Map of united states rivers and bays,hurricane preparedness week,hurricane disaster plan florida - You Shoud Know

The Potomac River divides Maryland and Virginia, but Virginia does not own half of the Potomac River. Between 1606-1609, in the three charters issued by James I, most of what is now Maryland was included within the boundaries of the Virginia colony. In 1632, King Charles I reduced the size of Virginia when he granted a charter to Cecil Calvert, Baron of Baltimore. The northern boundary of the new colony of Maryland was defined by drawing a line due west from the ocean along the 40 degree parallel, the southern boundary of the New England grants, until getting to a point due north of the beginning of the Potomac River. In reality, the 40 degree parallel was located further north where Philadelphia is now located, creating an overlapping claim to land after William Penn was granted a charter for a new colony in 1681. As defined in the 1632 charter, the Maryland boundary crossed the river to the southern bank. No one knows why the 1632 charter was so generous to Maryland, giving the entire Potomac River to Maryland instead of drawing the boundary in the middle of the river. Another possibility is that no one in London cared much about the details of the boundaries, far across the Atlantic Ocean.
Complicating the status of the river, in 1688 James II modified the boundaries of the "Northern Neck" grant made originally by Charles II in 1649, and renewed as the Hopton grant in 1667. All that entire tract, territory or parcel of land situate, lying and being in Virginia in America and bounded by and within the first heads or springs of the rivers of Tappanhannocke alias Rappahanocke and Quiriough alias Patawomacke Rivers, the courses of the said rivers, from their said first heads or springs, as they are commonly called and known by the inhabitants and descriptions of those parts, and the Bay of Chesapoyocke, together with the said rivers themselves and all the islands within the outermost banks thereof, and the soil of all and singular the premisses. In 1776, the first Constitution of Virginia acknowledged that the Maryland charter was valid, but avoided defining the limits of that state's claim to the Potomac River. The territories, contained within the Charters, erecting the Colonies of Maryland, Pennsylvania, North and South Carolina, are hereby ceded, released, and forever confirmed, to the people of these Colonies respectively, with all the rights of property, jurisdiction and government, and all other rights whatsoever, which might, at any time heretofore, have been claimed by Virginia, except the free navigation and use of the rivers Patomaque and Pokomoke, with the property of the Virginia shores and strands, bordering on either of the said rivers, and all improvements, which have been, or shall be made thereon.
Left unclear was determination of the location of the actual line on the south bank, the "further Bank of the said River" (in Latin, ad ulterioram predicti fluminis ripam).
Virginians were not legalistic about defining the edge of the shoreline, or even respectful of Maryland's claim to the entire river. A literal interpretation of the 1632 grant to Lord Baltimore might suggest the boundary was set at the high water mark, but Virginia landowners interpreted the right to "navigation and use" of the Potomac to include using the shoreline down to the low water mark. After the American Revolution, the new United States was only a loose confederation, governed by a weak national Congress. However, it was not clear how Maryland could enforce any claim based on the now-rejected authority of English kings. Besides, Virginia had real leverage to convince Maryland to resolve conflicting claims to use of the Potomac River: Virginia owned the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. The tradeoffs to reach agreement were based on the shape of the bay as well as the colonial boundaries.
All of Maryland's significant ports were on the bay and the rivers draining into the bay, such as Annapolis and Baltimore. The solution was to negotiate, in order to encourage rather than block each state's commerce and economic development. Maryland and Virginia agreed in the Compact of 1785 that neither state could interfere with the other's trade or fishing on the Potomac River.
Through that statement, Virginia traded away its theoretical ability to impose tolls on Maryland vessels entering the Chesapeake Bay between Cape Charles and Cape Henry, near Norfolk. The commissioners called for another meeting among all the states to address larger interstate commerce issues. To get a sense of the challenge under the Articles of Confederation to resolve the interstate conflict over the rights to the Potomac River, look at today's debates over the relative authority of individual states in the European Union. Like the Articles of Confederation, the new Constitution required that interstate compacts had to be approved by the national Congress. Maintaining ownership of the Potomac River was the only boundary fight in which Maryland managed to maintain most of its original claims. If the Calverts had succeeded in blocking claims of the Penns, then Maryland might have ended up controlling all the territory south of the 40th parallel.


