Nuclear fallout shelter locations uk,emergency evacuation route template,food preparation for a hurricane - Review

Here’s a totally fascinating and somewhat disturbing image from the early days of the Atomic Age and the Cold War (click for a larger copy). As you might be able to guess, this is a family nuclear fallout shelter, made out of steel and full of all the home comforts of 1950.
Why, in the event the Soviet Union ever drops the Big One I would expect to live comfortably in this thing for at least a week before going insane. Recent PostsMost ViewedVintage Tabletop: Marvel World Adventure Playset (1975) Design Evolution: Vintage Cereal Boxes Happy New Year from Cyd Charisse! FREE bomb shelter and fallout shelter plans, guides & ready made fallout shelter sources!
For those who feel that that holds the greatest danger, you can check what FEMA used to think constituted a potential target for your particular state by clicking on your state name below.
Be sure, though, to also read there Bruce Beach's 'UPDATE to Target Information!!!' that you'll see linked there below your state FEMA map that explains changes regarding base closings, etc., since these maps were first published in 1990. As with determining the valuation of any real estate there are three factors that are most important in making the determination of where is safest: location, location, and location. Bottom Line: Obviously, the safest places to reside will vary on the nature of the nuclear threats you perceive to have the highest probability of occurring in your lifetime. A: For locations in or close to probable bomb targets, then protection from the bomb blast, fire and fallout would be required.
For fallout protection, which will concern the greatest number of people, both those surviving within the bomb blast zone and the much larger numbers downwind, perhaps for hundreds of miles, there is some very good news amongst all this.
Radioactive fallout is dangerous because it is giving off so much energy, but that also means it's quickly becoming less dangerous over time as it exhausts itself. Note that the above charts and decay rates applies only to fission and fusion bomb weapons and does not apply to the so-called "Dirty Bomb" or RDD (Radiological Dispersal Device). Time: Effectively minimizing your exposure time while also 'waiting out' the natural decay of the fallout in a safe shelter.
Distance: Effectively maximizing your distance from the fallout, as the inverse square law applies here to distance. Shielding: Effectively maximizing the amount of radiation absorbing material between you inside and the radiation source outside. As an example of the above, everyone is familiar with a hot stove and getting burnt by it when careless. Regardless of how intense the radioactive fallout is in your specific area, the protective effectiveness of your shelter will be largely based upon its shielding from gamma radiation, the most penetrating and destructive radiation you'll have to contend with.
Bottom Line: As mentioned above, with all the unknowns and variables involved with pre-determining the possible fallout your family will need to be protected from, it is prudent to not just pray and hope for the best, but to have also prepared for the worst. You'll need to decide which best fits into your family level of concern, your current housing situation and location and available budget. A: There are expedient (last minute) shelter plans, home built buried shelter plans and FEMA shelter plans, both for remote retreats, backyards or basements. Review them all, learn from them all, and then choose which option would best fit your own family needs and resources. In it you'll discover not only the plans for numerous expedient shelters, but the principles behind all fallout shelters and many other essential aspects to sheltering and survival in nuclear fallout. While a fallout shelter can be built most anywhere, you need to see what your best options are at home or nearby locally. Some structures already provide significant shielding or partial shielding that can be enhanced for adequate protection.
Leave a small crawl-through entrance and more mass there that can be easily pulled in after you, but with a gap at the top to allow exhaust air out. Adding mass on the floor above your chosen basement corner, and outside against the walls opposite your shelter, will also increase your shielding protection.
The majority of people requiring any sheltering at all will be many miles downwind, and they will not need to stay sheltered for weeks on end. Have a hole dug a foot deeper than half the diameter of the pipe in an area without a high water table that has good drainage. You won't have enough excavation dirt (from the hole you created) to cover the shelter back over to a 2-3' level and still assure the grade atop is gradual enough to thwart future erosion, so you'll need to get some more from elsewhere in your yard or bring in some with pick-up truck loads, etc. There's a lot of refinements that can make this more permanent, and better assure water doesn't get into the shelter before you do, etc. Some are even sliding those small portable utility buildings atop theirs, minus the floor, to both cover the 'hump', and have their 'comings and goings' less gopher like to prying eyes. Once you grasp the principles of fallout sheltering (distance, mass and time) and see what you have around to work with, you'll discover many creative ideas to maximize your family sheltering. A cheap and quick, last-minute, shelter may be cramped and miserable for a couple days, but remember that radioactive fallout will lose 99% of its lethal intensity in those first 48 hours!
