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Influenza StrikesThroughout history, influenza viruses have mutated and caused pandemics or global epidemics. Although people dutifully wore masks, these provided only a very limited protection against the influenza virus. An old cliché maintained that influenza was a wonderful disease as it killed no one but provided doctors with lots of patients. By educating people on how influenza could spread, public health officials hoped to help people avoid it. Local health departments warned those who were ill to stay away from theaters and other public places. There is a difference between pandemics or epidemics; epidemics happen when highly contagious diseases spread amongst a population very quickly.
One example of a catastrophic pandemic is the Spanish flu in 1918, which killed an estimated 60-100 million people globally, reaching as far as the Arctic regions and Pacific Islands. This picture shows nurses attending sick patients separated by tents in Lawrence, MA in 1918. Similarly, in 2009 swine flu became a potential pandemic as it killed 100 people in Mexico and shortly thereafter reported in America.
Other significant flu pandemics include the infamous Black Death in Europe in the 14th century, thought to have been spread by rats. The biggest problem with pandemics is that they spread so easily; it merely takes a cough or a sneeze for someone to contract it. Chiefly, the only way pandemics can be prevented is for all nations to maintain hygiene when in contact with animals, which usually cause viruses and flu outbreaks. There have been four influenza pandemics documented since the beginning of the twentieth century, including the H1N1 pandemic that occurred in 2009.
A flu like none other, the 1918 Flu Pandemic was one of the worst natural disasters in history. The Pandemic occurred in three waves throughout 1918 and 1919, affecting mainly healthy young adults. In the United States the disease was first observed at Fort Riley, Kansas, on March 4, 1918, and Queens, New York, on March 11, 1918.
On October 1st of 1918, the Illinois Health Officer reported 374 cases to the Public Health Service, including 14 deaths. Non-emergent (medical) transport organizations will be present called ahead to transport getting better epidemic cold patients to their inland, housing be bothered provision, before perhaps to rotate be bothered sites obstinate positive by royal before restricted wellbeing departments. Diseases vary in their level of seriousness, but over the years some pandemics or epidemics were omitted by new discoveries found by doctors.


Named the Spanish flu because Spanish newspapers were the first to write about it, some cities even saw up to 10,000 people die a week from it.
This is how 2003’s SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) spread through Asia, Australia, North and South America, Europe and Africa.
This particular flu could act quickly--many people would awake healthy in the morning and be dead by day’s end. Those who survived that pandemic and lived to experience the 1918 pandemic tended to be less susceptible to the disease.From Kansas to Europe and back again, wave after wave, the unfolding of the pandemic, mobilizing to fight influenza, the pandemic hits, protecting yourself, communication, fading of the pandemic. Those who survived that pandemic and lived to experience the 1918 pandemic tended to be less susceptible to the disease.From Kansas to Europe and Back Again:Where did the 1918 influenza come from? Science not being back then what it is today, researchers believe it was a form of avian (bird) flu, leaving human immune systems unprepared to fight the pandemic. Yet again, the swine flu was an animal strain passed from pigs to humans whose immune systems could not handle the outbreak.
Two others are the Asian flu in 1957, killing 2 million people, and the Hong Kong flu in 1968 that killed 1 million people. Modern medicine makes these viruses less likely to spread, but new pandemics are often developing.
And why was it so lethal?In 1918, the Public Health Service had just begun to require state and local health departments to provide them with reports about diseases in their communities. Influenza is a good example of a pandemic as well, as it comes in many different forms throughout the years. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) try to keep track of epidemics before they get out of control. The second wave occurred with an outbreak of severe influenza in the fall of 1918 and the final wave occurred in the spring of 1919.
In the end you will transfer living before dull nation where increasingly the government officials instruct you to perform as a result. Communications through Public Health Reports, physicians, newspapers, letters, and telegrams. During the 1920s, researchers estimated that 21.5 million people died as a result of the 1918-1919 pandemic. More recent estimates have estimated global mortality from the 1918-1919 pandemic at anywhere between 30 and 50 million.
An estimated 675,000 Americans were among the dead.Research, forgetting the pandemic of 1918-1919, scientific milestones, 20th century influenza or global pandemics. Suffering from fevers as high as 105 degrees, these workers had severe muscle and joint pains.


Death often followed.Public health experts had little time to register their shock at the severity of this outbreak.
The first wave had occurred when mild influenza erupted in the late spring and summer of 1918. The second wave occurred with an outbreak of severe influenza in the fall of 1918 and the final wave occurred in the spring of 1919.In its wake, the pandemic would leave about twenty million dead across the world. However, influenza had become so widespread by that time that most states were unable to keep accurate records. Many simply failed to report to the Public Health Service during the pandemic, leaving epidemiologists to guess at the impact the disease may have had in different areas.World War I had left many communities with a shortage of trained medical personnel. As influenza spread, local officials urgently requested the Public Health Service to send nurses and doctors.
With less than 700 officers on duty, the Public Health Service was unable to meet most of these requests.On the rare occasions when the PHS was able to send physicians and nurses,they often became ill en route. Those who did reach their destination safely often found themselves both unprepared and unable to provide real assistance.In October, Congress appropriated a million dollars for the Public Health Service.
The existing shortage of doctors and nurses, caused by the war, made it difficult for the PHS to locate and hire qualified practitioners. The virulence of the disease also meant that many nurses and doctors contracted influenza within days of being hired.Confronted with a shortage of hospital beds, many local officials ordered that community centers and local schools be transformed into emergency hospitals.
In Philadelphia, a city especially hard hit, so many children were orphaned that the Bureau of Child Hygiene found itself overwhelmed and unable to care for them.As the disease spread, schools and businesses emptied. The mail piled up as postal carriers failed to come to work.State and local departments of health also suffered from high absentee rates. As the bodies mounted, even funerals were held out doors to protect mourners against the spread of the disease.Public officials, who were unaware that influenza was a virus and that masks provided no real protection against viruses, often demanded that people wear gauze masks. Enforcing these laws proved to be very difficult as many people resisted wearing masks.Advertisements recommending drugs which could cure influenza filled newspapers. Some doctors suggested that drinking alcohol might prevent infection, causing a run on alcohol supplies.



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