has time to get hungry again. Helping children to learn to behave the way you want them to is one of the most important jobs of being a parent.
Know the times when your child is likely to have a tantrum, such as when they are tired, hungry or frustrated – have food and drink on hand or give them something else to do to calm them down. Your health care provider will be able to support you with strategies to manage your child’s tantrums.
Look after your child’s first teeth by brushing them twice a day – after breakfast and before bed. Regular check-ups of your child’s teeth increase the chances of finding and treating any tooth decay (holes) early. If your child accidentally bumps their teeth, take them to a dentist, even if the teeth still look all right. Teaching a child to read is a fulfilling and educational process, both for the parent and child. As your child ages to elementary school level, try reading them books that might be above their reading level but that have an interesting or engaging story to get them interested. Look for books that combine other senses along with the reading, to help your small child to interact as you tell them the story. Help to teach your child critical thinking skills by asking open-ended questions about stories. Because your child may be touching and reading the books often, be sure to choose ones that have wipeable pages and that aren’t incredibly sentimental. A fancy bookshelf may seem like the most attractive option, but until your child is in school focus on the utilitarian purposes of book storage.
It is easier for children to develop phonemic awareness when words are broken down into their smallest parts.
Don’t move onto explicit phonics until your child has developed adequate phonemic awareness.
Don’t use whole stories or books yet; have your child read from word lists or from a basic story (not focusing on the plot). Make a questions list that your child can read; their ability to read and understand the provided questions is nearly as helpful as answering the questions themselves.
You’ll notice an enhanced reading ability as your child learns to spell by decoding and sounding out words. Reading out loud doesn’t have to be limited to stories; whenever you are around words, have your child sound them out to you. If your child has no patience to learn to read and would rather watch TV, try turning on the closed-captions and encouraging them to follow along. Whether you’re in the backyard, at the beach or at a community swimming pool, keep your toddler safe by following these simple tips. Whenever infants or toddlers are in or around water, an adult should be within arm’s reach to provide active supervision. Every child is different, so enroll your child in swimming lessons when you feel he or she is ready. Remember that things such as water wings, noodles and other swimming aids are fun toys for kids, but they should never be used in place of a U.S.
Install a door alarm, a window alarm or both to alert you if a child wanders into the pool area unsupervised.
Most women sail through pregnancy and the postpartum period but it is good to be prepared for any untoward incidents. Have had fluid gushing or leaking from your vagina (the amniotic sac has ruptured) AND you know or think the umbilical cord is bulging into your vagina (cord prolapse). A common method of checking your baby’s movement is to count the number of kicks or moves you feel in an hour.
Uterine tenderness, unexplained fever, or general weakness (possible symptoms of infection).
Between 20 and 37 weeks, more than four to six contractions in one hour could indicate preterm labor. After 37 weeks, contractions every five minutes for one to two hours could indicate labour. Between 20 and 37 weeks, preterm labour could be indicated by low back pain or pelvic pressure that does not go away, or intestinal cramping with or without diarrhea. Get emergency help if you think you are in danger for example if you have a seizure or pass out.
Your breasts are painful or red and you have a fever, which are symptoms of breast engorgement and mastitis.
Your vaginal bleeding seems to be getting heavier or is still bright red four days after delivery, or you pass blood clots larger than the size of a golf ball. You have a severe headache, visual problems, or sudden swelling of your face, hands, or feet. You buy those little mittens to protect your infants precious little face, but eventually those mittens have to come off and here is how you can trim those thin, sharp finger nails. Studies have warned that prolonged exposure to screens and devices — televisions, computers, tablets, phones, and the like — may cause attention, socialisation, emotional and physiological problems in children. That being said, when regulated well, there are devices and programmes that can engage a child in a more compelling manner and aid in their development. Yes, the first step to getting children interested in life is for parents to be engaged themselves.
One of the most effective means of getting a child to participate is to engage them with activities that stimulate the senses. For the more adventurous, attempt to create funkier supplies that would befuddle the minds of your young ones. The creation of sounds and music is another sensory activity that warrants its own introduction. Getting a pet might seem like even more work for the already overwhelmed working parent, and it is. Furthermore, consider adopting a pet from a rescue shelter — teach your child the importance of responsible and the sanctity of life before involving them in the decision-making process.
Allowing your children to make their own decisions about what they want to learn or play with is another way to make them interested in what they are doing. This way, the young ones are not only engaged in all their senses, they are also getting some exercise, and reconnecting with nature as well. Otherwise, write a short story: it will get the young ones’ imagination racing and enable their wildest dreams to come to life.
Make each engagement session a special event where you as parents, get to bond with children.
Grateful young children compared to their less grateful counterparts are happier and more optimistic, have better social support,  are more satisfied with their school, family, community, friends, and themselves, and give more emotional support to others. Using an authoritative or democratic parenting style, which is firm, yet flexible, sup- ports children’s autonomy. After you’ve identified your children’s top strengths and you know their unique strengths profile, you should encourage and help them to use those strengths whenever possible.
It’s very easy for people, especially youth, to pursue extrinsic—or materialistic—goals such as desiring or having possessions that show wealth, status, or convey a certain image. Trying to make grateful kids isn’t just an issue for families; it’s an issue for society as well. Yes, babies who are born prematurely (before the due date) may need special care during their first 2 years, especially if they were very small at birth (less than 3 pounds). Most doctors advise giving a premature baby solid food at 4 to 6 months after the baby’s original due date (not the birth date).
Although premature babies sleep more hours each day than full-term babies, they sleep for shorter periods of time. All babies, including premature babies, should be put to bed on their backs, not on their stomachs.
Immunizations (also called vaccines or shots) are given to premature babies at the same ages they are given to full-term babies.
When traveling with your baby in a car, use an infant car seat (or another kind of infant carrier, as your doctor recommends).
Imagine that your child has had three days of a cough, fever, runny nose and feeling just plain sick.
Because of the overuse of antibiotics over the years, bacteria are increasingly becoming drug-resistant and much more difficult to manage. The Centers for Disease Control estimate that up to half of antibiotic prescriptions written in doctor’s offices are unnecessary. In-room misters and over-the-counter remedies against pain, fever, cough and congestion can help relieve symptoms and allow your child to get a good night’s sleep. Never save up pills after your child is feeling better so that they can be used for another child or a future illness.
An important preventive measure you can take against bacterial infections is immunizing against streptococcus pneumoniae.
Immunization against strep pneumoniae is recommended for all children, aged two months to 23 months. The smell of cookies baking in the oven or tasty sauces simmering on the stovetop is hard to resist for adults and kids alike.
