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Dennis Lundstrom, Sales Manager of Nufloors Langley, has an early and vivid memory of what a major disaster looks like. Nufloors Langley is planning to hold a public event in the future so more people can learn about planning for an emergency.
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Go With Natural Gas is a collaborative industry-government initiative to encourage greater use of natural gas in Canada's transportation sector. Emergency preparedness  for Canadians abroad( PDF * 147 kb)The Government of Canada takes your safety and security abroad seriously, and offers a Registration of Canadians Abroad (ROCA) service to all Canadians living or travelling abroad. Emergency management is a shared responsibility that builds a sustainable, prosperous and disaster-resilient society. An Emergency Management Framework for Canada guides and strengthens the way governments work together to protect the safety and security of all Canadians.
The federal, provincial and territorial (FPT) governments joined efforts to produce An Emergency Management Framework for Canada (the Framework), which establishes a common approach for the various FPT emergency management initiatives.
Each FPT government has a responsibility for emergency management and public safety in Canada. Four years into the original version of An Emergency Management Framework for Canada (2007), FPT Ministers Responsible for Emergency Management are pleased to announce the second edition of this well-established and fundamental text.
Addition of a section looking at future directions for FPT emergency management in Canada. This revised edition builds from the original text, strengthening the document's relevance to FPT governments. In Canada, emergency management adopts an all-hazards approach to address both natural and human-induced hazards and disasters. Most emergencies in Canada are local in nature and are managed by the municipalities or at the provincial or territorial level. The fundamental concepts and principles outlined in the Framework flow from emergency management activities and measures undertaken in Canada. The ultimate purpose of emergency management is to save lives, preserve the environment and protect property and the economy.
Prevention and Mitigation – to eliminate or reduce the risks of disasters in order to protect lives, property, the environment, and reduce economic disruption. Preparedness – to be ready to respond to a disaster and manage its consequences through measures taken prior to an event, for example emergency response plans, mutual assistance agreements, resource inventories and training, equipment and exercise programs.
Response – to act during or immediately before or after a disaster to manage its consequences through, for example, emergency public communication, search and rescue, emergency medical assistance and evacuation to minimize suffering and losses associated with disasters. Recovery – to repair or restore conditions to an acceptable level through measures taken after a disaster, for example return of evacuees, trauma counseling, reconstruction, economic impact studies and financial assistance. These four interdependent components may be undertaken sequentially or concurrently, but they are not independent of each other.
Effective implementation of the four emergency management components should be informed by robustness, redundancy, self-organization, and efficiency, which are key attributes of community resilience. Emergency management roles and activities are carried out in a responsible manner at all levels of society in Canada. In an emergency, the first response is almost always by the local authorities or at the provincial or territorial level because disasters occur most often locally. FPT governments have respectively adopted a comprehensive approach to emergency management. Emergency management requires collaboration, coordination and integration to facilitate complementary and coherent action by all partners to ensure the most effective use of emergency management resources and execution of activities.
A risk-based approach informs the four interdependent components of emergency management in Canada.
Emergency management adopts an all-hazards approach in every jurisdiction in Canada by addressing vulnerabilities exposed by both natural and human-induced hazards and disasters. Human-induced disasters that concern emergency management include intentional events that encompass part of the spectrum of human conflict, such as terrorist or cyber attacks.
Resilience is the capacity of a system, community or society to adapt to disturbances resulting from hazards by persevering, recuperating or changing to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning. FPT governments aim to be as open as possible regarding the work each does in emergency management. There is no role more fundamental for FPT governments than preserving the safety and security of their citizens. The composition of the Working Groups is based on the multi­sectoral nature of emergency management and may require the participation of FPT government partners from different departments. The Ministerial tier of the governance structure oversees the Deputy Ministers' tier, which in turn oversees the Senior Officials Responsible for Emergency Management. Regular meetings and teleconferences support the ongoing operations of the entire FPT governance structure. The FPT emergency management governance structure, its Working Groups and the guidelines set out in the Framework has led, among other things, to the creation of FPT emergency management strategies and concordant action plans for their implementation. National strategies and mechanisms stem from, and are created to support and enable the Framework, which are employed to help FPT governments advance their emergency management activities.
