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They are joined by Navy Seals, the CIA and other experts as they discuss the methods used to protect yourself and your family. An all-out nuclear war between Russia and the United States would be the worst catastrophe in history, a tragedy so huge it is difficult to comprehend. While working with hundreds of Americans building expedient shelters and life-support equipment, I have found that many people at first see no sense in talking about details of survival skills.
Many thousands of tons of earth from the crater of a large explosion are pulverized into trillions of particles. Each contaminated particle continuously gives off invisible radiation, much like a tiny X-ray machine while in the mushroom cloud, while descending, and after having fallen to earth. The smallest fallout particles those tiny enough to be inhaled into a person’s lungs are invisible to the naked eye. The air in properly designed fallout shelters, even those without air filters, is free of radioactive particles and safe to breathe except in a few’ rare environments as will be explained later. Figure 1.2 also illustrates the fact that at a typical location where a given amount of fallout from an explosion is deposited later than 1 hour after the explosion, the highest dose rate and the total dose received at that location are less than at a location where the same amount of fallout is deposited 1 hour after the explosion. Within two weeks after an attack the occupants of most shelters could safely stop using them, or could work outside the shelters for an increasing number of hours each day. Fortunately, the human body can repair most radiation damage if the daily radiation doses are not too large.
Only a very small fraction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki citizens who survived radiation doses some of which were nearly fatal have suffered serious delayed effects. The actual paths of gamma rays passing through shielding materials are much more complicated, due to scattering, etc., than are the straight-line paths shown in Fig.
If additional halving-thicknesses of packed earth shielding are successively added to the five thicknesses shown in Fig. Many earth-covered family shelters were essentially undamaged in areas where blast and fire destroyed all buildings. The great life-saving potential of blast-protective shelters has been proven in war and confirmed by blast tests and calculations. Today few if any of Russia’s huge intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) are armed with a 20-megaton warhead. Unfortunately, many militarily significant targets – including naval vessels in port and port facilities, bombers and fighters on the ground, air base and airport facilities that can be used by bombers, Army installations, and key defense factories – are in or close to American cities.
Today few if any of Russia’s largest intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) are armed with a 20-megaton warhead. This is not to say that there would be no genetic damage, nor that some fetuses subjected to large radiation doses would not be damaged.
A realistic simplified estimate of the increased ultraviolet light dangers to American survivors of a large nuclear war equates these hazards to moving from San Francisco to sea level at the equator, where the sea level incidence of skin cancers (seldom fatal) is highest- about 10 times higher than the incidence at San Francisco. Non-propagandizing scientists recently havecalculated that the climatic and other environmental effects of even an all-out nuclear war would be much less severe than the catastrophic effects repeatedly publicized by popular astronomer Carl Sagan and his fellow activist scientists, and by all the involved Soviet scientists. Their models indicate that in July (when the greatest temperature reductions would result) the average temperature in the United States would be reduced for a few days from about 70 degrees Fahrenheit to approximately 50 degrees.
Persons who want to learn more about possible post-attack climatic effects also should read the Fall 1986 issue of Foreign Affairs. Soviet propagandists promptly exploited belief in unsurvivable “nuclear winter” to increase fear of nuclear weapons and war, and to demoralize their enemies. Figure 1.6 pictures how Russian scientists and civil defense officials realistically described – before the invention of “nuclear winter” – the burning of a city hit by a nuclear weapon.
Translation: [Radioactive] contamination occurs in the area of the explosion and also along the trajectory of the cloud which forms a radioactive track.
The theory that smoke from burning cities and forests and dust from nuclear explosions would cause worldwide freezing temperatures was conceived in 1982 by the German atmospheric chemist and environmentalist Paul Crutzen, and continues to be promoted by a worldwide propaganda campaign.
Until 1985, non-propagandizing scientists did not begin to effectively refute the numerous errors, unrealistic assumptions, and computer modeling weakness’ of the TTAPS and related “nuclear winter” hypotheses. Effective refutation of “nuclear winter” also was delayed by the prestige of politicians and of politically motivated scientists and scientific organizations endorsing the TTAPS forecast of worldwide doom.