Kids love to reach, so to prevent hot food or liquid spills, simply use the back burner of your stove and turn pot handles away from the edge.
Make a habit of placing matches, gasoline and lighters in a safe place, out of children’s reach. What do we do so our children understand the importance of a healthy body, learn to manage their emotions, and nurture love for their friends and family?
Regular bedtime, regular mealtime, regular washing time, a set time for silence, a set time for creativity, a set time for play.
The routine around ‘spaces’ – dining at the dining table, playing in the playing room, doing the home-work after school, etc.
Allow your child to cook, wash dishes, take care of plants, and take care of animals: these activities are extremely interesting for a child because they can act as grown-ups.
We have all heard scary stories about the ingredients in cosmetics and skin care products so how do you choose a baby skin care product that is safe for your baby? There are no dangling curtain cords within your child’s reach if the crib is near the window.
Avoid using baby gates with a V-shaped, accordion-style opening, which can entrap a child’s head.
Choose pacifiers that are strong and won’t tear into pieces which can cause choking or suffocation.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pacifiers not be introduced until two to four weeks postpartum for full-term, breastfeeding babies, as early use of pacifiers may interfere with breastfeeding.
Accident and Emergency departments treat many children who are injured in accidents involving high chairs.
Your infant’s mouth is extremely flexible and can stretch to hold larger items than you imagine. The right amount of weight to gain during pregnancy depends on how much you weighed before getting pregnant. There is no doubt that bad weather and longer nights in winter pose a danger – with about 50% of all reported road traffic collisions at night occurring in wet conditions.
Between 3-6 pm is also a dangerous time - when people are travelling home after a busy day at work and children are making their way home from school. Now is therefore a good time to focus on staying safe on the road this winter – whether you are driving on work business or in your own time. Driving in winter weather – falling leaves, snow, ice, wet and cold - creates a great challenge for vehicles and drivers. It is particularly important to check your tyres are in good order, and have plenty of tread depth. During bad weather let people know where you are going, your route of travel, and when you expect to arrive.
Drive slowly with low beam headlights on if visibility is poor, test your brakes frequently, leave a bigger gap and never tailgate. Remember to make sure you and your vehicle are in top condition; plan your journeys and adapt your travel to allow for the road and weather conditions. They move south along ice-fee corridors into the North American continent to what is now California. With him are two Franciscan padres, Junipero Serra and Juan Crespi, who record the expedition and found the first mission.
Of the missions’ eight million acres originally designated as the property of converted Native Americans, 500 land grants are created for influential families. Though the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo formally ends the war, it becomes an issue of contention when existing Californio rights are not honored as promised, and the Treaty is breached. The treaty takes place at the house of Don Feliz (Campo de Cahuenga) near the Cahuenga Pass. His adobe house eventually becomes state historical monument: Los Encinos State Historical Park.
This pamphlet extolls the benefits of living in Southern California in order to be healed of many diseases like tuberculosis.
Los Angeles Farm and Milling Company, the successor to the Homestead Association, promotes wheat and flour-milling industry. Going back to Native American terms, the word Cahuenga reflects the Native American origins of the San Fernando Valley. Phyllis O’Kray from the crash of a jet plane, Valley residents picket Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Van Nuys to abolish the use of the San Fernando Valley for jet flying. This will be the third institution of higher education founded in the Valley; in 1947 Pierce College is founded and in 1949 Valley College opens. Murrow televises the Sodium Reactor Experiment from the Santa Susana Research Facility on his program as it powered Moorpark. Although safety inspector Wally Zavattero discovers hazardous conditions and orders precautions taken, they are ignored, leading to an explosion that killed 17 people. Protesting for equality, the senior citizens gather at the Van Nuys-Sherman Oaks Recreation Center to band together. A local resident videotapes the beating, which becomes a national discussion on police brutality. With twenty billion dollars in damage, it is one of the costliest natural disasters in United States history.
If the 300 square mile area that is the Valley were a single city, it would be the 5th largest in the nation. They eat and contaminate food, damage structures and property, and transmit parasites and diseases to other animals and humans. Patience gives us time to reflect, to slow down and think about the world and the things we’re doing. When the daily chores mount up and everyone is rushing about, sometimes it’s easy to take one another for granted.
Allow a child to try new things often, so as to give them a sense of self-trust and personal responsibility.
Children are ready to trust and soak up information from the people who care for them and spend time with them. Instead of seeking to control, patience allows the child to grow at their own pace, rather than being pushed into doing things before being ready. This breathing space is important for both of you, after which you can express your thoughts and establish boundaries when you are collected, rather than channeling your concerns through frustration. It can be very hard to be patient sometimes in a world where teaching Mozart in the womb and expectations of exemplary behavior from preschool are considered the norm. Sometimes our greatest impatience arises when we allow our own endeavors such as work, personal pursuits, hobbies, sports, etc., to get in the way of spending time with children. The point of life is being with one another, a gift that can only be imparted to a child in the doing. In this case, part of the trick is to have a good sense of humor, not at the child but about the situation. People who have adopted or fostered children who have experienced hardship or horrors, such as living through a war, a famine, or violence of any kind, often attest to the need for waiting patiently while the child learns to trust again, to unfurl from the cocoon of safety in which the child has wrapped themselves up as they realize that people do care again and that they are respected. At the core of severe impatience could be psychological issues that can be successfully worked through with the right kind of help and support.
Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Be Patient With Kids. If your child is rejecting certain foods and drinks, there’s a range of things you can do to encourage their eating.
Always make sure your child sits down while they’re eating and drinking and that an adult is with them. If your child drinks more than 2 cups of milk (500 ml) a day, they may not eat well because they’re already full.


If you want them to behave in a kind and calm way, they need to see you often being kind and calm. Make sure that everyone who looks after your child agrees on TV time, eating, playing, bedtime and general expectations. They’ll feel a lot safer when they know what the limits are, even though they will test them sometimes. Here are some tips to stop tantrums before they start, and to help your child when they do have a tantrum. You may find it easier to stand behind your child and gently tilt their head back as you brush. Don’t rinse with water, because a small amount of fluoride toothpaste left around the teeth will help to protect them.
To protect your child’s teeth, give them low-sugar snacks between meals such as fruit, fresh vegetables, yoghurt and other dairy foods. Do not give your child drinks that have natural or added sugar, such as fruit juice, cordial, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks and chocolate drinks. Whether you home school your kids or just want to give your child a head-start, you can begin teaching your child to read at home. As with all things, it’s difficult to get good at something without having a bit of exposure to it. It’s no good if you have books around, but located in places that your child can’t easily take them. This can be done in two ways: create your own mini-library at home by collecting dozens of books in your child’s reading level, or make weekly trips to the local public library together to check out books.