Given the continuously evolving emergency management environment, and the recognition that the lifespan of coordination instruments is directly related to their relevancy within this continuously evolving environment, an evergreen compendium document has been developed that lists the FPT coordination instruments. The field of emergency management continues to evolve and FPT governments have contributed to this evolution through evidence-based legislation, policies, programs, activities, standards and other measures grounded in the emergency management principles. Looking ahead, it is important to acknowledge both the foreseeable and unforeseeable issues that may shape future vulnerability, hazards and disasters in Canada. An Emergency Management Framework for Canada is established through FPT governments' emergency management systems. This glossary is provided for reference purposes and is not intended to modify existing definitions in various federal, provincial and territorial laws in effect. Emergency management adopts an all-hazards approach in every jurisdiction in Canada by addressing vulnerabilities exposed by both natural and human-induced hazards and disasters. Refers to processes, systems, facilities, technologies, networks, assets and services essential to the health, safety, security or economic well-being of Canadians and the effective functioning of government. Essentially a social phenomenon that results when a hazard intersects with a vulnerable community in a way that exceeds or overwhelms the community's ability to cope and may cause serious harm to the safety, health, welfare, property or environment of people; may be triggered by a naturally occurring phenomenon which has its origins within the geophysical or biological environment or by human action or error, whether malicious or unintentional, including technological failures, accidents and terrorist acts. The concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through the mitigation and prevention of exposure to hazards, decreasing vulnerability of individuals and society, strategic management of land and the environment, improved preparedness for disaster risks, coordinated response and planning and forward looking recovery measures. A present or imminent event that requires prompt coordination of actions concerning persons or property to protect the health, safety or welfare of people, or to limit damage to property or the environment. The management of emergencies concerning all-hazards, including all activities and risk management measures related to prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. A disaster risk reduction concept that includes consideration for both the hazard of global climate change, as well as community vulnerabilities and resilient capacities. A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
The cumulative emergency management environment, composed of all hazards, risks, vulnerabilities and capacities present in a given area.
Any individual, group, or organization that might be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by an emergency. Actions taken to avoid the occurrence of negative consequences associated with a given threat; prevention activities may be included as part of mitigation. Actions taken to eliminate or reduce the impact of disasters in order to protect lives, property, the environment, and reduce economic disruption.
Resilience is the capacity of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to adapt to disturbances resulting from hazards by persevering, recuperating or changing to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning. The ability to resist or withstand impacts so that inevitable damage from an extreme event does not reach 'disastrous' proportions. The combination of the likelihood and the consequence of a specified hazard being realized; refers to the vulnerability, proximity or exposure to hazards, which affects the likelihood of adverse impact. The concept that sound emergency management decision-making will be based on an understanding and evaluation of hazards, risks and vulnerabilities. The use of policies, practices and resources to analyze, assess and control risks to health, safety, environment and the economy. A sustainable approach is one that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The presence of a hazard and an exposure pathway; threats may be natural or human-induced, either accidental or intentional. The conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards.
This Strategy is based on the recognition by federal, provincial, and territorial governments that mitigation is an important part of a robust emergency management framework, and that all stakeholders are committed to working together to support disaster mitigation in Canada. To promote mitigation through a transparent National Strategy that integrates disaster mitigation into Canada's evolving emergency management framework.
To identify primary actions that will be undertaken by Federal, Provincial and Territorial partners to support implementation of the National Strategy. This Strategy, developed collaboratively by the federal, provincial and territorial governments, sets out a comprehensive, multi-dimensional approach that anticipates joint contributions, community-based partnerships, and national-level initiatives. FPT governments have worked together to develop this National Disaster Mitigation Strategy for Canada.
Mitigation actions include all structural and non-structural risk treatments appropriate to hazards, and leverage or incorporate new, existing and developing disaster risk reduction programs. Finally, the Strategy acknowledges that disaster mitigation includes measures enacted at the local government level, which are critical to creating safe, secure and prosperous communities across Canada. In January 2005, the FPT Ministers Responsible for Emergency Management approved the following goals and principles for disaster mitigation. To protect lives and maintain resilient, sustainable communities by fostering disaster risk reduction as a way of life. The principles reflect the essence of what the National Disaster Mitigation Strategy aims to achieve and how it should be developed. Safeguard Communities – Enhance economic and social viability by reducing disaster impacts. Flexible – Be responsive to regional, local, national and international perspectives. Shared – Ensure shared ownership and accountability through partnership and collaboration. The proposed Strategy will establish ongoing national disaster mitigation program activity areas.
Leadership is essential in the coordination of a national strategy, and in successfully gaining the benefits of mitigation investments. 1 – FPT Senior Officials Responsible for Emergency Management will work collaboratively with all stakeholders to promote and facilitate disaster mitigation initiatives within their own jurisdictions. Facilitate incorporation of disaster risk reduction principles into federal and PT initiatives (e.g.
Recognize the contribution of collaborative critical infrastructure protection initiatives in reducing risk and promoting resiliency in the public and private sector. 2 – Through the NDMS, FPT partners will work with multiple stakeholders to enhance public awareness of risks and mitigation opportunities. Work with non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders (including the private sector) to create public engagement, education, and outreach activities focused on disaster mitigation.
The NDMS recognises that sustainable Canadian mitigation activities must draw from and build upon domestic and international mitigation research initiatives, scientific developments, best practices, and lessons learned from disaster events.
