Influenza pandemic preparedness plan,preparing for a disaster food,emergency preparedness special needs populations - Easy Way

Influenza StrikesThroughout history, influenza viruses have mutated and caused pandemics or global epidemics. Although people dutifully wore masks, these provided only a very limited protection against the influenza virus.
October 24, 2013 by Martin Hill Leave a Comment An Army doctor examines a flu victim at Camp Devens, Massachusetts, which was hard hit by the deadlier second wave of the Spanish Flu. In America’s head-long rush to war in early 1918, few paid much attention to the growing number of soldiers reporting in sick with high fevers, body aches, and chills. From August 1914 to the signing of the armistice in November 1918, about 16 million military personnel and civilians were killed or died of diseases associated with combat.
The Spanish Flu came in three waves, with infection rates rising and ebbing, then rising again.
There was no cure, no vaccine, and little support that medicine could provide other than prayer.
Even today, no one absolutely is sure where such a virulent avian H1N1 flu virus came from. Businesses just as theaters restricted their operations or were closed entirely in an attempt to stop the spread of the Spanish Flu. What we do know is that in January and February 1918, flu swept through rural Haskell County, Kansas. Once brought into the trenches, the virus quickly spread through the British, French, and German forces.
By spring, the flu reached Spain, probably brought across the border by returning Spanish laborers who had been working in France. When the citizens of the belligerent countries finally became aware of the epidemics in their own nations, the flu had a new name.
The flu subsided during the summer months of 1918, so much so that British military authorities declared the end to the Spanish Flu on August 10. As American soldiers continued to arrive in France in late August, French military authorities saw another eruption of influenza among their troops. And now, victims were dying in large numbers – 20 times higher than normal flu – and many only hours after first showing symptoms. As the French and American soldiers left Brest for the battlefields, they took with them the new, deadlier virus. Death from pneumonia secondary to the Spanish Flu was so prevalent, it was ranked as the third leading cause of death in the U.S.
The day before Grist wrote that letter, Philadelphia held a patriotic parade featuring thousands of soldiers, sailors, Boy Scouts, and civic group members.
Desperate to avoid the growing plague, Gunnison, Colorado sealed itself off from the rest of the world.
The military draft imposed to build up America’s small peacetime army was stopped because of the flu, and by October almost all military training was halted. Historians estimate about 700,000 Americans died from the Spanish Flu—more than all the Americans killed in combat in WWI, WWII, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War together. This patriotic parade held in Philadelphia, PA in September 1918 was responsible for infecting thousands of citizens with the Spanish Flu.
When the killing stopped on the battlefields, the dying from influenza and secondary infections continued. A week after the November 11 armistice, the number of flu-related deaths in England soared to 19,000; eventually some 200,000 would die in the United Kingdom.
Countries across the globe established improvised hospitals like this one to treat the overflow of Spanish Flu victims from established care centers.
A postal worker makes his rounds wearing a cotton mask in a futile attempt to avoid the Spanish Flu.
Decoded Everything is a non-profit corporation, dependent on donations from readers like you. Russell Selleck on George Santayana – The Poet Philosopher on Beauty and LoveWalt on Smurl Haunting: Alleged Paranormal Phenomena and Demons!Michael on How Did the People of Pompeii Die? It’s unknown exactly where the particular strain of influenza that caused the pandemic came from; however, the 1918 flu was first observed in Europe, America and areas of Asia before spreading to almost every other part of the planet within a matter of months.
One unusual aspect of the 1918 flu was that it struck down many previously healthy, young people–a group normally resistant to this type of infectious illness–including a number of World War I (1914-18) servicemen. Although the death toll attributed to the 1918 flu is often estimated at 20 million to 50 million victims worldwide, other estimates run as high as 100 million victims.
When the 1918 flu hit, doctors and scientists were unsure what caused it or how to treat it.

