Lightning information and safety,supplies needed for natural disaster,winter home safety topics - PDF Books

Lightning is a giant electrical spark and is caused by the separation of electrical charge in a thunderstorm. How far away can it detect lightning depends on the intensity of the storm and the kind of terrain between our detector and the storm.
When the Lightning Detector detects lightning stokes it may take a while to get the position correct, this is due to it recalculating each time.
Some meteorologists believe that positive lightning strikes indicate storms that are more likely to spin out tornadoes. The most common type of lightning, called intra cloud lightning, strikes between positive and negative areas in the same cloud.
Intra cloud lightning is far more prevalent than cloud-to-ground lightning, and the mean peak currents in intra cloud lightning tend to be smaller.
In the active stages of severe storms, intra cloud flashes can outnumber ground flashes by 10-100 to one. A typical lightning flash lasts about a quarter of a second and consists of 3 or 4 individual discharges called strokes. A lightning stroke begins with a faint predischarge, called the leader, which goes from the cloud to the ground.
The map shows the average annual number of lightning flashes per square kilometer across the world. There are on average approximately 1,800 thunderstorms occurring at any one time around the world, with 100 lightning strikes per second. Lightning is an atmospheric discharge which usually occurs during a rain storm but also frequently during volcanic eruptions. You can estimate how far away a bolt of lightning is by timing how many seconds later you hear the thunderclap. Dogs can hear at much greater distances than their human owners so have an early audio warning of an approaching storm. Lightning travels to the earth through the shortest possible path, therefore any tall objects (such as you with an umbrella over your head) might provide that path.
The largest measured hailstone fell in Nebraska in 2003; the diameter was seven inches and the circumference over 18 inches. Small creatures such as fish and frogs can be sucked up within the strong updrafts of a thunderstorm and carried along before falling back to earth. The irrational fear of thunder and lightning has various names: Astraphopia, Brontophobia and Keraunophobia to name a few.
If lightning strikes a sandy beach, it can turn a small portion of the sand into icicle shaped pieces of glass called fulgurites. A lightning bolt travels at about 14,000 miles per hour and can heat the surrounding air to temperatures five times hotter than the sun. There is something about a warm night when the clouds gather, you hear a distant rumble of thunder.
When you combine and electric charge with an unbalanced atmosphere, you will typically get lightning.
There are many things out there that teach you all about lightning and how electricity works. Watch your local weather conditions to understand if there is a chance of a storm, or one rolling in.
Towering clouds with a cauliflower shape, distant rumblings and dark skies are all  things to look for. If you happen to be inside a vehicle when the storm arrives, stay inside and roll your windows up. Keep as much distance as possible (at least a few feet) from things like appliances, electric boxes, outlets, showers, open windows, sinks and toilets. You can use cell phones not connected to a line during a storm, but you want to avoid using a land line.