3 – Apply and promote scientific and engineering best practices in order to build a knowledge base for sustainable, cost-effective mitigation decisions that contribute to community resiliency.
Support the identification, development, promotion of scientific and engineering best practices.
Promote and work to enable timely access to standardized data to support hazard identification and risk assessment across Canada in order to inform disaster mitigation priority setting and decision-making. Monitor, and where possible contribute to, mitigation research initiatives, scientific developments, best practices, and lessons learned from disaster events. Develop and leverage new and existing opportunities for FPT cost-shared programs, strategies and initiatives to support the implementation of the NDMS.
A governing structure is needed that addresses the current piecemeal approach to mitigation by concentrating informed decision-making in an effective framework. A governance structure that engages and enhances local-level responsibility is more effective than a top-down approach, especially considering the many opportunities for partnering in local mitigation projects.
The selected governance structure should include opportunities to seek advice from a broad range of stakeholders on an ongoing basis. Strategy activities will be implemented within a shared FPT governance structure, with stakeholders working together with through appropriate channels to ensure the NDMS contributes to the development of sustainable and resilient communities.
This governance model requires participation and commitment of resources at all levels of government. FPT Ministers Responsible for Emergency Management are ultimately responsible for approving the NDMS, and for committing to implementation of the NDMS in their respective jurisdictions.
FPT Ministers are responsible for reviewing and approving a cost-sharing framework that actively supports long-term implementation of the NDMS. Deputy Ministers Responsible for Emergency Management have oversight and implementation responsibility for the NDMS. Deputy Ministers are responsible for periodic review of the NDMS and for providing strategic direction for the NDMS. Deputy Ministers identify and refer issues that require Ministerial direction to the FPT Ministers, with recommended courses of action. The Senior Officials Responsible for Emergency Management (SOREM), serving as a steering committee, set out the overall policies and strategic parameters of the NDMS. Overall, SOREM is responsible for monitoring the success of the program and recommending improvements to the FPT Deputy Ministers for approval. A FPT 'Centre of Mitigation Excellence' will be formed, and will have responsibility for facilitating and implementing the aspects of NDMS with common interest and benefit nationally.
Public Safety Canada will co-chair this standing Centre, with a Provincial or Territorial representative, elected by the PT representatives.
To support implementation of the Strategy, Working Groups will be established as required by SOREM, to undertake issue-specific tasks, such as research, planning, and program development. A PT organization should serve as a single point of contact for local governments, business-owners, and residents on all issues regarding mitigation. Each PT will apply knowledge of risks and vulnerabilities in their jurisdiction to set priorities for mitigation, and to help local government project teams achieve objectives for risk reduction. Local governments should lead disaster mitigation activities in their respective jurisdictions, with the support of PTs.

Accountability means adherence to national guidelines, regular reporting, and audit or review by the next highest oversight organization.
Citizens expect their governments to work together collaboratively, and to be accountable for public spending and the results achieved through public investments. Individual projects funded through the NDMS may also be reviewed and audited to identify best practices and provide Ministers with assurance of results achieved.
The NDMS is premised on an incremental approach to implementation, based on the four program elements and a collaborative FPT approach to governance. Create a 'Centre for Mitigation Excellence' to facilitate information exchange and activities and serve as a focal point for national dialogues on mitigation. Develop and agree on actions to be taken to advance non-structural mitigation program elements.
Oversee national awareness activities aimed at influencing public attitudes pertaining to risk reduction. Utilize the Building Canada Fund to support the National Disaster Mitigation Strategy and structural disaster mitigation priorities. Invest in post-disaster structural mitigation enhancements through the revised Disaster Financial Assistance Arrangements (DFAA) Terms and Conditions. Continue to support local authority community risk assessments through the Joint Emergency Preparedness Program (JEPP). Affaires autochtones et Developpement du Nord Canada Plan national de gestion des urgences.
The following definitions are to be utilized in determining AANDC’s roles and responsibilities for emergency management. All Hazards: The term “all hazards” is the standard by which emergencies are defined under the EMA. Assets: Any real or personal property, tangible or intangible, that a company or individual owns that can be given or assigned a monetary value. Awareness: The continual process of collecting, analyzing, and disseminating intelligence, information or knowledge to allow organizations and individuals to anticipate requirements and to respond effectively. Coordinate: Bring (parts, movements, etc) into proper relation, cause to function together or in proper order. Emergency: An emergency is a present or imminent event that requires prompt coordination of actions concerning persons or property to protect the health, safety or welfare of people, or to limit damage to property or the environment. Emergency Operations Centre: A designated facility established by an agency or jurisdiction to coordinate the overall agency or jurisdictional response and support to an emergency response. Incident Command System: A standardized on-scene emergency management concept specifically designed to allow its user(s) to adopt an integrated organizational structure equal to the complexity and demands of single or multiple incidents, without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries. Issue: An issue is a situation that somehow challenges the public’s sense of appropriateness, tradition, values, safety, security or the integrity of the government. Natural Disaster: A naturally occurring calamitous event bringing great damage, loss, or destruction such as tornadoes, hurricanes, widespread flooding, wildland fires, earthquakes, and related occurrences.