Then, timbers or fence posts, side by side, across top, then another 18" thick sacks atop that roof.
Details on entrance, air circulation & filtration, etc., in WHAT TO DO IF A NUCLEAR DISASTER IS IMMINENT!
Some of these are only PF 40's, so I'd look for opportunities to reinforce them to handle more mass to raise that higher. The large tanks (8' X 28') are designed for a maximum of 30 occupants to provide bomb blast protection up to 200 psi and buried 8' deep will ensure a Protection Factor (PF) well in excess of 10,000.
Engineering blueprint plans (6 drawings 24" X 36" with specifications for a variety of sizes and types) and a video were available from Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine.
Another popular design by the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine is their proven Mini-Blast Shelter.
It's small and cramped at only a 4' diameter by 12' long, but for many locations it'll be endurable long enough for those most dangerous higher levels of fallout radiation in the first 24 hours. Nuclear Survival Community Group Shelter: The best known, largest and most comprehensive group fallout shelter is the ARK II founded by Bruce Beach 90 miles NW of Toronto, Canada. A new entry with 25 years of high-end precision metal fabrication is Atlas Survival Shelters. They are paraboloid shelters constructed of structural fiberglass manufactured to underground storage tank standards.
In Summary: Your first indication of an initial nuclear detonation may be with their characteristic bright flash. If you had pre-planned to shelter-in-place, instead of evacuating long before, you need to be ready for anything anytime. Tunnels, subways, caves, culverts and especially heavily constructed buildings, all deserve a mental note as you travel by them daily. Also, you need to give some serious thought to afterwards, when your family has survived the bomb blast and radiation. If you are fortunate enough to be reading this well before a nuclear threat (or other major disaster) occurs or appears imminent, there's a great deal more that you can and should do beyond the scope of this brief guide.
Surviving the initial threats of a nuclear 'event' and radioactive fallout is relatively easy with the proper knowledge and even the most modest of preparations, as we've detailed above. The ongoing bigger challenge next, though, will be the one brought on by the extensive and much longer-lasting disruptions of services after you survive the nuclear event and emerge safely once the fallout threat has diminished.
You might have to go so time with little or no new food supplies, along with disruptions of water, sewer, gas, electric, and telephone services, little or no gasoline, and severely limited, or non-existent, medical and banking services, law enforcement and fire protection.


Bottom Line: Buy a shelter, build a shelter, or have everything in-place to make an expedient home shelter, it doesn't matter, just get started doing it - NOW! To best avoid unhealthy and overwhelming angst trying to prepare for a future nuclear crisis, keep in mind, too, that each step is like acquiring medical insurance. Once you've started making these preparations, strive to stay balanced about it all as you do. This 1957 photograph shows a typical fallout shelter that includes a 14-day food supply that could be stored indefinitely, a battery-operated radio, auxiliary light sources, a two-week supply of water, and first aid, sanitary, and other miscellaneous supplies and equipment. Fallout shelters were a critical part of the civil defense strategy of the 1950s and 1960s. But when our former ally Russia exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949, it signaled the beginning of the Cold War, during which both sides began to build and stockpile these weapons of mass destruction.
Nuclear weapons presented a whole new type of warfare, one in which the objective was to survive not only the initial blast, but also to outlive the radioactive fallout that would follow. Enter the concept of fallout shelters, both public and private, where people could live for weeks and even months while waiting for radiation levels to subside.