Before you even start getting into the alphabet and sound specifics, help your child recognize that the lines on the page are directly correlated to the words you are speaking. In the recent past, some companies have advertised specialized flashcards to help babies, toddlers, and preschool age children to read.
When your child has developed word awareness, begin breaking down words into individual letters. One of the most important steps in teaching reading is associating a spoken sound with a letter or letter-pair. Avoid confusion and build a solid foundation by working at a steady pace through all of the speech sounds. This can be done with the clapping game (clapping out each syllable in a word) or by sounding-out words into their individual letters. Rhyming teaches phonemic awareness and letter recognition, in addition to the most basic English words. Traditionally, children are taught to recognize a word based on its size, the first and last letters, and the general sound.
If they cannot associate sounds with letters or letter pairs quickly, they need a bit more practice before moving onto complete words. Classically known as ‘sounding out’ words, decoding is when a child reads a word by making the sounds of each individual letter, rather than trying to read the whole word at once. Regional accents and weak auditory skills make it hard for children to say most sounds in an academically correct way. Preschoolers, kindergartners, and first graders are very concrete in the way they think and cannot handle complicated concepts. Certain words in the English vocabulary are spoken often, but don’t follow the typical phonics rules. Odds are, your child will be in school by the time they are able to read and will be given their own reading material by their teachers. Similar to when you were reading stories to your child, every time your child reads ask them questions about what they’ve just read. Reading is a necessary precursor to writing, but as your child develops reading skills have them practice their writing in conjunction. You’ll be given a better idea of your child’s reading ability when they read out loud, and they’ll be forced to slow down their reading to correctly sound out words. Road signs are a great example of something your child sees on a daily basis, and can practice reading out loud to you.
They can recognize some shapes and correlate them to pictures, but it is not really reading. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Teach Your Child to Read.
Families who have meals at the table with no distractions (such as mobile devices or television) are found to be more likely to be a healthy weight. We know it’s hard to get everything done without a little multitasking, but this is the time to avoid distractions of any kind. It will give you tremendous peace of mind – and the more peace of mind you have as a parent, the better. Make sure backyard pools have four-sided fencing that’s at least 4 feet high and a self-closing, self-latching gate to prevent a child from wandering into the pool area unsupervised. This is quite rare, but if it happens, immediately get down on your knees and drop your head and upper body lower than your buttocks to decrease pressure on the cord until help arrives. You are passing blood clots and soaking through a new sanitary pad every hour for two or more hours. They do not grow as fast, but you don’t want your baby scratching up his or her little legs. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Trim an Infant’s Fingernails. However, in this day and age, many parents forgo quality bonding time with their children simply because it is easier to thrust a smart device under their child’s nose and allow them to entertain themselves.
Still, engaging a child through real-life activities and parental interaction are crucial and instrumental to their well-being and holistic growth.
Put down your phones, stow away your tablets, set aside your e-mails and place all of your attention on your little ones. This way, they are more aware with their surroundings and are more likely to explore the world around them. Try combining corn starch with water to form a more viscous, semi-liquid, semi-solid resource that children can marvel over and experiment with.
The hands-on experience coupled with the aromas — fragrant or otherwise — will be more than a stimulating experience. Create a challenge of recording as many different sounds as possible within a period of time. However, rearing pets is also a great way of teaching a child the virtues of responsibility and commitment from young. Sate their innate curiosity and have them learn as they explore their natural surroundings. Even if they are too young to actually write, give them a hand by noting down what they dictate — it is a great way to get children to organise their thoughts and to expand their vocabulary. Value each opportunity given to educate your children when they are still at an impressionable and receptive age.
Engaging your children helps them to stay connected with the real world and to be more emotionally and mentally stable, as compared to oblivious and spoilt children glued to their monitors and devices. This will enhance family relationships, improve the atmosphere at home, and help bring out their strengths and talents, all good for making grateful kids.
Not only does this open up opportunities for others to contribute to the things your children love, but it also enables your children to strengthen their ability to be helpful and cooperative toward others, which will make them more grateful. This usually leads to less fulfilling social relationships and forecloses prospects for developing deep connections with others and genuine gratitude. When children lend a hand, especially while using their strengths, they feel more connected to those they’re helping, which helps them to develop and nurture friendships and social relationships. As adults, it’s our job to help kids discover their passions and to find a path to purpose that resonates with them— with their values, interests, and dreams. Don’t worry - most parents make common mistakes like putting on a diaper lopsided or backward, getting a spray of urine from their baby boy, etc. Here’s some advice on how to care for your baby when he or she comes home from the hospital. Your doctor will check your baby’s weight gain and find out how your baby is doing at home.
Don’t wait longer than 4 hours between feedings or your baby may get dehydrated (dehydrated means lacking fluids).
Premature babies are not as developed at birth as full-term babies are, so it may take them longer to develop their swallowing ability. If you notice that your baby doesn’t seem to hear you, tell your doctor so your baby can be checked for hearing problems. When you’re driving in the car with your baby, keep an eye on your baby by looking at him or her in your rear-view mirror. You bring her into the doctor’s office in the hopes of receiving something to make her well. Even those accompanied by fever and a yellow or green discharge are usually caused by viruses. By listening to the lungs, the doctor can determine if pneumonia, which is a lung infection often caused by bacteria, is present.
Now we realize that about 80 percent will get better without treatment in seven to 14 days. Unless your doctor advises otherwise, use all the pills according to the schedule provided.
Taking only a partial course can lead to the growth of resistant, and much more dangerous, strains of bacteria.
People over 65 years or who have a chronic illness should also be immunized with pneumococcal vaccine. Here are a few simple steps to keep your little chef safe from potential burns, whether in the kitchen, around a fireplace or in any other part of your home. What do we do to help them grow into inspired adults that will make a positive impact on our society, love our mother Earth, and discover the purpose of life and ways to be happy? We all need routine in our food consumption, in our sleep patterns, in our cleanliness and our exercise regime.