Non-Government Organization (NGO): A non-profit organization that is based on the interests of its members, individuals, or institutions that is not created by government, but may work cooperatively with government. Primary Department: A federal department with the legislated mandate related to a key element of an emergency. Recovery: Steps and measures taken after the emergency to repair and restore conditions to an acceptable level that existed prior to the emergency.
Search and Recovery: Acts that are carried out to recover an individual or individuals when the first response effort has not proven successful.
Threat: Any potential event or act, deliberate, accidental or natural hazard that could cause injury to employees or assets, and thereby affect service delivery adversely. The most common emergencies affecting First Nations are floods, fires or failure of community infrastructure (i.e. The Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) National Emergency Management Plan describes the roles and responsibilities of the Department and its partners in emergency management as well as the concept of operations for responding to and managing an emergency situation in First Nations communities. Emergency management planning at AANDC takes into account that there are various funding arrangements or agreements between AANDC and the provinces for the delivery of emergency management services for First Nations communities. The purpose of the AANDC National Emergency Management Plan is to provide a national framework for the roles and responsibilities of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery activities in First Nations communities across Canada. The provinces and territories are responsible for activities related to emergency management within their respective jurisdictions.
The Emergency Management Act 2007 (EMA) states that each federal minister is responsible for the identification of risks that are within or related to his or her area of responsibility, including those related to critical infrastructure. AANDC’s Treasury Board Program Authority #330 sets out the management terms and conditions for “Contributions for Emergency Management Assistance for Activities on Reserve”.
This Plan is consistent with the Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP) and is an evergreen document that will evolve over time. This Plan applies to emergencies that have the potential to threaten the health, safety and security of First Nations communities.
The vast majority of emergency situations for which AANDC would have responsibility as the primary federal government department are emergency situations that arise in First Nations communities.
Nothing in this plan is intended to diminish, alter or impede the authority, roles and responsibilities, or accountability of any region, province or territory. The main responsibility for emergency management rests with provincial and territorial governments.
The AANDC National Emergency Management Plan applies to emergencies that have the potential to threaten the health and safety of First Nations communities and individuals and that exceed the capacity of the local community to address on their own. AANDC enters into collaborative agreements with provincial governments to ensure that First Nations communities have access to comparable emergency assistance services available to other residents in their respective province. In the North, AANDC collaborates with territorial emergency management organizations and other government departments to manage emergencies that have the potential to affect communities, lands, waters and the environment generally. Four basic pillars of effective emergency management in Canada have been adopted and must be taken into consideration in all aspects of the Department’s emergency management planning and operations. Recovery - Steps and measures taken after the emergency to repair and restore conditions to an acceptable level that existed prior to the emergency.
Public Safety Canada’s Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP) identifies and describes the mechanisms and processes that will be used for emergency management by the Government of Canada. AANDC’s risk environment includes natural or human-induced hazards that may impact First Nations communities. First Nations communities are dispersed across Canada, located in diverse geological and climatic zones and are thus exposed to a wide variety of hazards depending on their locale. Effective management of AANDC’s risk environment involves the four pillars of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
The AANDC National Emergency Management Plan will help to mitigate or reduce the impact of emergencies on the safety, health and security of affected First Nation individuals and property. Traditionally the responsibility to deal with emergencies is placed first on the individual. Key stakeholders and their established roles and responsibilities in relation to this plan are provided below.
Community members should take efforts to protect personal property from the effects of emergencies. First Nations communities have a responsibility to develop and implement Emergency Management plans as effective emergency management starts at the local level. The responsibility for emergency management rests with provincial and territorial governments; however, the AANDC Minister has accepted responsibility for supporting emergency management in First Nations communities. AANDC regions are responsible for developing, exercising, implementing and maintaining regional emergency management plans.
AANDC Headquarters and Regions must work closely together to ensure the timely flow of information during emergencies. Additionally, the Department is committed to search and recovery based on compassionate grounds. At the request of a First Nation community, the leading province or AANDC, non-government organizations (i.e. Regions should identify and communicate with non-government organizations located within their area of responsibility to determine what they can offer First Nations during emergencies.
Other government agencies, such as neighbouring municipalities, could offer support services like security, the provision of basic services and shelter to an evacuated First Nation, or equipment to prepare for or respond to an emergency. Public Safety Canada is the federal government department responsible for promoting and coordinating the preparation of departmental emergency management plans as well as coordinating the government’s response to an emergency through the Government Operations Centre (GOC).
