Information about nuclear power plants,hospital emergency preparedness coordinator,us map rivers labeled - Test Out

About Our mission is to advance the national dialogue on the benefits of clean, safe and affordable nuclear energy. Membership Our diverse members represent business, elected officials, academia, non-profit, minority and labor communities – all in support of nuclear energy. Nuclear 101 Learn how a nuclear energy facility operates and why nuclear energy facilities are so efficient.
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What compelled you to join the CASEnergy Coalition? There is a lack of public knowledge on the benefits of nuclear energy. As America leads the global transition to a low-carbon economy, the continued development of new and advanced nuclear technologies along with support for currently operating nuclear power plants is an important component of our clean energy strategy.
A blinding flash, a crash like thunder and Hiroshima, Japan perishes from the destructive power of an atom bomb in 1942. Although fission reactors can operate using fuel sources such as thorium and plutonium, most nuclear power plants use uranium. If you guessed that radioactive materials might produce radioactive waste, you were correct.
Furthermore, it's expensive to build nuclear power plants, and the nuclear waste that plants dispose of can take a long time to degrade, depending on the fuel type. The atomic bomb changed warfare and geopolitics of the world, handing humanity its very own self-destruct button. For the first time, human race possessed the power to annihilate itself and in fact, all life from the planet.
To measure the explosive power of nuclear weapons or any explosion, a unit called the TNT equivalent (ton of TNT) is used. Neither the ones who used the nuclear bomb for the first time, nor the ones on whom it was used, can ever forget that moment in human history.
Partly stung by Japan's attack on Pearl harbor and to end Japanese aggression in the Pacific region, United States dropped the atomic bomb, code named 'Little Boy', on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945.
As Japan remained defiant, despite the Hiroshima bombing, another bomb, code named 'Fat Man', was dropped over the city of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.
A Japanese engineer, Tsutomu Yamaguchi was one of the few who survived both the atomic bombings, at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The atomic bomb was made possible due to new discoveries in nuclear physics, which unlocked the immense power, locked in radioactive atoms. Nuclear energy plants or nuclear reactors are based on the same principle as the atom bomb. The allied forces, led by USA, started the project to develop the bomb, partly out of fear that the Nazi government of Germany was developing one too.
The total estimated cost, invested in building the first nuclear bomb at the Manhattan project, adjusted for inflation, in today's terms, was USD 20 billion. Today, an even more deadlier nuclear weapon, in the form of the Hydrogen bomb has been developed, which is thousands of times more deadlier than a fission-based atomic bomb.
In 1966, during the cold war, as many as 32,193 nuclear warheads and bombs were built and ready for deployment.
Based on nuclear fusion and fission, the thermonuclear bomb or Hydrogen bomb is more powerful, compared to purely fissile bombs.
The explosive energy unlocked by it, was 1350 to 1570 times the energy released through the bombs that annihilated Hiroshima and Nagasaki, during the last World War. The Tsar Bomba detonation, due to its energy output, became the most powerful artificial explosion, in mankind's history.
The three-stage thermonuclear weapon was based on a Tellar-Ulam design, which incorporated a chemical and fissile nuclear weapon to trigger nuclear fusion in the warhead. Currently, USA has 2,200 strategic nuclear warheads and it spends about 52.4 billion dollars on activities that are related to their security, maintenance, and infrastructure.
A total of 15,357 square miles of the country is devoted to nuclear weapons bases and connected facilities. About 104 million cubic meters of radioactive waste has been generated from nuclear weapons related activities. President Obama and the erstwhile Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed a treaty in 2010, pledging the reduction of strategic nuclear warheads to 1,550 ready-to-use weapons in both nations. Since the Second World War, the countries who possess nuclear weapons have increased in number.
With the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles, the delivery of atom bombs has become even easier and deadlier. Many more developing countries are in the process of acquiring the technology to build nuclear weapons through covert means. Till human aggression and greed is cured, newer and deadlier weapons of mass destruction will keep on being created.
The facts about nuclear weapons, presented above, emphasize the need to push for nuclear disarmament on a global scale. Media coverage of nuclear power often suggests that environmentalists are illogically blocking the expansion of a relatively safe, low-carbon energy source. Price-Anderson limits the liability of nuclear power plants to $10.7 billion in the event of an accident.