The city of Redondo Beach established three public fallout shelters in the early 1960s, drawing from a list of 15 structures in the city which the federal government had declared sound enough to use as shelters. Other cities had been encouraging private citizens to build their own fallout shelters  on their property. Plans for do-it-yourself fallout shelters were made available in many cities, including Gardena and Lomita, as well as from area post offices. With the thawing of the Cold War through diplomatic means such as detente in the early 1970s, the fervor for fallout shelters abated somewhat. One Nation Underground: The Fallout Shelter in American Culture, by Kenneth Rose, NYU Press, 2001. Just crazy that people thought 14 days of supplies would be enough, and that everyone could just come out of their shelters and everything would be OK.
With the ever-looming possibility of nuclear annihilation from Soviet forces, Americans in the 1950's began building personal shelters that would protect against nuclear fallout specifically gamma radiation. To prevent against exposure from nuclear fallout, these shelters were built underground to allow dirt and soil to provide natural protection from radiation. A fallout shelter built in the corner of a basement was the most affordable option, and it supposedly offered substantial protection.
In preparing for a nuclear attack, citizens knew that it may take days or weeks to allow the radioactive fallout to reduce to safer levels. Michael Amrine, who edited the well-regarded Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, wrote the text and provides sane, sober, and completely do-able advice. Home-based nuclear fallout shelters combined everything that magazines needed in the 1960s to attract readers:  fear, home remodeling, and the opportunity for producing great cutaways. Just going into your basement during nuclear attack would decrease your chance of radioactive exposure to 10% of the exposure if you had stayed outside. By undertaking some pretty major home remodels, all located in your basement and all eventually unused, you could shrink that statistic another ten-fold.
This cutaway of a home-based nuclear bomb shelter from 1961 was designed by the Office of Civil Defense to be built for less than $280 in materials. In 1961, LIFE extolled the benefits of building a basement bomb shelter out of pre-cast concrete blocks.
This cutaway drawing shows how the homeowner would have situated the shelter in a corner of the basement where it had no windows. The article estimated materials cost not to exceed $200.  It was estimated that radiation within the shelter would be about 1% of radiation outside. As a final warning, the article mentioned that, should the nuclear warhead hit within 10-15 miles of you, the house might be blown down onto the shelter and catch fire. So, too, with determining the risk level of your current residence and thus the level of protection required, its location is of primary concern. For the majority of people even further downwind of ground zero the fallout has had even more time to decay before reaching those areas and also would be much more dispersed and thus the time required to be sheltered would be greatly reduced, too. The reason it does not apply to an RDD bomb is that they are expected to be made up of only a couple of the common and more easily obtainable commercial isotopes (such as Cobalt-60 or Cesium-137 or nuclear power plant fuel rods) that all have relatively long half-lives. Too close to the flame, for too long a time, without a protective glove and you get burned. This would be barely sufficient protection in most all fallout areas requiring sheltering, and especially deficient for the heavier fallout nearer ground zero or in a rain out created hot spot downwind. Earth is a cheap, plentiful and effective fallout barrier material that can be utilized with numerous different shelter designs, as seen below. Below, most all American families will find something that'll easily improve their odds of surviving 100 fold or more. There are also both cheap and expensive ready-to-bury completed shelters and even large survival underground shelters.
The best resource for inexpensive last-minute fallout sheltering plans are to be found in the 280 page book Nuclear War Survival Skills. You want to maximize both the distance from where the fallout will likely be settling and the shielding material (mass) you already have there that could readily be incorporated to better surround and shield your fallout shelter. If you do not have a basement available, you can still use the techniques shown below in any above ground structure, but you'll need to use more mass to achieve the same level of shielding. Remember, 99% of the lethal intensity of that radioactive fallout will all be gone in that first 48 hours!
Every inch thicker adds up to more effective life-saving radiation shielding.As cramped as that table space fallout shelter might seem, the vital shielding provided by simply moving some mass into place could be the difference between exposure to a lethal dose of radiation and the survival of your family.