AANDC’s concept of operations, during an emergency, was developed based on the Incident Command System (ICS), a system that defines and establishes clear roles, responsibilities, lines of communication and operating procedures to be assumed by personnel in the management of an emergency situation.
The AANDC Emergency Management Governance Structure is consistent with the structure of the Government of Canada as outlined in the Federal Emergency Response Plan, which involves engaging existing governance structures to the greatest extent possible in responding to an emergency.
The AANDC Minister is the lead Minister for addressing emergency mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery on all Indian lands across Canada. The Deputy Minister of AANDC sits on the DM National Security Committee which is chaired by the National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister, with the Deputy Minister of Public Safety Canada as vice-chair. The Senior Assistant Deputy Minister (SADM) of Regional Operations at AANDC Headquarters is a member of the ADM’s Emergency Management Committee, co-chaired by the Associate Assistant Deputy Minister of Emergency Management and National Security at Public Safety Canada and the Commander of Canada Command. The Director of Emergency and Issue Management in Regional Operations is responsible for the development, implementation and maintenance of AANDC’s National Emergency Management Plan. Regional Directors General are responsible for the overall and effective implementation of the Emergency Management Business Line in their respective regions.
The AANDC Emergency Management Coordination Structure clearly defines the operational lines of reporting between AANDC Headquarters (HQ), AANDC Regions, provincial and territorial emergency management organizations and the Government Operations Centre (administered and operated by Public Safety Canada). First Nations communities should ideally have a structure that aligns with their provincial or federal emergency management community of practice to deal with localized emergencies. AANDC Regional EM Operations Centres should ideally mirror the HQ organization but on a smaller scale due to limited staff. The AANDC HQ EM Operations Centre is responsible for coordinating and monitoring emergency management activities impacting First Nations communities from a national perspective and responding to queries from senior officials within the Department, including the offices of the Minister and Deputy Minister (DM). The Government Operations Centre (GOC) is housed within Public Safety Canada on behalf of the Government of Canada.
During day to day activities, Operations staff are responsible for monitoring, validating, and providing situational awareness products such as notifications, weekend and weekly summaries, fire and flood reports to senior management, the Government Operations Centre, law enforcement and other agencies on emergencies impacting First Nations communities. Planning staff are responsible for ensuring that emergency management plans are developed, maintained and promoted.
Communications staff are part of emergency operations during an emergency and play a key role in managing external communications by ensuring that media outlets are kept informed and up to date.
Each AANDC region is responsible for working with First Nations communities and Emergency Management Organizations to evaluate the threat and risks associated with emergencies and take steps to mitigate potential emergencies (i.e. Regions and Headquarters are responsible for activities arising from the preparedness phase of emergency planning, including on-going training, exercising and, in the Regions, supporting the development and maintenance of First Nations Emergency Management Plans.
Capturing and reporting information regarding emergencies is also an important component of preparedness. Response includes those actions during or immediately after an emergency in order to manage its consequences to minimize suffering and losses. The declaration of an emergency in a First Nation community involves a shared response amongst the First Nation, the province or territory and AANDC as each have a role to play. The responsibility for identifying and initiating a response to an emergency rests with the local First Nations community and the appropriate provincial Emergency Management Organization (EMO). Recovery focuses on the reparation or restoration of conditions to an acceptable level through measures taken after the emergency.
Returning a community to a state of normalcy, which existed prior to the emergency, is a priority. Funding for assistance related to emergencies will be in accordance with departmental policies and agreements. The AANDC National Emergency Management Plan is in a constant state of activation for routine day-to-day departmental activities related to emergency management.
In order to assist senior departmental officials with their roles and responsibilities before, during and after an emergency, a Senior Officials Desk Book has been developed. Level 1 is the routine (day-to-day) activities of the Emergency and Issue Management Directorate within the Regional Operations Sector at AANDC HQ as well as the regional emergency management programs. Level 2 is the partial augmentation of the AANDC HQ EM Operations Centre and relevant Regional EM Operations Centre(s). Level 3 is the extensive augmentation of AANDC HQ EM Operations Centre (including the GOC) and relevant Regional EM Operations Centre(s).
Headquarters emergency management staff will monitor events and activities with regional emergency management coordinators in order to gather sufficient information to keep records of activities and events, and to be able to provide periodic statistics for senior management and regions. During normal business hours, situation reports are provided through normal reporting mechanisms. It is important to note that formats for these reports must be identical between HQ and Regions. An emergency management staff contact list has been developed and is updated regularly in order to ensure that all contact information is up-to-date, especially for emergency management duty personnel and for contact purposes during and outside regular business hours. The Department and stakeholders must capitalize on their own and others’ experiences, successes, as well as failures, to continually strive to improve on policies, plans, procedures, processes and operations.
The Lessons Learned and After Action Report is not an audit and is to be considered a learning tool.