Exploring, experiencing and imitating the world of grown-us through free play, children are given a chance to subconsciously learn and emotionally mature through their own games. Children need to feel love at all times: love gives them confidence that they are heard, that they are present, and that they matter. Objects of play should be as simple as possible, to allow the power of imagination to flourish. Try not to interfere, let them be children, let them discover, explore, and invent their objects of play. Children also learn beautifully when with other children, they learn not to scream, shout or hit, because other children at all times challenge their emotional make-up. Cultivate loving relationships within your family, with your neighbors, friends, with the Earth and its inhabitants. Balancing the four elements that Jung describes as four basic components of a personality, you help your child become a holistic person. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Practise Conscious Parenting. You daydream of creating the perfect nursery; papering or painting in pinks or blues but remember the nursery is your baby’s home. Make sure pacifier guards or shields have holes that allow breathing and they must be large enough to prevent them from entering your baby’s throat. A majority of these injuries are caused by falls because adults are not watching or baby is not strapped into the chair. During the summer up to a quarter of all collisions happen during these hours, but when the clocks go back, heavy traffic and rapidly deteriorating light increases this statistic to a third. Keeping yourself and your vehicle in good technical repair reduces your overall chances of any mishap or disaster while driving in winter weather.
Recent research has shown that effective well maintained tyres can have a major effect on stopping distances on wet and slippery roads. Include things that cater for the unexpected - what would you need if you found yourself stranded miles from help during a snow storm? Keep yourself safe, and follow the detailed procedures in your driver’s handbook if you are in a work vehicle. The Sacred Expedition is a religious & military project of missionization and colonization on behalf of Spain. Using Native American workers to not only construct the mission but also work it, the mission quickly becomes one of the most prosperous in California, producing abundant harvests and goods. Unknown to his readers, Nordhoff is paid by the Southern Pacific Railroad to praise the curative nature of the region’s climate. The dam is approximately 200 feet high in San Francisquito Canyon, about 5 miles northeast of what is now Magic Mountain. Photographs at right by Dorothea Lange of the San Fernando Valley in 1936, care of the Library of Congress. Producers pelt metal nuts and bolts from the roof and police hose workers and throw tear gas. In July the Sodium Reactor Experiment suffers a partial meltdown; its estimated release is 240 times that of 3 Mile Island. Until now, there has been no one museum or institution to document, preserve, and celebrate the full scope of the collective history, culture, and arts of such an important place until the 2005 incorporation of The Museum of the San Fernando Valley. Asian countries,[18] United States (including Hawaii), Canada ,[19] and Scotland)[20] due to bacterial resistance. Rats live and thrive in a wide variety of climates and conditions and are often found in and around homes and other buildings, on farms, and in gardens and open fields.A IDENTIFICATIONPeople dona€™t often see rats, but signs of their presence are easy to detect. Even a very young child can indicate their likes and dislikes; allowing these to express themselves at appropriate occasions is important. Taking time now and then to express your gratitude for your children will help you to respect them for the unique, individual beings they are, and helps them to see the importance of valuing others openly.
While their attempts might sometimes cause you frustration and worry, it is important to allow children to show you their way of doing things. Trying to control children lacks respect for their own self and is a way of trying to insert your way of thinking and preferences onto them.
No matter what the competitive approach insists upon, patience gives you a means for remaining calm within yourself, to give you the perspective to recognize the readiness of a child at their own developmental pace, independent of external standards. Whether we’re parenting, caring, teaching, working or volunteering with children, nobody is immune from impatience at times. Find amusing, fun, and happy things to entice the child out of their stubbornness and to becoming involved with whatever it is that you’re doing.
This kind of patience takes a special kind of reserve but it is absolutely vital if the child is to learn to trust again. Healthy baby teeth usually mean healthy adult teeth too, so it’s important that you look after your child’s first teeth.
Use a small toothbrush with soft bristles and a smear of regular-strength fluoride toothpaste.
In order to get your child interested in reading, you should be reading to them on a regular basis. Keep books low to the ground and in typical play-areas so that your child begins to associate them with play activities. Spend a minimum of ten minutes a day reading when your child is around, so that they see you enjoying the activity on your own. Accompany this by pointing to words on the page to help them connect the lines on the page with the sounds that form words. Having a variety of books on hand (especially with an older child) will add interest for reading, and help to incorporate more vocabulary into their knowledge base. However, these don’t teach reading skills, but rather teach the children to associate a particular line drawing (word) with a correlated image. Although the alphabet song is the most classic means of teaching the alphabet, try getting creative.
Read nursery rhymes to your child, and then eventually make lists of easy-to-read rhymes such as mop, top, flop, pop, and cop. This method of teaching is known as implicit phonics - working from the largest piece down.
By age four, most English speaking children already have an excellent grasp of grammar and in due time, they will learn all the formal grammatical rules.
Help them to read these whole stories by encouraging explicit phonics use, and recognizing vocabulary. At first it will be difficult for them to think critically about meanings of words and the buildup of character development and plot (or the semblance of those things in the most basic of stories), but over time they will develop the necessary skills to answer questions. They’ll develop a stronger phonemic awareness when they can see words as you read them, rather than struggling to do both at the same time themselves. Avoid stopping your child to correct them while reading though, as doing so can interrupt their train of thought and make comprehending what they’re reading more difficult. Include your kids in simple chores like walking the dog or washing the car or organize a family bike ride.
Try creating sandbags, water bags and flour bags, amongst other things, for your child to play with. Parents racing around with their children in order to make and experiment with different sounds and music can be one of the most entertaining things to do.
It need not be a high maintenance pet; a small rabbit or hamster can help with the lesson too. Give them the opportunity to decide gives them ownership of the activity, which naturally translates into more engagement and interest.
Or perhaps write to a relative to express their feelings and share their week, which helps with emotional maturity and expression in the long run.
Give the sessions a special name and treat them as a reward (“We’ll have a MamaBaby time after you finish your vegetables!).
Expressing gratitude through words, writing, and small gifts or acts of reciprocity are all ways to teach children how to become grateful. Giving a child a lot of quality time with you teaches them the language of love—life’s greatest gift. By taking ownership over their skills and talents and being responsible for developing them, children gain things to appreciate in life and make it easier to attract support from others, thus inviting gratitude into their daily life.
To directly promote gratitude, encourage and help your children to use their strengths to thank and be kind to others.
It’s our job to steer them away from pursuing extrinsic goals and toward pursuing intrinsic goals, such as engaging in activities that provide community, affiliation, and growth. A great way to do this is by teaching them through your actions that other people matter and that tending to relationships should be a priority. This starts with feeding their interests in the social issues they care about and pushing them to learn as much as they can about those issues and discover ways they can make a difference.
As our world becomes more culturally diverse and digitally connected, and as complex societal problems mount, gratitude may help catalyze the motivation and skills youth need to succeed not just academically but in the “life test” too.