In fact, most people will only need to stay sheltered full-time for a few days before they can start coming out briefly to attend to quick essential chores. It's very common, cheap, and you might even find some for next to nothing at your local metal junk yard that you could take home in the back of a long-bed pick-up (if 12' long or less) or on a boat trailer.
Have one end already stacked solid with them, except for a small air gap at top and have the other end sealed up, too, except for enough room to wiggle in for the largest member of your family. It also, with gutters leading further away, lets them more easily rinse the roof of fallout later and have it then even further away and no longer up above their shelter down below. Federal Government has produced volumes of information and plans on fallout shelters and related topics. Art Robinson of the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine that built five full-scale civil defense shelter displays for FEMA and for the states of Pennsylvania, Utah, Arizona, and Idaho and also carried out other educational activities in cooperation with FEMA. This design fills the void for a smaller and cheaper family blast and fallout protection shelter, so many more can then see themselves also doing so.
Here 500 people from all over North America will make there way to this 42 buried bus self-sufficient community prepared to sustain their members for up to six months directly and support rebuilding beyond that. Galvanized Steel corrugated pipe shelters and engineer certified reinforced cargo containers. We all hope and pray we won't need that insurance, but if we ever do, our families won't find us then lacking in providing for their basic safety and welfare. Thank God that you have begun, try to awaken others by first pointing them to The Good News About Nuclear Destruction!, and then you can begin to confidently relax in your new alert status. 1961, the Torrance City Council approved designs that could be used by residents to build fallout shelters, with different designs for front yards and backyards.


1, 1961 announced that four South Bay residents had applied to build fallout shelters within one single week, two in Manhattan Beach, one in El Segundo and one in Torrance.
Though a strong civil defense system remains of paramount importance, fallout shelters themselves began to be considered as remnants of a much scarier era when nuclear conflagration seemed to be just around the corner. These subterranean structures were built in basements and backyards to ensure a household quick,immediate safety in the event of an attack. But, for nuclear terrorist concerns, then the largest population centers would more likely be targets of first choice. Bomb blast and fire protection require hardened, usually below ground structures, but even simple expedient backyard earthen shelters providing 15 psi integrity are survivable as close as 2 miles from a 1 MT (1000 kilotons) surface bomb blast. Fortunately, though, they will not have contaminated anywhere near as extensive an area as a fission or fusion nuclear bomb and effective prompt evacuation will be the more viable alternative to long-term sheltering. Same basic principle applies with radiation sources; too close for too long without protective shielding and you will be acquiring a higher total dose than you would have otherwise.
The more mass the better, whether it is lead, earth, concrete, water, or stacks of books, etc. Of course, earth is cheaper, but where concrete had been used in the construction of a shelter it'll be providing even additional barrier protection. You may consider using other solid structures nearby, especially those with below ground spaces, such as commercial buildings, schools, churches, below ground parking garages, large and long culverts, tunnels, etc.. Later, they can begin spending ever more time out of the shelter daily, only coming back in to sleep.
The reason we have created two potential entrances, with removable blocks or bags, is so we also have two potential exits, if part of your house or a tree later fell on one end. Some are even rigging up hoses with small pools to do it from inside the shelter remotely and earlier, via bilge pumps battery driven. It'll likely be a treasured story of survival your family will be around for to recount for years ahead together, especially when compared to the alternative fate of being caught above ground and exposed to the full intensity of radioactive fallout in those most dangerous first couple days! Their plans have been utilized by many and OISM has been in the forefront of Civil Defense research and education since the mid-eighties. It is rated at 50 psi and provides well in excess of 1000 PF when buried with three feet of earth cover.
Built by a local fabricator you could have it made for under $3,000, or much less if you could do the welding work yourself.
Fast production & delivery times with apartment-like interiors for multiple year-round uses.
You need to also have with you in your car a backpack of essentials to hold you over for at least 72 hours, if need be, while away from home. You'll also then be able to more fully enjoy everyday life with your own family knowing that you're firmly on the road to better being able to handle just about anything that might occur in this quickly changing world. In 1966, Los Angeles County Supervisor Kenneth Hahn was continuing to call for the construction of fallout shelters at all public schools in the county, an idea he had first proposed 10 years earlier.