Complicating matters was the fact that World War I had left parts of America with a shortage of physicians and other health workers. Officials in some communities imposed quarantines, ordered citizens to wear masks and shut down public places, including schools, churches and theaters. The flu took a heavy human toll, wiping out entire families and leaving countless widows and orphans in its wake. By the summer of 1919, the flu pandemic came to an end, as those that were infected either died or developed immunity.
Non-emergent (medical) transport organizations will be present called ahead to transport getting better epidemic cold patients to their inland, housing be bothered provision, before perhaps to rotate be bothered sites obstinate positive by royal before restricted wellbeing departments. It was, after all, flu season, and wartime expediency would not allow common influenza to slow down military training. From the spring of 1918 to the spring of 1919, the Spanish Flu claimed the lives of at least 40 million people—far more, too, than were lost in the Black Plague.
At its height in the fall of 1918, the Purple Death, as it was also known, could kill a person in mere hours. Between late February and early March, three recruits from Haskell County reported for training at Fort Riley, Kansas.
Though the death rate from this flu was somewhat higher than the normal rate of 0.1%, it wasn’t high enough to cause alarm. And no one realized how quickly it would become a global pandemic— or how deadly it would be. It arrived just as Spain was celebrating the Fiesta de San Isidro, a holiday celebrated by large gatherings of people that allowed the virus to easily propagate. Macfarlane Burnet estimated the relatively mild virus seen in the first wave of Spanish Flu had gone through fifteen to twenty human passages, emerging in the fall of 1918 a much more lethal disease than before. So many sick French and American soldiers were hospitalized that the hospital had to turn away new victims. When the HMS Mantua arrived in Freetown, Sierra Leone, that month, she carried 200 sailors sickened by the flu. An outbreak among German troops entrenched near Ypres, France, so weakened their fighting strength they could not hold out against an attack by Commonwealth troops.
By the time they reached their destination at Camp Hancock, Georgia, a 950 mile trek, 2,000 of the soldiers had to be hospitalized with the flu.
In an attempt to staunch the spread of the disease, public health officials ordered stores and theaters closed. Deadly outbreaks of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus in 2003 and the Novel H1N1 “swine flu” virus in 2009, plus the ongoing threat of terrorist acts involving biological agents, have led scientists to re-examine the etiology of the Spanish Flu. The flu virus is highly contagious: When an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks, respiratory droplets are generated and transmitted into the air, and can then can be inhaled by anyone nearby. The sick, who experienced such typical flu symptoms as chills, fever and fatigue, usually recovered after several days, and the number of reported deaths was low. Despite the fact that the 1918 flu wasn’t isolated to one place, it became known around the world as the Spanish flu, as Spain was one of the earliest countries to be hit hard by the disease. The exact numbers are impossible to know due to a lack of medical record-keeping in many places. People were advised to avoid shaking hands and to stay indoors, libraries put a halt on lending books and regulations were passed banning spitting.
Almost 90 years later, in 2008, researchers announced they’d discovered what made the 1918 flu so deadly: A group of three genes enabled the virus to weaken a victim’s bronchial tubes and lungs and clear the way for bacterial pneumonia. Those who survived that pandemic and lived to experience the 1918 pandemic tended to be less susceptible to the disease.From Kansas to Europe and back again, wave after wave, the unfolding of the pandemic, mobilizing to fight influenza, the pandemic hits, protecting yourself, communication, fading of the pandemic. Some estimates of the number of persons who succumbed to the Spanish Flu reach as high as 100 million. Unlike most influenza variants, this flu killed more than just the very young and the very old.
Others theorize the virus had been around for years, with minor outbreaks occurring in France in 1916 and England in 1917. Infected and uninfected soldiers were packed into cramp troop ships for the voyage to the French port of Brest.
Media censorship prevented journalists from reporting on the large numbers of soldiers coming down ill in both the training camps and trenches. Spain’s King Alfonso XIII and the country’s prime minister came down ill with it, as did many cabinet members.
The influenza virus was only in waiting; changing itself, mutating into a more efficient predator.

They, in turn, infected the dock workers, who then spread it to every other ship that stopped in Freetown. In Spain, which gave the pandemic its name, Catholic Masses held to pray for deliverance only helped spread the virus faster.
Armed Forces Institute, and Professor John Oxford, of London’s Queen Mary College, have isolated specimens of the 1918 flu virus from the bodies of persons who died nearly a hundred years ago. Additionally, a person who touches something with the virus on it and then touches his or her mouth, eyes or nose can become infected.
However, a second, highly contagious wave of influenza appeared with a vengeance in the fall of that same year. What is known, however, is that few locations were immune to the 1918 flu–in America, victims ranged from residents of major cities to those of remote Alaskan communities.
Additionally, hospitals in some areas were so overloaded with flu patients that schools, private homes and other buildings had to be converted into makeshift hospitals, some of which were staffed by medical students. Basic services such as mail delivery and garbage collection were hindered due to flu-stricken workers.
More than 12,000 Americans perished during the H1N1 (or “swine flu”) pandemic that occurred from 2009 to 2010. It was also particularly harsh for victims 20 to 40 years old—the very population that was fighting at the front.
For several days there were no coffins and the bodies piled up… An extra long barracks has been vacated for the use of the morgue.
Twelve hundred flu victims died daily in Barcelona alone; eventually more than 260,000 Spaniards would perish. It lingered throughout much of 1919, causing outbreaks here and there, but never the devastation the second wave wrought. They hope to isolate genetic material from the virus samples to better under how a normally mild flu virus became so deadly. Victims died within hours or days of their symptoms appearing, their skin turning blue and their lungs filling with fluid that caused them to suffocate.
Even President Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) reportedly contracted the flu in early 1919 while negotiating the Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I. In the end you will transfer living before dull nation where increasingly the government officials instruct you to perform as a result. Communications through Public Health Reports, physicians, newspapers, letters, and telegrams. Soldiers transferring to other military camps carried the virus with them, and soon 24 of the nation’s 36 largest military installations were suffering large outbreaks of influenza. Cyanosis turned the skin blue, then purple, and sometimes nearly black, as the victim literally drowned in their own bodily fluids. In a typical year, more than 200,000 Americans are hospitalized for flu-related complications, and over the past three decades, there have been some 3,000 to 49,000 flu-related deaths in the U.S. Navy was hit with the flu, while 36 percent of the Army became ill, notes Kolata in her book on the subject. Even state and local health departments closed for business, hampering efforts to chronicle the spread of the 1918 flu and provide the public with answers about it. Field hospitals like those normally seen on battlefields began popping up across the country to take in the overflow of flu patients from brick and mortar hospitals. At the time, there were no effective drugs or vaccines to treat this killer flu strain or prevent its spread. Young children, people over age 65, pregnant women and people with certain medical conditions, such as asthma, diabetes or heart disease, face a higher risk of flu-related complications, including pneumonia, ear and sinus infections and bronchitis.
A flu pandemic, such as the one in 1918, occurs when an especially virulent new influenza strain for which there’s little or no immunity appears and spreads quickly from person-to-person around the globe. During the 1920s, researchers estimated that 21.5 million people died as a result of the 1918-1919 pandemic.
Researchers later discovered what made the 1918 pandemic so deadly: In many victims, the influenza virus had invaded their lungs and caused pneumonia.
More recent estimates have estimated global mortality from the 1918-1919 pandemic at anywhere between 30 and 50 million. An estimated 675,000 Americans were among the dead.Research, forgetting the pandemic of 1918-1919, scientific milestones, 20th century influenza or global pandemics.

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