ROP usually only occurs in babies who are born very early, at 32 weeks of pregnancy or earlier. You can check your baby’s hearing by making noises behind or to the side of the baby. You can use rolled-up towels or receiving blankets to give your baby support in the car seat.
Not long ago, many doctors would have handed over a prescription for a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Such practices are now known to be a real danger not only to the individual who was unnecessarily given antibiotics, but to the entire community. The flu and most colds, as well as most coughs and sore throats, are due to viruses, which antibiotics are completely ineffective in fighting. It’s still important to see your doctor when your child is sick for longer than a few days, especially if symptoms are serious or worsening. If the child is not sick or in pain, many doctors now recommend waiting to see if the infection clears up by itself.
To prevent accidental scalding, set your water heater to 120 degrees Fahrenheit or the manufacturer’s recommended setting. Too much of today’s learning is structured; children are ‘directed’, ‘instructed’ and carefully ‘followed’ at all times, so they do not have a chance to experience learning through unobstructed observation. Buying ‘perfect’, expensive toys robs the children of an ability to see beauty in a stone or a shell. Include things like warm clothing, boots, gloves or mittens, flashlight with fresh batteries, blankets, and fresh first-aid supplies.
In your own vehicle you should contact the appropriate support organisation and follow their guidance.
The mix of agrarian and industrial life at this early stage in the Valley’s history sets a precedent for the future economy of the Valley as a pastoral region with some areas of industry.
But the taking of this water destroys the environment and the economy of the Owens Valley, once a beautiful valley known for its migrating birds and diverse, self-sustaining ecosystems. The dam fails upon its first full filling on March 12, killing 450 people in the San Francisquito and Santa Clara River valleys. In California, the most troublesome rats are two introduced species, the roof rat (Figure 1) and the Norway rat (Figure 2). Learning to let go despite the messes, frustration, and mistakes that will inevitably arise is a vital skill when caring for or being with children. It’s about respecting the wants and requests of the child within the appropriateness of the situation. Despite the worries of others, his mother took this in her stride, believing he’d speak more than enough when he was ready. Rushing can cause you to lose sight of your guiding role, and of the precious essence of the child. If you’re able, this should start when they are an infant and continue through their school years.
Even if you’re not an avid reader, find something to read - a magazine, the newspaper, or a cookbook all count.
In general, flashcards are not the most useful or effective technique for teaching reading skills. Explain each of the letters with their name, but don’t worry about trying to incorporate the sounds the letters make yet. There are 44 speech sounds created by the 26 letters in our alphabet, and each sound must be taught paired with its letter(s) counterpart. Your child will begin to see the patterns of sounds that are made when certain letters are combined - in this case, the sound ‘o-p’ makes. However, studies have shown that readable vocabulary dramatically increases (from 900 words to 30,000 words by the third grade) when taught in the opposite fashion: breaking each word into the smallest parts, and building them up into a full word - explicit phonics.
Recognize that learning sounds is only an intermediate step to learning to read, it is not the goal. At this point, you need to concentrate only on the mechanical skill of reading, that is learning to decode new words and incorporating them in memory to build fluency. As their word recognition increases, they’ll be able to more fully understand story plots and meanings. An easy and fun way to help encourage this is to use puppets who represent characters in the story, so your child can describe it to you through them. The motor memory of the letters, listening to their sounds and seeing them in writing will reinforce new learning. Younger children can learn math skills and older ones will enjoy being able to choose and prepare foods they like. The best way to foster a child’s natural curiosity about the world around them is to bring an animal into the equation. This way, parents can just sit back and relax with a cup of tea whilst still keeping a careful watch on their children.


That way, kids will be clamouring for more time with their parents and away from smart devices.
Doing this will help make your appreciation for the goodness in your life more public, showing your kids that blessings abound and that being thankful is a valued attitude. Savor every moment together, big and small, and rid yourself of distractions at such times, including your smartphone.
Also, limiting children’s media consumption and guiding them to use media in prosocial ways protects them from commercial influences that discourage the development of the authenticity, self-development, and social interaction necessary to grow into positive, purposeful, grateful individuals. Not only will successfully achieving these goals fulfill children’s fundamental human needs of competency, belongingness, and autonomy, but their personal development, happiness, success, and gratitude depend on it. To help children strengthen their relationships, you should encourage them to be thoughtful of others, to thank others regularly, and to be cooperative, helpful, and giving. The deepest sense of gratitude in life comes from connecting to a bigger picture, to an issue that matters to others and doing things that contribute to society down the road.
We must all do our part to help kids develop into moral adults, who will contribute to a world of compassion and care. Your baby also may need extra iron because premature babies often do not have as much iron stored in their bodies as full-term babies. If there’s a chance your baby has ROP, your doctor will advise you to take the baby for regular check-ups by an eye doctor. If your baby doesn’t turn his or her head, or jump at a loud noise, you should tell your doctor. If you’re using an apnea monitor for your baby, it should be used even while your baby is riding in the car.
However, if a sinus infection caused by bacteria is suspected, your doctor will carefully make a decision whether antibiotics are the best choice based on symptoms and a physical examination. The overuse of antibiotics has made it resistant to many drugs, and it is now responsible for 40,000 deaths annually. Children perceive their parents’ emotions and map them, so if the parent is angry, they will be frightened or chaotic. The development of thoughts should go hand in hand with the development of feelings and heart. In our attempt to help children grow into inspired adults, we wish them to carry the youthfulness of their souls, and the wonders of childhood into their old age. There are many choices of nursery equipment available but some pieces are safer than others. Allow for extra travelling time or even consider delaying a trip if the weather is inclement.
Ita€™s important to know which species of rat is present in order to choose effective control strategies.Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, sometimes called brown or sewer rats, are stocky burrowing rodents that are larger than roof rats.
Whether you’re raising children, or working or volunteering with them, a little patience goes a long way.
Patience also enables others to accept us into their lives through our faithful, continued presence and enduring respect for them. Help the child to learn the difference between making a request and making a demand and what the consequences are.
Read books at levels that they would be able to read, should they know how; at a young age this may lead you to read 3-4 small books a day.
Soon they’ll become interested in reading on their own, simply as a result of seeing you doing it too. Try to avoid them, and substitute out flashcards for another study and skill-development techniques described.
This includes the long and short sound produced by each individual letter, as well as the specialized sounds some combined letters make (like ‘ch’ and ‘sh’). Help your child to begin reading by having them sound-out each individual letter without looking at the overall word first. Adults can promote gratitude directly in children by helping them appraise the benefits they receive from others—the personal value of those benefits, the altruistic intention of people providing them, and the cost to those people. Being mindful helps you maintain empathy toward a child, and this provides important modeling of empathy, the most important emotion for developing gratitude and moral behavior.