A draft of the lessons learned and after action report should be completed no later than 30 calendar days after the conclusion of the emergency or operation.
Program awareness pertaining to the emergency management plan must be promoted and shared within the Department, especially to those who are directly or indirectly involved with any aspect of emergency management services and activities. The development of training and exercise scenarios must be a common practice for the effective administration of emergency management functions within the Department.
Each region is responsible for taking steps from within their annual budgets to mitigate potential emergencies. Regions shall identify from annual regional budgets, the funds necessary to meet expenditures incurred by activities arising from the preparedness phase of emergency planning. It is important that all First Nations be treated equally and consistently on a national basis as jurisdictions permit regarding the reimbursement of costs associated with emergency management. The Emergency and Issue Management Directorate (EIMD) of the Regional Operations Sector is responsible for the management and maintenance of AANDC’s National Emergency Management Plan.
The Plan will undergo a full review by AANDC in consultation with the Regional Directors General and their respective Regional Emergency Management Coordinators and other key stakeholders, a minimum of every three years.
Notwithstanding this departmental review process, the fact remains that emergency management policies, plans and procedures are all operational documents that should be consulted on a routine basis. They hosted a session on emergency preparation and how to survive and bounce back from a disaster.
He was a young child when his family’s home, on the Sumas floodplain, was inundated in the Fraser River flood of 1948. The Framework aims to enable consolidation of FPT collaborative work and ensure more coherent, complementary actions among the different FPT governmental initiatives.
These are increasing in both number and frequency across the world, resulting in ever growing human suffering and economic cost.
The Framework supports legal and policy frameworks, programs, activities, standards and other measures in order to enable and inspire all emergency management partners in Canada to work in better collaboration to keep Canadians safe.

There is a strong relationship between long-term sustainable recovery and prevention and mitigation of future disasters.
Ensuring a strong and seamless relationship across these components and with appropriate emergency management partners is critical to effective emergency management.
It is now recognized that addressing the modern hazardscape requires FPT governments to deal with specific risks, hazards and vulnerabilities through prevention and mitigation as well recovery measures. They reflect the essence of emergency management in Canada and frame the key underlying beliefs and goals of emergency management.
Legal and policy frameworks and other arrangements establish guidelines and standards to ensure that due diligence is exercised and accountability is respected in the conduct of emergency management activities.
Should a provincial or territorial government require resources beyond their capacity to cope in an emergency or disaster, the federal government responds rapidly to any request for assistance by a provincial or territorial government. The approach is proactive and integrates risk-based measures, all-hazards, partners from all parts of society and coordinates and balances efforts across the prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery functions. Complementary emergency management systems at all levels are to provide for concerted efforts to facilitate timely and effective prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery measures to deal with disasters. This approach emphasizes the importance of assessing vulnerability to all hazards in order to determine the optimal balance and integration of measures to address vulnerabilities and risks. This focus is critical because although many hazards cannot be prevented, disasters may be prevented.
The all-hazards approach increases efficiency by recognizing and integrating common emergency management elements across all hazard types, and then supplementing these common elements with hazard specific sub-components to fill gaps only as required. Emergencies and disasters result when a hazard interacts with a vulnerability to produce serious and adverse consequences that may, for an undetermined period of time, exceed the ability to cope.
They also include electrical power outages or other disruptions to a critical infrastructure sector (for example, finance, water supply and telecommunications) that result from a human or technological accident or failure. Resilient capacity is built through a process of empowering citizens, responders, organizations, communities, governments, systems and society to share the responsibility to keep hazards from becoming disasters.
Clear communications by appropriate authorities are a critical and continuous process before, during and after an emergency.
FPT Deputy Ministers are the second tier of the structure, and are responsible for implementing ministerial decisions by setting priorities and assigning FPT Senior Officials Responsible for Emergency Management to take responsibility for action items. There are four standing Working Groups that are organized according to the four components of emergency management. The Senior Officials Responsible for Emergency Management in turn oversees the various Working Groups and then report up the governance structure on progress. Working Groups hold meetings and teleconferences as required based on workload and timelines, while respecting the schedule of other tiers of the FPT emergency management governance structure. In their most effective form, these tools work together to create a coherent and complementary FPT government approach to emergency management in Canada. Critical infrastructure can be stand-alone or interconnected and interdependent within and across provinces, territories and national borders. Unsustainable alterations to the physical environment and human interactions with it, may create or exacerbate risks that exist with or without climate change. Resilient capacity is built through a process of empowering citizens, responders, organizations, communities, governments, systems and society to share the responsibility to keep hazards from becoming disasters. It is a measure of how well prepared and equipped a community is to minimize the impact of or cope with hazards. The cumulative effect of these disasters produces a significant personal, material and economic strain on individuals, communities and the fiscal capacity of all levels of governments.