A 1997 study by DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory estimated that a reactor spent fuel pool fire could result in as many as 143,000 cancer deaths, and cause as much as $599 billion in property damage. Reauthorizing and extending Price-Anderson shields proposed new reactors from liability, leaving federal taxpayers, not nuclear operators, on the hook for as much as hundreds of billions of dollars in damages in the event of a nuclear catastrophe. Forks over $1.25 billion in government money for planning and constructing a nuclear reactor in Idaho that also generates hydrogen. The culprit is the price of natural gas, which fell from over $13 per million British thermal units in 2008, when many of the applications to build new nuclear plants were lodged, to just $2 last year. InsideClimate News reported that the first nuclear power plant closures in 15 years were "primarily" due to the economics of an aging fleet in a market where no price on carbon is in place and natural gas is increasingly cheap. In a Fox News op-ed, Alex Epstein of the Ayn Rand Center for Individual Rights claimed that as a "consequence of the anti-nuclear hysteria in [the 1970s], the U.S. Cato Institute: There's "Zero Evidence" That Environmental Opposition Is Preventing New Nuclear Plants. Nuclear proponents like to dodge the cost estimates and assert that it is environmental opposition preventing new plant orders. Right now, nuclear power isn't being kept down by safety rules, public opposition or waste problems. A new era of nuclear power wouldn't be "up to the job" of shrinking America's greenhouse gas pollution fast enough to stop the most damaging consequences of global warming, according to a new report from Environment America.
Nuclear power advocates in the United States have championed the idea of constructing at least 100 new nuclear plants by 2030 as a strategy against climate change. The up-front capital costs of 100 new nuclear reactors would be roughly $600 billion and could leap to $1 trillion.
If that same money were "invested in energy efficiency and clean, renewable energy instead," it "could prevent twice as much pollution over the next 20 years," the report said.
Yahoo News ran an article titled "Fukushima fallout may be causing illness in American babies: Study" based on a study that had clear signs of data fixing from anti-nuclear authors that have distorted data in the past. The international version of the New York Times published an op-ed by anti-nuclear activist Helen Caldicott arguing that Chernobyl showed that we should stop nuclear power use, without noting any of the unique failures that led to that disaster.
The Huffington Post suggested that you should "avoid bluefin tuna" as they are "Still Radioactive Years After Fukushima," even though the levels of radiation were well below those that would threaten human health.
U-T San Diego published an op-ed claiming that each San Onfre reactor "produced enough weapons-usable plutonium annually to make 100 A-bombs," without noting that the plutonium at San Onfre is not weapons-grade.


Three Mile Island and Chernobyl represent extreme instances of the problem that seems to trouble the American public more than any other about commercial nuclear power: its apparent danger. In the atomic bomb, they had to use fast neutrons (not moderated) in order to have the entire 80 generations over with before the bomb blew itself apart.
Then-Fox Business host Eric Bolling said that "not a death" came from Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster while "dozens" have died from wind turbines.
The Wall Street Journal published an op-ed suggesting that "low radiation doses may immunize the body against cancer and birth defects by stimulating these repair mechanisms into greater responsiveness, just as vaccines stimulate the immune system." However, the National Research Council states that the "weight of the evidence" does not support a positive impact from low doses of radiation. The Fukushima accident suggests once more that the "defense in depth" design of current nuclear reactors may not be deep enough and that previously rejected suggestions like the filtered vent system should be considered again. Plans to store nuclear waste at Nevada's Yucca Mountain have been abandoned, but even if a facility had been built there, America already has more waste than it could have handled. Three-quarters of the waste sits in water-filled cooling pools like those at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear complex in Japan, outside the thick concrete-and-steel barriers meant to guard against a radioactive release from a nuclear reactor. Spent fuel at Dai-ichi overheated, possibly melting fuel-rod casings and spewing radiation into the air, after Japan's tsunami knocked out power to cooling systems at the plant. Some countries -- such as France, Japan, Russia and the United Kingdom -- reprocess their spent fuel into new nuclear fuel to help reduce the amount of waste.
Because reprocessing isolates plutonium, which can be used to make a nuclear weapon, Presidents Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter put a stop to it in the U.S.
Studies show that the key risk posed by spent nuclear fuel involves a release of radiation that could harm human health or the environment. Our research section features in-depth media analysis, original reports illustrating skewed or inadequate coverage of important issues, thorough debunking of conservative falsehoods that find their way into coverage and other special projects from Media Matters' research department. Republican presidential front-runner Donald Trump doubled down on his debunked defenses of his embattled Trump University, a real estate seminar business, during the Fox News March 3 GOP debate. During a March 3 interview at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC), Bold Media's editorial director Carrie Sheffield sat with Speaker of the House Paul Ryan to promote their joint effort to spin cuts to federal anti-poverty assistance programs as a tool to help hardworking Americans escape poverty.