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Executive Director Aton Edwards and Judge Jeanine Pirro as they discuss the vulnerabilities of our national electrical grid to cyber and physical terrorist attacks, natural disasters,  and EMP (electromagnetic pulse) weapons. Those who hold exaggerated beliefs about the dangers from nuclear weapons must first be convinced that nuclear war would not inevitably be the end of them and everything worthwhile. The descending radioactive particles are carried by the winds like the sand and dust particles of a miles-thick sandstorm cloud except that they usually are blown at lower speeds and in many areas the particles are so far apart that no cloud is seen. These tiny particles would fall so slowly from the four-mile or greater heights to which they would be injected by currently deployed Soviet warheads that most would remain airborne for weeks to years before reaching the ground. The radioactive decay, as this lessening is called, is rapid at first, then gets slower and slower. Weathering effects will reduce the dose rate further,’ for example, rain can wash fallout particles from plants and houses to lower positions on or closer to the ground.
The longer fallout particles have been airborne before reaching the ground, the less dangerous is their radiation.
Exceptions would be in areas of extremely heavy fallout such as might occur downwind from important targets attacked with many weapons, especially missile sites and very large cities. As will be explained in Appendix B, a person who is healthy and has not been exposed in the past two weeks to a total radiation dose of more than 100 R can receive a dose of 6 R each day for at least two months without being incapacitated. The reader should realize that to do essential work after a massive nuclear attack, many survivors must be willing to receive much larger radiation doses than are normally permissible.
However, the radiation dose that the occupants of an excellent shelter would receive while inside this shelter can be reduced to a dose smaller than the average American receives during his lifetime from X rays and other radiation exposures normal in America today. 1.3, the protection factor (PF) is successively increased from 32 to 64, to 128, to 256, to 512, to 1024, and so on.
It can cause second-degree skin burns to exposed people who are as far as ten miles from a one-megaton (1  MT) explosion.
At rural and suburban building densities, most people in earth- covered fallout shelters would not have their lives endangered by fires. Figure 1.5 shows a typical earth covered, backyard family shelter with a crude wooden frame. For example, the area in which the air bursting of a 1-megaton weapon would wreck a 50-psi shelter with blast doors in about 2.7 square miles.
Now a huge Russian ICBM, the SS-18, typically carries 10 warheads, each having a yield of 500 kilotons, each programmed to hit a separate target.


To explode enough nuclear weapons of any size to completely destroy American cities would be an irrational waste of warheads. In the event of an all-out Soviet attack, most of these ‘”soft” targets would be destroyed by air bursts.
A huge Russian ICBM, the SS-18, typically carries 10 warheads each having a yield of 500 kilotons, each programmed to hit a separate target.
It concludes that the incidence of abnormalities is no higher among children later conceived by parents who were exposed to radiation during the attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki than is the incidence of abnormalities among Japanese children born to un-exposed parents.
But the overwhelming evidence does show that the exaggerated fears of radiation damage to future generations are not supported by scientific findings.
However, the percent of the stratospheric ozone destroyed by a given amount of nitrogen oxides has been greatly overestimated in almost all theoretical calculations and models.
Many additional thousands of American survivors might get skin cancer, but little or no increase in skin cancers might result if in the post-attack world deliberate sun tanning and going around hatless went out of fashion. The world will be frozen if only 100 megatons (less than one percent of all nuclear weapons) are used to ignite cities.
Conclusions reached from these recent, realistic calculations are summarized in an article, “Nuclear Winter Reappraised”, featured in the 1986 summer issue of Foreign Affairs, the prestigious quarterly of the Council on Foreign Relations. This issue contains a long letter from Thompson and Schneider which further demolishes the theory of catastrophic “nuclear winter.” Continuing studies indicate there will be even smaller reductions in temperature than those calculated by Thompson and Schneider. Because raging city firestorms are needed to inject huge amounts of smoke into the stratosphere and thus, according to one discredited theory, prevent almost all solar heat from reaching the ground, the Soviets changed their descriptions of how a modern city will burn if blasted by a nuclear explosion. Buildings in the blasted area for miles around ground zero will be reduced to scattered rubble – mostly of concrete, steel, and other nonflammable materials – that will not burn in blazing fires. The old-fashioned buildings of those cities contained large amounts of flammable materials, were ignited by many thousands of small incendiaries, and burned quickly as standing structures well supplied with air.
This well funded campaign began in 1983 with televised scientific-political meetings in Cambridge and Washington featuring American and Russian scientists. A principal reason is that government organizations, private corporations, and most scientists generally avoid getting involved in political controversies, or making statements likely to enable antinuclear activists to accuse them of minimizing nuclear war dangers, thus undermining hopes for peace.
Furthermore, the weakness’ in the TTAPS hypothesis could not be effectively explored until adequate Government funding was made available to cover costs of lengthy, expensive studies, including improved computer modeling of interrelated, poorly understood meteorological phenomena.