Mitigation is a key element of emergency management which to date has received relatively little emphasis in spite of increasing disaster costs. Responding directly to national consultation findings, the NDMS supports all-hazards emergency management, with an initial focus on reducing risk posed by natural hazards, an area that stakeholders agree requires urgent attention. FPT Emergency Management officials will work collaboratively to promote and facilitate disaster mitigation initiatives within their own jurisdictions, and in cooperation with other stakeholders, to affirm disaster risk reduction as a way of life for all Canadians. The NDMS will support new and ongoing research efforts that build a knowledge base for mitigation decisions. Activities under the Strategy will be implemented over time on an incremental, step-by-step basis, building on good practices and results achieved. Preparedness activities consist of all hazard planning for response and recovery during emergencies as well as training and exercising of the plans.
However, Section 91(24) of the Constitution Act 1867 prescribes the legislative authority of the Government of Canada for "Indians, and Lands reserved for the Indians". The Program structure recognizes that the provinces and territories have constitutional jurisdiction for emergency management, while the federal government has jurisdiction for Indians and lands reserved for Indians. The intent is to harmonize AANDC’s policies, plans and procedures with those of provinces, territories and other federal departments to contribute to a coordinated Government of Canada response to emergencies impacting First Nations communities.
However, under the EMA, each federal minister is responsible for identifying risks that are within or related to their area of responsibility and developing appropriate emergency management plans in respect of those risks. In this context, it would be consistent with Canada’s risk environment which includes the traditional spectrum of natural and human-induced hazards such as wildland and urban interface fires, floods, hazardous material spills, transportation accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, disease outbreaks or pandemics, major power outages, and cyber incidents as well as the risk of terrorism. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders are clearly defined and understood by all. As the capacity of the individual to cope with the emergency diminishes, the responsibility then shifts to successive levels of government, as the resources and expertise of each are needed.
As such, through negotiated agreements with AANDC, provinces may respond to emergencies in First Nations communities in support of stated objectives in exchange for the reimbursement of eligible expenses. It is important that all First Nations have comparable emergency management services to nearby non-aboriginal communities. Red Cross), other government departments or agencies, and Aboriginal organizations may support the management of an emergency. Once identified, these should be grouped and documented within regional emergency management plans for practical and reference purposes, along with contact information. The Director of Operations and Implementation from the Regional Operations Sector is the Committee Secretary. AANDC HQ and Regions must work closely together to ensure the timely flow of information on emergencies and issues that could lead to emergencies. Some of these EMOs have negotiated funding agreements with AANDC for the provision of response functions to emergencies in First Nations communities. Response activities include emergency public communication, search and rescue, emergency medical assistance and evacuation. It is important that all First Nations be treated equally and consistently on a national basis as jurisdictions permit regarding the reimbursement of eligible costs associated with emergencies. Once a situation or event is terminated, it is a good business practice to regroup key staff and stakeholders as soon as possible to conduct a formal debrief to identify areas for improvement and to identify key lessons learned. It is to be shared nationally and on a constructive basis to enhance the Department’s emergency management capabilities. Responsibility to fund emergency management rests with AANDC regions through the fiscal budgetary allocation process and will be in accordance with departmental policies and agreements.
AANDC Regions manage response and recovery financial support in conjunction with Headquarters.
EIMD will work collaboratively with regional counterparts, Communications Branch, and other stakeholders to update this plan and the annexes, as required by changes in policy, legislation or to incorporate lessons learned from exercises and actual emergencies. Given the dynamic and continuously evolving nature of emergency management across every jurisdiction in Canada, the Framework is subject to revision every five years by FPT governments to ensure that it remains accurate and relevant. In the broadest sense, emergency management raises the understanding of risks and contributes to a safer, prosperous, sustainable, disaster resilient society in Canada.
Greater attention or investment in prevention and mitigation can prevent disasters or significantly reduce the social, economic and environmental costs and damages when events occur. These principles are to be considered as a whole to facilitate the attainment of their intended purpose. Emergency management responsibilities in Canada are shared by FPT governments and their partners, including individual citizens who have a responsibility to be prepared for disasters and contribute to community resiliency.
Coherency of action relies on the existence of clear and appropriate roles, responsibilities, authorities and capacities of emergency management partners and is based on widely shared expectations, understanding and support. The presence of a hazard or a threat that is related to a vulnerability constitutes a risk. A systematic assessment of hazards, threats, risks and vulnerabilities relating to people in a geographic area or an organization by appropriate authorities should be carried out before appropriate emergency management measures may be developed. Natural hazards and disasters that are relevant to emergency management include extreme natural events such as floods, hurricanes, storm surges, tsunamis, avalanches, landslides, tornadoes, wild-land urban-interface forest fires and earthquakes. In addition, biological hazards, for example animal or human health diseases that risk causing a pandemic influenza, concern emergency management in Canada. Resilience minimizes vulnerability; dependence and susceptibility by creating or strengthening social and physical capacity in the human and built-environment to cope with, adapt to, respond to, and recover and learn from disasters. Working Groups report to the FPT Senior Officials Responsible for Emergency Management, submitting proposals and reporting on the results of their ongoing work.