When President Obama makes his Supreme Court nomination to fill the vacancy on the Supreme Court, conservative media are likely to bring out the same falsehoods they have used for years to provide cover for Republicans' unprecedented judicial obstruction. Media figures are spotlighting the contrast in Republican presidential front-runner Donald Trump's various statements on the media and media processes.
American nuclear energy has safely served as a workhorse of the country’s electricity infrastructure for more than four decades.
The NRC maintains inspectors at every nuclear energy facility in the United States daily to monitor operations at every nuclear facility.
The NRC’s main concern is the safe operation of nuclear energy facilities and the safety of the American public.
Through its continued ongoing commitment to openness and transparency and by prioritizing public safety, the NRC has positioned itself as a globally respected authority on nuclear energy safety and the gold standard for regulation. Why do so many other politicians criticize the US government for covering something up…just what really is going on with this mysterious installation up in Alaska?
The tremendous amount of energy released when you combine or split atoms can also have constructive uses. This is the energy released when a neutron strikes a uranium atom causing that atom to split.
This radioactive element is common, but plants use a special type of uranium, U-235, because its atoms split easily.
That's only 2 percent less than the amount produced by all renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, combined. Radioactive waste can take tens of thousands of years to break down, so this is a major concern. On the other hand, nuclear energy helps reduce the amount of oil and gas a country imports. This article is a compilation of facts about these weapons of mass destruction, with latest information about the size of the world's nuclear stockpile. Till date, the United States of America has lost six nuclear weapons and they haven't been recovered.
The facts presented here, are intended to shed light on the status of nuclear weapons and the history of their development. The bomb was dropped through a B-29 aircraft, named 'Enola Gay', piloted by Colonel Paul W.
It was a gun-type fission weapon, that derived its explosive energy from the fission of Uranium-235.
A majority were killed instantly, while others succumbed to injuries and the aftereffects of nuclear radiation. It exploded at 1,650 feet (500 m) above the city, unleashing 21 Kilotons of TNT equivalent energy and instantly killing about 40,000 people and many more in the following days. This was the place, where the type 91 torpedoes, used in the attack on Pearl Harbor, were manufactured. Here are some facts about the creation of the first atom bomb and the advances in science and technology, that made it possible. The atoms of radioactive elements like Uranium or Plutonium are bombarded with slow neutrons, which makes them unstable and they split into lighter elements, releasing tremendous amount of energy in the process. The only difference is their use of controlled fission chain reaction for the generation of electricity. The first such bomb was created by the United States of America and the allied forces, through the 'Manhattan Project', which involved thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians, working under the leadership of J. On 16th of July 1945, the first successful test of an atomic bomb was conducted in the desert, situated North of Alamogordo in New Mexico. Classified as a thermonuclear device, a hydrogen bomb uses both fission and fusion reactions to unleash hell, when detonated. The first hydrogen bomb, to be tested, was Ivy Mike, which had a total energy output of 11 Megatons of TNT.
The 50 Megaton AN602 hydrogen bomb was tested on October 30, 1961, by the Soviet Union, in Sukhoy Nos, a cape, that is part of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago, situated in the Arctic Ocean, towards the North of today's Russia. This will reduce the current US nuclear arsenal by about 30%, resulting in savings of USD 9.69 billion every year. This nuclear club includes USA, UK, Russia, France, People's Republic of China, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. Many countries possess the capability of launching nuclear-tipped warheads, targeting places which are thousands of miles away. Hope they serve as a reminder to coming generations, of the cruelty and destruction, that humanity is capable of. The chart below was created using data from the nonpartisan Energy Information Administration (EIA) on estimated total system levelized cost, which EIA states is a "convenient summary measure of the overall competiveness of different generating technologies," of new generation from solar photovoltaics (PV), advanced nuclear, conventional coal, hydropower, onshore wind, and conventional combined cycle natural gas-fired power in 2018.
In addition, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included billions of dollars in direct subsidies to nuclear power, and extended the Price-Anderson Act of 1957, which has sharply limited the nuclear industry's liability for accidents for decades.
Also in May, Dominion power shut a nuclear plant in Wisconsin that was licensed for another 20 years, "based purely on economics".
Although it has since recovered to over $4, America's huge reserves of shale gas should stop it from rising much for years to come. Jerry Taylor of the libertarian Cato Institute stated in a post for Wall Street Journal's "The Experts" that "Nuclear proponents like to dodge the cost estimates and assert that it is environmental opposition preventing new plant orders. Construction costs in France--the most "nuclear friendly" free market economy in the world--are just as high as they are here.