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Only after they have begun to question the truth of these myths do they become interested, under normal peacetime conditions, in acquiring nuclear war survival skills. Thousands of tons of the particles are carried up into a mushroom-shaped cloud, miles above the earth. The largest, heaviest fallout particles reach the ground first, in locations close to the explosion. By that time their extremely wide dispersal and radioactive decay would make them much less dangerous.
Decay of the dose rate of radiation from fallout, from the time of the explosion, not from the time of fallout deposition. To know when to come out safely, occupants either would need a reliable fallout meter to measure the changing radiation dangers, or must receive information based on measurements made nearby with a reliable instrument.
Otherwise, too many workers would stay inside shelter too much of the time, and work that would be vital to national recovery could not be done. The design features of such a shelter include the use of a sufficient thickness of earth or other heavy shielding material. But when averaged out, the effectiveness of a halving-thickness of any material is approximately as shown. This shelter was essentially undamaged, although less than 100 yards from ground zero at Nagasaki.4 The calculated maximum overpressure (pressure above the normal air pressure) was about 65 pounds per square inch (65 psi). Within this roughly circular area, practically all them occupants of wrecked shelters would be killed by blast, carbon monoxide from fires, or radiation.
In contrast, similar air bursting of one 20- megaton weapon (equivalent in explosive power to 20 million tons of TNT) would destroy or severely damage the great majority of houses out to a distance of 16 miles from ground zero.6 The area of destruction would be about 800 square miles – not 6,330 square miles. The Soviets can make much better use of most of the warheads that would be required to completely destroy American cities; the majority of those warheads probably already are targeted to knock out our retaliatory missiles by being surface burst or near-surface burst on their hardened silos, located far from most cities and densely populated areas.
Peeling fruits and vegetables removes essentially all fallout, as does removing the uppermost several inches of stored grain onto which fallout particles have fallen. One such calculation is to multiply the deaths produced per kiloton exploded over Hiroshima or Nagasaki by an estimate of the number of kilotons in either side’s arsenal. People could not work outdoors in daytime for years without dark glasses, and would have to wear protective clothing to prevent incapacitating sunburn.
Furthermore, almost all of today’s warheads are smaller than those exploded in the large- weapons tests mentioned above; most would inject much smaller amounts of ozone-destroying gasses, or no gasses, into the stratosphere, where ozone deficiencies may persist for years. World-enveloping smoke from fires and the dust from surface bursts will prevent almost all sunlight and solar heat from reaching the earth’s surface. No firestorm has ever injected smoke into the stratosphere, or caused appreciable cooling below its smoke cloud.
A barrage of newspaper and magazine articles followed, including a scaremongering article by Carl Sagan in the October 30, 1983 issue of Parade, the Sunday tabloid read by millions. Stephen Schneider has been called a fascist by some disarmament supporters for having written “Nuclear Winter Reappraised,” according to the Rocky Mountain News of July 6, 1986. However, possible deaths from uncertain climatic effects are a small danger compared to the incalculable millions in many countries likely to die from starvation caused by disastrous shortages of essentials of modern agriculture sure to result from a Soviet-American nuclear war, and by the cessation of most international food shipments. You think that everything is going to turn back to normal in minutes, but six hours later you’re still in the dark.
Therefore, before giving detailed instructions for making and using survival equipment, we will examine the most harmful of the myths about nuclear war dangers, along with some of the grim facts. These radioactive particles then fall out of the mushroom cloud, or out of the dispersing cloud of particles blown by the winds thus becoming fallout. Many smaller particles are carried by the winds for tens to thousands of miles before falling to earth.
Only where such tiny particles are promptly brought to earth by rain- outs or snow-outs in scattered “hot spots,” and later dried and blown about by the winds, would these invisible particles constitute a long-term and relatively minor post-attack danger. Figure 1.2 illustrates the rapidity of the decay of radiation from fallout during the first two days after the nuclear explosion that produced it. For example, if the great majority of truckers were so fearful of receiving even non-incapacitating radiation doses that they would refuse to transport food, additional millions would die from starvation alone. Persons inside so small a shelter without a blast door would have been killed by blast pressure at this distance from the explosion.


1.4) a given weapon subjects about twice as large an area to blast effects severe enough to destroy “soft” targets as does surface bursting (see Fig.