Canada benefits from a collaborative, comprehensive emergency management system, which must continue to adapt to changes in the hazardscape and build a more resilient Canada.
This cornerstone document guides the close collaborative work of FPT governments and helps clarify the FPT approach in order to facilitate the broad understanding of FPT emergency management.
Disruptions of critical infrastructure could result in catastrophic loss of life, adverse economic effects, and significant harm to public confidence. As such, sustainable adaptation must be considered both within context of climate change and the broader hazardscape.
Through the implementation of this national disaster mitigation strategy, disaster risk reduction benefits can be achieved, to the benefit of individuals, communities and infrastructure. In Canada, $63.2 million invested in the Manitoba Red River Floodway in 1960 has saved an estimated $8 billion in potential damage and recovery costs. It consists of identifying the vulnerabilities and in taking proactive measures to mitigate the situation. The response will require a complex level of coordination of operations and communications depending on the nature of the emergency. As per the Government of Canada’s Federal Emergency Response Plan, AANDC’s National Emergency Management Plan adopts an all-hazards approach to emergency management. In AANDC’s case, the Minister of AANDC has accepted responsibility for supporting on-reserve First Nations communities in the four pillars of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. AANDC’s National Emergency Management Plan is consistent with the Federal Emergency Response Plan. This recognizes that when an emergency occurs, people will see to their own safety to the greatest extent possible. Therefore, to avoid any confusion or problems during an emergency, formal emergency management agreements must be negotiated by the AANDC regions.
Bilateral discussions and maintaining contact on a pre-determined basis are good business practices in establishing and maintaining partnerships with these groups. The Operations Committee has the authority to review and provide direction on emergency management issues requiring the attention of the Deputy Minister, including committing money for emergency management that might impact other program budgets. Managers are authorized to approve spending in accordance with AANDC financial authority levels. Costs will be tracked and identified on an annual basis by both the AANDC Regions and Headquarters.
But we tend to push this to the background, adding it to our to do list, but never really truly addressing the “what if” and making a plan. Natural and human-induced hazards and disasters have become more prevalent in urban and rural communities. Forward looking recovery measures allow communities not only to recover from recent disaster events, but also to build back better in order to help overcome past vulnerabilities.
They aim to support the design, implementation and ongoing improvement of policies, programs, procedures, guidelines and activities that taken together comprise the emergency management systems of Canada. Provincial and territorial governments have responsibility for emergency management within their respective jurisdictions. Risk management practices facilitate improved decision-making by clarifying the dimensions of risk, including its causes, likelihood of occurrence and possible severity of consequences.
Inadequate management of risks can produce extreme adverse consequences for society, communities, organizations or individuals. Since it was originally announced in 2007, An Emergency Management Framework for Canada has demonstrated its value through FPT activities and beyond. Rather, it emphasizes the leveraging of synergies common across hazards and maintaining a streamlined and robust emergency management system. Individuals then seek outside assistance from local, provincial or territorial authorities if necessary. Such agreements must be reviewed and amended on a scheduled basis in consultation with the Regional Operations Sector in AANDC’s Headquarters. Guidelines for eligible and non-eligible expenses will be developed to ensure comparability with their respective provincial or territorial disaster assistance program. The federal government exercises leadership at the national level relating to emergency management responsibilities in its exclusive fields of jurisdictions and on lands and properties under federal responsibility. Placing greater emphasis on risk reduction measures is a sustainable way to address the trend of rising social-economic costs of disasters that has occurred under approaches focused heavily on preparedness and response. Risk-based approaches that are recognized, flexible and effective, allow emergency management activities, programs and systems to be tailored to address particular environments and to accept that living with certain risks may be both prudent and safe.
As Canada continues to strive to become safer and more resilient, this Framework should be used regularly to build a shared understanding of FPT emergency management.
Provincial and territorial governments will in turn request federal support if an emergency moves beyond their capacity.
Nothing in this section is intended to diminish, alter or impede the authority, roles and responsibilities, or accountability of any one program manager or policy centre. In most cases, the Department assumes responsibility for 100% of the eligible cost of emergency assistance activities carried out exclusively in First Nations communities. These communications are instructive on the requirements for short, medium and long-term recovery. The intent is to ensure that prior to an emergency, the groups identified below are prepared to cope with the emergency in the best way possible. If the activities address situations that are not restricted to First Nations communities (e.g. An accessible version of Acrobat Reader, which includes support for screen readers, is also available.
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