A 2002 review by the International Energy Agency (IEA) compared the fatalities per unit of power for major energy sources, examining their full life cycles from extraction to post-use including deaths from accidents.
Scientists from NASA studied the effects of using nuclear power in place of fossil-fuel energy sources over the past four decades. Scientific American reported that "the fly ash emitted by a power plant--a by-product from burning coal for electricity--carries into the surrounding environment 100 times more radiation than a nuclear power plant producing the same amount of energy." However, the scientists emphasized that "health risks from radiation in coal by-products are low," and that other consequences of coal pose greater health risks.
A reactor which is unstable against a loss of water could not be licensed in the United States. The expansion of nuclear power to countries that do not currently have a nuclear bomb worries some security experts as they could potentially enrich the uranium to produce enough weapons-grade uranium for a nuclear bomb.
The Associated Press reported that current storage of an expanding amount of nuclear waste puts the U.S. The more tightly packed they are, the more quickly they can overheat and spew radiation into the environment in case of an accident, a natural disaster or a terrorist attack.
It needs to be stored in a long-term waste repository, but reprocessing reduces the volume of waste by three-quarters.
The highest consequence event posing such a risk would be a self-sustaining fire in a drained or partially drained spent fuel pool, resulting in a severe widespread release of radiation. However, the myth that these programs are harming the poor stems from a long-term right-wing media campaign against social safety programs and disregards experts who explain that these programs are actually helping to alleviate poverty.
They note that days after Trump vowed to expand libel laws so it would be easier to sue the media, he claimed to have too much respect for the press and its off-the-record process to release the controversial record of an off-the-record meeting he had with The New York Times' editorial board. These inspectors are granted unfettered access to every facet of the facility’s workforce and daily operations.


In addition to overseeing the day to day safe operation of nuclear energy facilities, the NRC also oversees ongoing training for nuclear energy facility staff. The nuclear facilities, which are operated by some of the world’s foremost scientists and engineers, are designed to protect the public with state-of-the-art technology and multiple layers of protections and safeguards. In short, strict government regulation, continuous training by the industry, and consistently enhanced and updated security and safety measures have combined to ensure the safety and security inside and outside America’s nuclear energy facilities.
Global warming is directly related to our production of CO2, and nuclear energy is one of the few reliable sources of energy that is carbon clean. Although scientists cannot yet combine atoms using a process called fusion, they can split them. Splitting produces more neutrons, which strike other uranium atoms that release their own energy.
However, nuclear energy's contribution is still less than the 57 percent that natural gas and petroleum supplied. Nuclear power plants are also somewhat environmentally friendly, as they release no harmful greenhouse gases. Since the end of World War II, USA has recorded 32 'Broken Arrows' (Nuclear weapons accidents involving theft, detonation, launching, or firing).The 'A-word' changed everything.
These facts are a reminder of the triumph of human intellect and also its suicidal tendencies. Designed and developed by the Los Alamos Laboratory, it was the second nuclear explosion in history and the first to be actually detonated as a weapon of mass destruction. Along with the energy release, more neutrons are released in the process, which subsequently cause the fission of more atoms, triggering a 'Chain Reaction'.
These thermonuclear weapons can deliver an explosive energy output, which is equivalent to or more than 50 million tons of TNT explosives. All this data is sourced from information provided by the Carnegie Endowment for World Peace and Brookings Institution.
Within minutes, more than half the population of the world could be wiped out, if a nuclear war is triggered. Israel is also known to possess nuclear weapons, though officially, the country has never accepted it.
May they be wiser than their previous generations and realize the importance of tolerance and peaceful coexistence. While nuclear power does provide meaningful climate benefits over fossil fuels, economic factors and the need for strict safety regulations have led many environmentalists to focus instead on putting a price on carbon, which would benefit all low-carbon energy sources including nuclear.
Wind is much cheaper than nuclear, while solar is expected to be more expensive in the near-future.