The fallout shelter was essentially a civilian adapted bunker equipped with food, fresh water, living accommodations, and personal necessities. The prime objective was to put as much mass between survivors and the radioactive particles from the blast as possible. Canned goods were kept due to their long shelf life and the fact that they did not need to be kept refrigerated. In either case, the safest places would be most anywhere other than in or near or downwind of large cities, especially those immediately adjacent to or downwind of military targets.
These home built and also prefab ready-to-bury blast shelters, that would survive the blast even closer to ground zero, are detailed later below.
However, you might not be able to readily evacuate, especially with a mass exodus, and you may then be forced to shelter until you can more quickly evacuate later, and you do not know what exactly the nature of the future nuclear threats will be, so you need to still fully explore your sheltering options below.
However, as you'll see below, it's too easy not to achieve PF's of 200, 300, or 400 or more and it would be prudent to do so. A small piece of cardboard can help fan fresh air in if the natural rising warmer air convection current needs an assist moving the air along.
As miserable as it might seem now, you and your family can easily endure that, especially compared to the alternative.
We also have all the plans, and tons of other civil defense and survival material, on our DVD here that we usually give away free as a bonus to customers there.
This shelter also offers its occupants a much better chance of survival of air burst explosions of most currently deployed nuclear weapons from a horizontal distance of one to two miles, besides excellent fallout protection.
Kennedy signed Executive Order 10952 on July 20, 1961, which called for more than $200 million to be spent on a nationwide fallout shelter program. According to civil defense authorities of the 1950's and of FEMA today, a concrete block basement shelter could be built without contractors and with relatively inexpensive materials.
Also, even for the populations of cities that survived an attack, the basic needs of water, food, medical and law & order could make for a miserable and quickly deteriorating nightmare. Buildings with a half-dozen or more floors, where there is not a concern of bomb blast damage and windows intact, may provide good radiation protection in the center of the middle floors. This incoming air won't need to be filtered if the basement has been reasonably sealed up, however any windows or other openings will require some solid mass coverage to assure they stay sealed and to provide additional shielding protection for the basement. It was designated a Civil Defense shelter with the familiar yellow and black signs, and Civil Defense authorities were allowed to stock it with emergency food provisions. In October 1961, Kennedy advised American families to build their own shelters in the event of nuclear war with Russia. Each wall was poured to be at least 12 inches thick and even reinforced with lead reducing radiation to minimal and safe levels. 7 gallons of water per person was the minimum amount when stocking for a 2 week period of living. Obviously, not everyone can move to live & work in a rural location, but most people won't be reading this and fewer still will heed it.
With 18 inches you have a PF 32 and with 30 inches it's over PF 300 and with 3 feet of earth you are at about 1000 PF.)The higher PF's are worth striving for because, for example, in a high-risk fallout area that had a two week total dose of around 10,000 R, you would need at least a PF100 shelter just to stay near a 100 R dose being received by each of the occupants over the two weeks. But, for many still, simply living 20 miles away, and upwind, from target locations will be all the difference in the world when combined with some of the simple preparations from the knowledge presented here.
Adding just another 3.6" of earth covering and thus doubling that PF to 200 would cut that total dose received by your family to only 50 R each. The ground surrounding the structure acts as a thermal insulator and the body heat of inhabitants would raise the temperature from within. Clearly, with the unknowns of exact targeting, number of weapons committed to each, variable winds, rain out hotspots and perhaps even missiles off target, if you are going to build a fallout shelter at all, it needs to be with as high a practical PF as achievable.
This ventilation system consisted of a large door flap that hung by hinges on the top of the door frame. With a piece of rope or cord connected to it, shelter inhabitants could take turns swinging the flaps forward to push air out and having fresh air let in when the flaps swung back. Other supplies included cots and sleeping bags, a first-aid kit (examples below), chemical or portable toilet for waste management, and a radio.



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