In reality, the Penns forced the Calverts to accept a boundary line south of Philadelphia, 15 miles below the 40th parallel.
Pennsylvania also blocked Maryland from acquiring control of three counties along the western shore of Delaware Bay, territory that had been settled earlier by Swedes and Dutch. The Compact of 1785 resolved the dispute over navigation and taxation, and made clear that Smith’s Point was the mouth of the Potomac River and the starting point for the line across the Chesapeake Bay. However, the Compact of 1785 did not fix the location of the boundary line along the Potomac River, or clarify if the high-water mark or the low-water mark should be used. In 1829, a canal was opened to connect the northern tip of the Chesapeake Bay to the Delaware Bay. Had the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal been built before the Compact of 1785, ships would have been able to sail between Baltimore and the Atlantic Ocean without having to use the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and sail through Virginia waters.
Determining exactly where to draw the boundary line was a political, surveying, and legal decision. In the Black-Jenkins arbitration decision of 1877, Maryland's boundary was determined to be the low-water mark on the southern shore of the Potomac River, and islands within the river were owned by Maryland. The record discloses no evidence that at any time any substantial claim was ever made by Lord Fairfax, heir at law of Lord Culpeper, or by his grantees, to property rights in the Potomac River or in the soil thereunder, nor does it appear that Virginia ever exercised the power to grant ownership in the islands or soil under the river to private persons. To minimize confusion about the location of the low water mark, the line was defined as a fixed boundary established by the Matthews-Nelson Survey of 1927.
Virginia is entitled not only to full dominion over the soil to low-water mark on the south shore of the Potomac, but has a right to such use of the river beyond the line of low-water mark as may be necessary to the full enjoyment of her riparian ownership, without impeding the navigation or otherwise interfering with the proper use of it by Maryland, agreeably to the compact of seventeen hundred and eighty-five. In 1940, Congress gave its consent to a new interstate compact for managing the Potomac River. The 1958 agreement established the Potomac River Fisheries Commission, defined the jurisdictional boundaries for that commission's powers (in great detail for the Maryland side of the Potomac River, but simply referencing the mean low waterline of the Potomac River on the Virginia side, as marked by the Matthews-Nelson Survey of 1927). Edward Bennett Mathews (Maryland half of Mathews-Nelson Survey of 1927, together with Wilbur A.
NOTE: Virginia does not "own" any of the Potomac River below the low-water mark, but Maryland does not own all of the river either. Knowing the geography of the Uniteds States at the time of the Civil War is important in understanding the conflict.
By this time the Union troops had gained control of much of the confederate states and won the battle over the Tennessee area and in doing separated the rebel concentrations to the west and east of Tennessee. The Union not only controlled the land routes cutting off supplies to the rebel armies, their ships successfully barrigade coastline harbors along the Atlantic and in the Gulf of Mexico. The Great Lakes States of Michigan, Ohio, Indian, Illinois and Wisconsin made major contributions to the Union side during the war. Michigan's troops were among the first to participate in major battles and gained recognition as fighting wolverines. Many counties in Michigan offered a bounty to anyone who would volunteer to enlist from thier county which helped them fill their quota and avoid the draft. Althought this map is nearly a decade after the war ended, it is pretty close to what the area looked like at the time of the Civil War. There hundreds of excellent resouces on the internet that are devoted to the Civil War and worth the time to check out. The best that we've found for maps is the Library of Congress which has a huge collection of historical maps.
Thanks to the PBS organization we have a well documentment film presentation of the Civil War done by Ken Burns, which as been shown on public television. This website created by Don Harvey specializes in helping researchers locate soldiers from Michigan in the Civil War.
Polluted stormwater runoff is a leading impediment to meeting water quality standards in the Bay.
The Chesapeake Bay Program is a regional partnership that was founded in 1983 to deal with the protection and restoration of the Chesapeake Bay.


All of the Bay states are in the process of adapting more stringent stormwater regulations for both new development and redevelopment projects. In 1987 the Clean Water Act was amended to include stormwater discharges in the NPDES program. The MS4 portal was created as a way to share newly developed tools and resources with MS4s in the Bay watershed (and their consultants) working to meet MS4 permit requirements and the objectives of the Bay TMDL. John Thomas Scharf, History of Maryland from the Earliest Period to the Present Day, p.262, John B.
Black-Jenkins award, "Arbitrators - 1877 Opinion Regarding Boundary Line Between Virginia And Maryland," included as Appendix C in Virginia v. Therefore this series of maps around and during the Civil War period may be helpful for that purpose. The most notorious soldier from Michigan was General George Custer who advanced rapidly through the ranks because his style of daring attacks were without any constraint from fear of losing his life.
This wasn't appreciated by the counties who either didn't have a bounty or was considerable less than the larger counties. Union forces aggressively went after control of this point early in the war to cut off supplies to the confederate armies. Many hard battles were found over and over to hold temporary control the rail system in Tennessee and sourrounding states. The PBS.org website features images, the story behind the film and remarks from Ken Burns about it.
Urban stormwater has the dubious distinction of being the fastest growing nutrient source in the Chesapeake Bay, and is also a major source of sediment, pesticides and trace metals to the Bay. Comprised of federal and state agencies, local governments, nonprofit organization and academic institutions, the Bay Program is organized into committees, goal implementation teams (GITS), workgroups and action teams.
In addition, each Bay state is implementing a watershed implementation plan to reduce pollutants from existing urban areas. In 1990 Phase I of the program was implemented, requiring permits for stormwater discharges from all Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s) in communities of 100,000 people or greater as well as construction sites disturbing 5 acres of land or more. For example, Kansas as this map shows, is only partially orgranized in its eastern half and that was due to sharing a portion of the Mississippi River which like the other major rivers were important to commerce. In 1883, the county of Arenac was organized and the area of Standish and north departed reducing Bay County's size.
The Union Navy controlled the seaways and were successful in baracading confederate ports cutting off supply ships from other countries.
Although the stormwater problem has been recognized for two decades, federal, state and local land development regulations have had little impact on the problem – runoff pollution continues unabated in most parts of the Bay. In 1999, Phase II of the program went into effect requiring permits for MS4s of 50,000 people or greater or with a density of 1000 people per square mile, and construction sites disturbing 1 or more acres of land. What the geographical area of each of the townships was at the time has not been identified. Environmental Protection Agency established a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) or “pollution diet” for the Chesapeake Bay. The TMDL requires significant reductions in Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sediment across the Bay watershed by 2025.
Until that reseach is done its hard to say with any certainty what each of the townships represented geographically during the Civil War.



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