Even with all of the production tax credits, loan guarantees and a battery of other direct and indirect subsidies, nuclear power remains the most expensive source of conventional electricity on the grid once capital costs are plugged into the equation. The regulations governing new plant licensing and construction were overhauled in the 1990s at the behest of industry, and the Nuclear Energy Institute--the trade association for the industry--today offers no such complaints about federal regulation. They found using nuclear power has prevented around 1.8 million air pollution-related deaths, in addition to reducing global carbon emissions by 64 gigatons, from 1971 to 2009. If the chain reaction begins to run away (because the number of absorbed neutrons in each generation becomes greater than 1) then the fuel heats up. But the nation has no place to permanently store the material, which stays dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Meanwhile, the industry's collective pile of waste is growing by about 2,200 tons a year; experts say some of the pools in the United States contain four times the amount of spent fuel that they were designed to handle. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which regulates the nation's spent nuclear fuel, considers the probability of such an event to be low. Oversight by the NRC adds to the already rigorous culture of safety that exists at American nuclear energy facilities. These protections include four-foot thick, steel reinforced concrete containment buildings that surround each reactor, as well as multi-layered backup systems that function in the event of an emergency.
The advantages far outweigh any disadvantages, and nuclear energy is far cheaper than many believe. This self-sustaining, continuous chain reaction produces the heat used to generate electricity. During fission, the rods absorb thermal energy and the water around them acquires enough heat to produce steam. The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 killed not only people near the plant, and raised cancer rates in survivors, but the radioactive cloud drifted as far as Western Europe.
If you ran one of these plants, your operating costs would be relatively low because you wouldn't need much uranium to produce electricity. When the atomic bomb was first used in the Second World War, bringing it to an end, it also led to the beginning of a new era. Needless to say, Japan surrendered unconditionally in a few days and the Second World War came to an end. The explosion of the atomic bomb is caused by the triggering of such an uncontrolled chain reaction. As of 2013, more than 17000 nuclear weapons exist, of which, 4,300 warheads are known to be operational. However, solar costs are dropping rapidly, while analyses suggest that nuclear has actually been getting more expensive. Factoring in the massive expense of building new reactors--the pair at Vogtle will cost around $15 billion--makes nuclear power even less competitive. We'll only know about environmental opposition once new plants are able to clear the economic hurdle. According to studies GAO reviewed, the probability of such a fire is difficult to quantify because of the variables affecting whether a fire starts and spreads. Nuclear energy workers participate in on-going training, simulations, and drills in order to ensure they are the best trained nuclear facility operators in the world. In addition, the facilities themselves have enhanced security in the form of an increased presence of personnel who frequently patrol security zones and additional high-tech surveillance equipment. Living Close To Trees Comes With A Number Of Health Benefits Hollywood Insider Spills The Beans on Mind Control, Clones, Cults Barack, Ya Coulda Been A Contender!! Fish, wild game, berries and mushrooms as far away as Sweden and Italy still had elevated levels of radioactivity as late as 2006, and the UK only stopped mandatory radioactivity testing of sheep grazing on contaminated lands in 2012. The power locked inside the atomic nucleus was unleashed upon the world, in the form of an atom bomb. However, due to the bad weather conditions and smoke due to previous bombings, the city could not be targeted.
Among these operational warheads, US and Russia have 1800 weapons, which are ready to be deployed at short notice, if need be. That's why nuclear power plants are being retired today in the face of cheap natural gas for as far as the eye can see. The nuclear utilities resisted, however, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as usual, did not press for change.
Studies show that this low-probability scenario could have high consequences, however, depending on the severity of the radiation release. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which holds American nuclear facilities to a higher level of regulatory scrutiny and stricter requirements than any other country. Since 2008 all nuclear facilities have also voluntarily adopted enhanced cyber security measures to proactively protect against related cyber threats and vulnerabilities. In spite of restrictions on food grown or raised in Europe immediately after the Chernobyl accident, it's thought that humans were affected in a wide radius extending well beyond Russia; for example, a rise and fall in the rate of babies born with Down's Syndrome in West Berlin peaked at 9 months after the disaster.
If scientists ever create a working fusion reactor, it will generate a staggering amount of power using the binding energy stored in an atom. That will blow up the reactor, but the energy released will be about the same that you would get from TNT. These consequences include widespread contamination, a significant increase in the probability of fatal cancer in the affected population, and the possibility of early fatalities. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) only requires power plants to protect against attacks carried out by five or six people, according to the report, entitled Protecting U.S. Despite being comparatively powerful than 'Little Boy', the damage inflicted on Nagasaki was lesser, as the bomb missed its target by almost 2 miles. According to studies and NRC officials, mitigating procedures, such as replacement water to respond to a loss of pool water from an accident or attack, could help prevent a fire. Because a decision on a permanent means of disposing of spent fuel may not be made for years, NRC officials and others may need to make interim decisions, which could be informed by past studies on stored spent fuel.
In addition, the NRC does not require plants to protect themselves against attacks from high-powered sniper rifles and rocket-propelled grenades.



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