To amplify their gratitude even more, remember to savor their accomplishments with them along the way, and encourage them to thank those who’ve helped them meet their goals.
But, while there’s no quick fix for cultivating gratitude in young people, the more we remain committed to it, the more rewards we’ll reap. After about 4 months of taking iron drops, your baby will have about the same amount of iron as a full-term baby. To keep a record of your baby’s growth, your doctor can use special growth charts for premature babies. Children have a beautiful capacity for feelings that will later in life give them a rich soul experiences.
Senator Maclay goes to the County Recorder in Los Angeles and creates the City of San Fernando (township) through a map of development plans.
This bloody event leads to the passage of the 1947 Taft Hartley Act, which severely restricts workers’ abilities to strike and the power of unions.
Additional fuel-element handling accidents occurred during the recovery process that resulted in radiological releases to the environment and surrounding communities. Their burrows are found along building foundations, beneath rubbish or woodpiles, and in moist areas in and around gardens and fields (Figure 3). When we accept the importance of patience in our lives, it becomes easier to be patient with others too.
It is also important to help them understand the importance of delayed gratification, teaching them that when you do say no, sometimes this is about waiting, rather than never having or doing what they’ve asked for.
In watching and learning from your child or from other children, you will learn their character better, and see both their strengths and their weaknesses, giving you an opportunity to help them nurture the best talents and to learn to manage their weaknesses. It is a time during which you can learn a great deal about seeing the world through fresh eyes. It will also give you and your child a heightened sense of appreciation for the things both of you love and for your relationship. Indeed, by bringing out the best in our kids, we can only imagine what blessings Generation Grateful could bring. Your doctor will also want to know things like how active your baby is, when your baby sits up for the first time and when your baby crawls for the first time. Through respecting the rhythm of ourselves and others, being patient presents an opportunity to give of ourselves rather than expecting others to conform to our wants.
Helping them to understand this time perspective is far kinder than simply saying no and not explaining any further. It can also be a time when you realize that you can make a big difference in the life of a child by teaching or showing them something new, and by helping them to love and respect themselves all the more. While generally found at lower elevations, this species can occur wherever people live.Roof rats, R. Roof rats are agile climbers and usually live and nest above ground in shrubs, trees, and dense vegetation such as ivy. In buildings, they are most often found in enclosed or elevated spaces such as attics, walls, false ceilings, and cabinets. The roof rat has a more limited geographical range (Figure 4) than the Norway rat, preferring ocean-influenced, warmer climates.
If you are unsure of the species, look for rats at night with a bright flashlight, or trap a few. Figure 5 illustrates some of the key physical differences between the two species of rats, while Table 1 summarizes identifying characteristics.While rats are much larger than the common house mouse or meadow vole, a young rat is occasionally confused with a mouse.
In general, very young rats have large heads and feet in proportion to their bodies, whereas those of adult mice are proportionately much smaller (Fig. They have poor eyesight, but they make up for this with their keen senses of hearing, smell, taste, and touch.
Rats constantly explore and learn, memorizing the locations of pathways, obstacles, food and water, shelter, and features of their environment. Thus, they often avoid traps and baits for several days or more following their initial placement. While both species exhibit this avoidance of new objects, this neophobia is usually more pronounced in roof rats than in Norway rats.Both Norway and roof rats can gain entry to structures by gnawing, climbing, jumping, or swimming through sewers and entering through toilets or broken drains.
While Norway rats are more powerful swimmers, roof rats are more agile and are better climbers.Norway and roof rats dona€™t get along. The Norway rat is larger and the more dominant species; it will kill a roof rat in a fight. When the two species occupy the same building, Norway rats may dominate the basement and ground floors, with roof rats occupying the attic or second and third floors. If the door is made of wood, the rat might gnaw to enlarge the gap, but this might not be necessary.Norway RatsNorway rats eat a wide variety of foods but mostly prefer cereal grains, meats, fish, nuts, and some fruits. When searching for food and water, Norway rats usually travel an area of about 100 to 150 feet in diameter; seldom do they travel any further than 300 feet from their burrows or nests.
The average female Norway rat has 4 to 6 litters per year and can successfully wean 20 or more offspring annually.Roof RatsLike Norway rats, roof rats eat a wide variety of foods, but they prefer fruits, nuts, berries, slugs, and snails.
Roof rats are especially fond of avocados and citrus, and they often eat fruit that is still on the tree. When feeding on a mature orange, they make a small hole through which they completely remove the contents of the fruit, leaving only the hollowed-out rind hanging on the tree. Theya€™ll often eat the rind of a lemon, leaving the flesh of the sour fruit still hanging.
Upon hearing the verdict, hundreds of Los Angelenos begin a protest that turns into a a€?livea€? televised six-day riot where 53 people die and the total cost of damages equals $1,000,000,000.
Residential or industrial areas with mature landscaping provide good habitat as does riparian vegetation of riverbanks and streams. Roof rats prefer to nest in locations off the ground and rarely dig burrows for living quarters if off-the-ground sites exist.Roof rats routinely travel up to 300 feet for food. They have an excellent sense of balance and use their long tails to steady themselves while traveling along overhead utility lines. They move faster than Norway rats and are very agile climbers, which enables them to quickly escape predators. The average number of litters a female roof rat has per year depends on many factors, but generally it is 3 to 5 with 5 to 8 young in each litter.DAMAGERats eat and contaminate foodstuffs and animal feed. Both rat species cause problems by gnawing on electrical wires and wooden structures such as doors, ledges, corners, and wall material, and they tear up insulation in walls and ceilings for nesting.Norway rats can undermine building foundations and slabs with their burrowing activities and can gnaw on all types of materials, including soft metals such as copper and lead, as well as plastic and wood. If roof rats are living in the attic of a residence, they can cause considerable damage with their gnawing and nest-building activities. They also damage garden crops and ornamental plantings.Among the diseases rats can transmit to humans or livestock are murine typhus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis (food poisoning), and ratbite fever. If sanitation measures arena€™t properly maintained, the benefits of other measures will be lost and rats will quickly return. Good housekeeping in and around buildings will reduce available shelter and food sources for Norway rats and, to some extent, roof rats. Neat, off-the-ground storage of pipes, lumber, firewood, crates, boxes, gardening equipment, and other household goods will help reduce the suitability of the area for rats and also will make their detection easier. Collect garbage, trash, and garden debris frequently, and ensure all garbage receptacles have tight-fitting covers. Where dogs are kept and fed outdoors, rats can become a problem if there is a ready supply of dog food. Feed your pet only the amount of food it will eat at a feeding, and store pet food in rodent-proof containers.For roof rats in particular, thinning dense vegetation will make the habitat less desirable. Climbing hedges such as Algerian or English ivy, star jasmine, and honeysuckle on fences or buildings are conducive to roof rat infestations and should be thinned or removed if possible, as should overhanging tree limbs within 3 feet of the roof. Coarse steel wool, wire screen, and lightweight sheet metal are excellent materials for plugging gaps and holes. Norway and roof rats are likely to gnaw away plastic sheeting, wood, caulking, and other less sturdy materials.Because rats and house mice are excellent climbers, openings above ground level must also be plugged.