There are signs you can watch for that will tell you a lightning strike may be getting ready to hit close to you.  If your hair stands up on end and your skin begins to tingle crouch down on the balls of your feet with your feet close together.
If you happen to be in water when you see the dark skies forming, get to land as soon as possible and seek shelter. If you are on land, find a spot away from long objects, pipes, fences, trees or any metal objects and as low as possible. If you are in the forest, find an area with the shortest trees and get as far away from the tree trunks as you can.
Most lightning strikes average 2 to 3 miles long and carry a current of 10000 Amps at 100 million Volts.
A "Positive Giant" is a lightning strike that hits the ground up to 20 miles away from the storm.Because it seems to strike from a clear sky it is known as "A Bolt From The Blue".
Radar has detected Lightning "Crawlers" traveling at high altitudes (15000 ft to 20000 ft) as they zap from cloud-to-cloud.
Lightning Strikes create powerful radio waves in the frequency range of 3 KHz (audio, VLF) through 10 MHz (shortwave radio). Red Sprite lightning is a newly-discovered type of lightning that zaps between the 40 mile span between the tops of severe storm clouds to the lower ionosphere "D" layer.
Red Sprite Lightning has been associated with very powerful "Atmospheric Gamma Ray Bursts" Nuclear Radiation from Lightning Strikes! The mechanism of charge separation is still poorly understood but there now seems little doubt that ice particle collisions are involved and the conditions favorable to ice particle collisions are strong updrafts which invigorate a thunderstorm's ice factory. It is the lightning bolt we see reaching from the sky to the ground forming a bright, usually forked bolt of light. The great majority of ground flashes are negative, but the most powerful and most dangerous are the positive ground flashes that can also produce sprites in the mesosphere. Intra cloud flashes that leave cloud base and approach ground, but do not reach ground, are called air discharges.
This less common lightning strike occurs between oppositely charged areas of separate clouds.
Each stroke lasts a few ten thousandths of a second, although the visual appearance is longer. The leader establishes a path for the highly luminous return stroke (what you really see) which propagates from the ground up to the cloud. Three minutes of exposure can cause damage to the inner-ear resulting in permanent noise-induced hearing loss. First things first, don't wave any metal rods around or stand under tall objects like trees. During his 35 year career as a park ranger he survived seven strikes and suffered various injuries, including losing his big-toenail. Scientists have found that the hourly grass pollen counts recorded during a thunderstorm can be up to 12 times higher than usual. I wanted to take some time today and share with you some of the most interesting and amazing fun facts about lightning for kids. Don’t forget to share us on your favorite social network, just look to your left, I made it easy! Tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, dust storms, snow storms and forest fires are all situations where lighting will occur. Check out the items below to see how amazing and fun lightning and electricity can be to learn about! These"Positive Giant" flashes strike between the storm's top "anvil" and the Earth and carry several times the destructive energy of a "regular" lightning strike. The VLF (3000 Hz to 30000 Hz) "lightning signatures" can travel around the world, allowing monitoring of world-wide lightning.
Red Sprite Lightning looks like a giant "blood-red"-colored jellyfish having light-blue tentacles.


Stronger storms can be detected further away and flat terrain between us and the storm gives us a better chance of "seeing" the storm. Positive flashes occur in the decaying phases of large thunderstorms and in the very active stages of severe storms. Intra cloud lightning that leaves cloud top and heads upwards are sometimes referred to as cloud-to-ionosphere flashes. The "flicker" sometimes observed in lightning is due to seeing the actual strokes making up the flash. The first stroke of a flash is usually preceded by a "stepped leader", so called because it appears to progress in discrete steps (about 100 segments, each 50 m long) from cloud to ground. In August 1771, a Scottish labourer who had been deaf for 20 years was said to be cured when he was struck by lightning. The positive charge (protons) forms at the top, and the negative charge (electrons) form at the bottom of the cloud.
This will provide you updates with our latest videos and updates to what new fact pages we create! It seems the best one so far [called the "Charge Reversal Concept"] requires that falling graupel (small ice pellets) become negatively charged while small supercooled cloud droplets that strike then bounce off the graupel become positively charged.
The shortwave "lightning signatures can travel half-way around the Earth (the night-time side of the Earth).
We discovered this during an experiment by tuning a hand-held scanner to 475.750 MHz which is the sound carrier for UHF TV Channel 14 (normally "dead"here).
Most cloud-to-ground lightning strikes come from the negatively charged bottom of the cloud traveling to the positively charged ground below. The subsequent strokes are preceded by a "dart leader" which smoothly follows the path of the previous return stroke (and is about 10 times faster).
A lightning storm does a great job of reminding me how tiny and small I am, and how powerful mother nature truly is. In this instance opposites attract, the negative charge begins seeking a positive charge to connect with. The best region to listen for distant shortwave lightning signatures is from 2 MHz through 7 MHz. The latter field is the approximate dielectric strength of the thundercloud medium and its attainment is required to initiate lionization, the initial stage of the large spark that is lightning. Sometimes there is a rarer form that happens from the the positive charge in the top of the cloud to the negative charge on the ground known as a positive flash. Intercloud lightning poses a particular hazard to airplanes in flight because it passes through the clear air between clouds.
Today, I want to share some awesome lightning facts for kids, some fun facts about lightning that will knock your socks off. I hope that you are walking away from this page knowing more about lighting than when you arrived. If the temperature is below -10C then the graupel takes a negative charge and the supercooled cloud droplets take a positive charge. After 3 AM local time you can listen to 3 MHz and hear the beautiful dispersion-ringing of the static as it bounces back-and-forth between the earth and ionosphere. Lightning is one of those truly amazing natural occurrences, and everyone should know more about it! Here are some tips on how to be safe during a lightning storm, on lightning facts for kids. The supercooled cloud droplets rise on updrafts to the top of the storm while the graupel pellets fall and melt in the lower regions of the storm.



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