Rodent proofing against roof rats, because of their greater climbing ability, usually requires more time to find entry points than for Norway rats. Roof rats often enter buildings at the roofline, so be sure that all access points in the roof are sealed. If roof rats are traveling on overhead utility wires, contact a pest control professional or the utility company for information and assistance with measures that can be taken to prevent this.Population ControlWhen food, water, and shelter are available, rat populations can increase quickly.
While the most permanent form of control is to limit food, water, shelter, and access to buildings, direct population control often is necessary.A For controlling rats indoors, using traps is best. When rodenticides (toxic baits) are used in structures, rats can die in inaccessible locations such as within walls or ceilings. In hot weather, the stench of a dead rat can be unbearable and can necessitate cutting a hole in the wall to remove the carcass. Also, ectoparasites such as fleas and mites often leave dead rat carcasses and can infest the entire house if the carcass isna€™t removed promptly.Trapping. Trapping is the safest and most effective method for controlling rats in and around homes, garages, and other structures.
Because snap traps can be used over and over, trapping is less costly than poison baits but more labor intensive. Traps can be set and left indefinitely in areas such as attics where rats have been a problem in the past.
The simple, wooden rat-size snap trap is the least expensive option, but some people prefer the newer plastic, single-kill rat traps, because they are easier to set and to clean.
Snap traps with large plastic treadles are especially effective, but finding the best locations to set traps is often more important than what type of trap is used.
Generally, young rats cana€™t be trapped until they are about a month old, which is when they leave the nest to venture out for food.Nutmeats, dried fruit, bacon, or a piece of kibbled pet food can be an attractive bait for traps. Fasten the bait securely to the trigger of the trap with light string, thread, or fine wire so the rodent will spring the trap when attempting to remove the food. The mix of agrarian and industrial life at this early stage in the Valleya€™s history sets a precedent for the future economy of the Valley as a pastoral region with some areas of industry. Soft baits such as peanut butter and cheese can be used, but rats sometimes take soft baits without setting off the trap. Set traps so the trigger is sensitive and will spring easily.The best places to set traps are in secluded areas where rats are likely to travel and seek shelter.
Droppings, gnawings, and damage indicate the presence of rodents, and areas where such evidence is found usually are the best places to set traps, especially when these areas are located between their shelter and food sources. Place traps in natural travel ways, such as along walls, so the rodents will pass directly over the trigger of the trap.For Norway rats, set traps close to walls, behind objects, in dark corners, and in places where rat signs, such as droppings, have been seen. Position traps along a wall so that they extend from the wall at right angles, with the trigger end nearly touching the wall (Figure 7). If traps are set parallel to the wall, they should be set in pairs to intercept rodents traveling from either direction.For roof rats, the best places for traps are off the ground in locations where rats might be coming down from their nests to find fooda€”such as on ledges, shelves, branches, fences, pipes, or overhead beamsa€”where they can be fastened with screws or wire (Figure 8). In homes, the attic and garage rafters close to the infestation are good trapping sites (Figure 9). In areas where children, pets, or birds might contact traps, place the trap in a box or use a barrier to keep them away.A Use as many traps as are practical so trapping time will be short and decisive.
If a rat sets off a trap without getting caught, it will be very difficult to catch the rat with a trap again. To reduce the likelihood of a€?trap shyness,a€? one strategy is to leave traps baited but unset until the bait has been taken overnight. As with snap traps, for existing rodent populations ita€™s important to use enough traps to achieve control in a timely manner. These traps need to be checked frequently, and dead rodents should be removed for disposal.Dona€™t touch rodents with your bare hands, and wash thoroughly after handling traps.
A major drawback with glue boards and other live-catch traps is the trapped rat might not die quickly, and you will need to kill it by delivering a sharp blow to the base of the skull using a sturdy rod or stick.
Rats caught in glue traps can struggle for quite some time, often dragging the trap as they try to escape. Live traps arena€™t preferred, because trapped rats must be either humanely killed or released elsewhere. Releasing rats outdoors isna€™t recommended, as they can cause health concerns to people, pets, and other domestic animals.
Because neither the roof rat nor the Norway rat is native to the United States, their presence in the wild is very detrimental to native ecosystems.
They have been known to decimate some bird populations.Rodenticides (Toxic Baits)While trapping is generally recommended for controlling rats indoors, when the number of rats around a building is high, you might need to use toxic baits to achieve adequate control, especially if there is a continuous reinfestation from surrounding areas.
If this is the case, consider hiring a licensed pest control applicator who is trained to use rodenticides safely.Baits to control rodents are formulated with an attractant (generally food) and a rodenticide (toxin). Changes in rodenticide regulations went into effect in mid-2011 in an effort to prevent rodenticide hazards to wildlife and pets and to reduce accidental exposure to children. These federal EPA restrictions now permit manufacturers to produce, for sale to the general public, only wax block, gel, or paste rat and mouse baits that are packaged in ready-to-use, disposable bait stations. Agricultural producers and professional pest control personnel are able to obtain more types of rodenticides in various formulations, some of which are restricted use pesticides.Anticoagulant Rodenticides.
Anticoagulants are blood-thinning drugs that cause an animala€™s blood to lose the ability to clot, damaging capillaries and resulting in internal bleeding that is fatal. These active ingredients are used at very low levels and the onset of symptoms is delayed for several days, so the rodent doesna€™t avoid the bait because of its taste or the onset of illness.
When prepared with good-quality cereals and other ingredients, anticoagulant baits provide good to excellent control when baits are fresh and when placed in suitable locations so as to attract rats.The various anticoagulant active ingredients currently registered for use against rats in California are listed in Table 2. Anticoagulants fall into two groupsa€”the older a€?first-generationa€? compounds such as warfarin, chlorophacinone, and diphacinone, which require a rodent to consume multiple doses over a period of several days; and the newer a€?second-generationa€? compounds such as brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, and difethialone, which can be fatal after a single feeding. Since not all rats will consume bait when it first becomes available, bait application directions typically recommend providing an uninterrupted supply of bait for at least 10 or 15 days or until evidence of rodent activity ceases. A rodent feeding on anticoagulant bait usually wona€™t die until 2 to 6 days following ingestion of a lethal dose. This slow action is a safety advantage, allowing accidental poisoning to be treated before serious illness occurs.The recommended strategy of bait application, which is often needed for optimum rodent control, can result in a rodent ingesting an overdose of the second-generation anticoagulants, which are more effective in part because they persist longer in the rodenta€™s body than do the first-generation anticoagulants.
Thus, they also have the potential to be hazardous to predators and scavengers, which may consume poisoned rodents. This secondary hazard from anticoagulants, as well as the primary hazard of nontarget animals directly ingesting rodent baits, is substantially reduced when baits are applied and used properly, according to label directions.Table 2. The same or similar trade names may be used for products with different active ingredients.Table 3. The same or similar trade names may be used for products with different active ingredients.Because of the potentially greater hazard of second-generation anticoagulants to children and household pets, these active ingredients are no longer allowed to be manufactured for sale to the general public.
Some of the second-generation rodenticides now labeled for use by only by agricultural producers may be restricted to applications in and around agricultural buildings.Anticoagulants have the same effect on nearly all warm-blooded animals, but the sensitivity to these toxicants varies among species with larger animals generally requiring a larger dose of toxicant than smaller animals. Dogs are more susceptible to anticoagulant poisoning than are many other mammals, and small to medium-sized dogs that seek out and consume rodents or rodent carcasses could be at greatest risk. Symptoms of anticoagulant poisoning in mammals include lethargy, loss of color in soft tissues such as the lips and gums, and bleeding from the mouth, nose, or intestinal tract.
Vitamin K1 is the antidote for anticoagulant rodenticides, although in cases of severe poisoning, whole blood transfusion is also used. Unknown to his readers, Nordhoff is paid by the Southern Pacific Railroad to praise the curative nature of the regiona€™s climate. Three other active ingredients are registered and used as rodenticides to control rats and house mice in California: bromethalin, cholecalciferol, and zinc phosphide.
These two materials are formulated to serve as chronic rodenticides so that rats will have the opportunity to feed on exposed baits one or more times over a period of one to several days. Bait acceptance is generally good when fresh, well-formulated products are used.Zinc phosphide differs in that it is an acute toxicant that causes death of a rodent within several hours after a lethal dose is ingested. Because zinc phosphide baits often require prebaiting to get adequate bait acceptance (offering rats similar but nontoxic bait before applying the zinc phosphide bait), ita€™s not commonly used against rats and is infrequently available to consumers.
All rodenticide baits must be used carefully according to the label directions, which have become more specific and more restrictive. Some baits must be contained within bait stations for all outdoor, above-ground applications (Figure 10).
In addition to increasing the safety of the bait, bait stations also help the rats feel secure while feeding. For Norway rats, place bait stations near rodent burrows or suspected nest sites, against walls, or along travel routes. For roof rats, place baits in elevated locations, such as in the crotch of a tree, on top of a fence, or high in a vine. If you place bait stations above ground level, take care that they are securely fastened and wona€™t fall to the ground where children or pets could find them.
Because rats often are suspicious of new or unfamiliar objects, it might take several days for them to enter and feed in bait stations.Where it is impossible to exclude rodents from structures, rat control can be accomplished by establishing permanent bait stations in buildings and around the perimeters of buildings.
Place fresh bait in these stations to control invading rats before populations become established. With the first-generation anticoagulant baits, it usually takes 5 or more days, once the rats start feeding, for them to die.
Check bait stations regularly and replace bait if it gets old or moldy, because rats wona€™t eat stale bait.Baits and bait stations now have more restrictive regulations regarding locations for use. Different designs of commercially manufactured bait stations may be required, depending on the particular situation and the bait formulation used.
For example, some labels state a€?tamper-resistant bait stations must be used if children, pets, nontarget mammals, or birds may access the bait.a€? Certain prepackaged bait stations intended for sale to homeowners can be used only inside structures and are prohibited for use in any area accessible to pets or outdoors. Other baits or bait stations may also be used around the periphery of structures or within 50 feet of a structure.
Because rats may not travel far from their shelter to find food, many product labels suggest making bait placements at 10- to 30-foot intervals. Place bait boxes next to walls (with the openings close to the wall) or in other places where rats are active.
In all cases, the user must follow label directions.Remove and properly dispose of all uneaten bait at the end of a control program.
In addition, ita€™s wise to collect and properly dispose of any dead rodents found during the course of a rodenticide application.
You can pick them up using a sturdy plastic bag inverted on your hand, seal them in the bag for disposal with household garbage, or bury them in a location where pets or scavengers wona€™t easily dig them up.Other Control MethodsRats are wary animals, easily frightened by unfamiliar or strange noises. However, they quickly become accustomed to repeated sounds, making the use of frightening devicesa€”including high frequency and ultrasonic soundsa€”ineffective for controlling rats in homes and gardens.Rats have an initial aversion to some odors and tastes, but no repellents have been found to solve a rat problem for more than a very short time.
There are no truly effective rat repellents registered for use in California.Smoke or gas cartridges are registered and sold for controlling burrowing rodents. When placed into the burrows and ignited, these cartridges produce toxic and suffocating smoke and gases. Because Norway rat burrows can extend beneath a residence and have several open entrances, toxic gases can permeate the dwelling.
Often, predators arena€™t able to keep rodent numbers below levels that are acceptable to most people.
Many singers record Jenkinsa€™ song including Bing Crosby (whose version hits #1 on Billboard Magazinea€™s chart in 1944) and the King Sisters; the publicity helps build a population explosion.
The Westerns a€?Bells of San Fernandoa€? and the Western a€?San Fernando Valleya€? are released. Phyllis Oa€™Kray from the crash of a jet plane, Valley residents picket Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Van Nuys to abolish the use of the San Fernando Valley for jet flying. Welcome to a Timeline of the San Fernando Valley This timeline was created for the Museum of the San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications.
Until now, there has been no one museum or institution to document, preserve, and celebrate the full scope of the collective history, culture, and arts of such an important place until the 2005 incorporation of The Museum of the San Fernando Valley.This timeline was created for the Museum of The San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications.



Hurricane plane crash
Winter storm survival kit
Emergency preparedness day 2014
Getting involved in local politics


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