Water from many sources — such as deep wells and covered reservoirs, tanks, and containers — would not be contaminated. And nuclear weapons smaller than 500 kilotons result in increases (due to smog reactions) in upper tropospheric ozone. Second Edition (500,000 copies), Moscow, 1970, by Egorov, Shlyakhov, and Alabin, we read: “Fires do not occur in zones of complete destruction .
The most influential article was featured in the December 23,1983 issue of Science (the weekly magazine of the American Association for the Advancement of Science): “Nuclear winter, global consequences of multiple nuclear explosions,” by five scientists, R. Three days later, this paper, that until recently featured accounts of unsurvivable “nuclear winter,” criticized Carl Sagan and defended Thompson and Schneider in its lead editorial, “In Study of Nuclear Winter, Let Scientists Be Scientists.” In a free country, truth will out – although sometimes too late to effectively counter fast-hittingpropaganda. At any one place where fallout from a single explosion is being deposited on the ground in concentrations high enough to require the use of shelters, deposition will be completed within a few hours.
R stands for roentgen, a measurement unit often used to measure exposure to gamma rays and X rays. Figure 1.3 shows how rapidly gamma rays are reduced in number (but not in their ability to penetrate) by layers of packed earth. On a cloudy or smoggy day, however, particles in the air would absorb and scatter much of the heat radiation, and the area endangered by heat radiation from the fireball would be less than the area of severe blast damage. An air burst produces only extremely small radioactive particles-so small that they are airborne for days to years unless brought to earth by rain or snow. However, in a recent blast test,5 an earth-covered, expedient Small-Pole Shelter equipped with blast doors was undamaged at 53 psi.
The USSR’s strategic modernization program continues unabated,” and that the SS-18 Mod 5 can carry 14 to 20 nuclear warheads.
Even water containing dissolved radioactive elements and compounds can be made safe for drinking by simply filtering it through earth, as described later .
Other misleading calculations are based on exaggerations of the dangers from long-lasting radiation and other harmful effects of a nuclear war. In a nuclear war, these increases would partially compensate for the upper-level tropospheric decreases-as explained by Julius S. Fallout meters called dosimeters measure the dosereceived by recording the number of R.
Wet deposition of fallout from both surface and air bursts can result in ‘”hot spots” at, close to, or far from ground zero.
Fortunately for Americans living outside blast and fire areas, air bursts produce only very tiny particles. Fallout meters called survey meters, or dose-rate meters, measure thedose rate by recording the number of R being received per hour at the time of measurement. If poles are available, field tests have indicated that many families can build such shelters in a few days. Most of these extremely small radioactive particles remain airborne for so long that their radioactive decay and wide dispersal before reaching the ground make them much less life- endangering than the promptly deposited larger fallout particles from surface and near-surface bursts. However, if you are a survival minded American you should prepare to survive heavy fallout wherever you are. If you hear your local radio station, the outage was probably not caused by an EMP or it was a very minor one.If the first radio is dead, proceed to the second radio which runs off batteries and is not connected to a wall outlet. Or your area may be in a “hot spot” of life-endangering fallout caused by a rain-out or snow-out of both small and tiny particles from distant explosions. If the second radio works, the first radio is likely a casualty of a geomagnetic EMP, but it is possible that it may have succumb to a spike, surge or other power problem outlet caused by a blackout.If it was a blackout, you should still pickup radio stations since they have backup power. Or the enemy may use surface or near-surface bursts in your part of the country to crater long runways or otherwise disrupt U.S. If it was a geomagnetic EMP, the radio will still function, but many local radio stations many not be transmitting because they have been affected by the EMP or because they were intentionally shut down to reduce the effect of a geomagnetic EMP since there is often forewarning.In either case, you may be able to receive shortwave transmissions from outside the affected area since they travel very great distances. Other theoreticians calculated sizable reductions in total ozone, but interpreted the observational data to indicate either no reduction, or much smaller reductions than their calculated ones. If you are able to receive transmissions, listen for news as to the cause, scope and expected duration of the outage. In a large solar storm of long duration, the second radio will still work, but it may be a day or so before you begin receiving transmissions again.If the second radio is also dead, there is a significant probability that you have experienced a nuclear EMP. Significantly, these activists listed their names to spell TTAPS, pronounced “taps,” the bugle call proclaiming “lights out” or the end of a military funeral. If the electromagnetic shielding provided by the Faraday cage is sufficient, and there are no leaks in the shielding, the radio should work.
The certainly of this experiment with a group of three radios will not be absolute, but it will give you a reasonable degree of certainty. A protracted geomagnetic event or EMP tracing its origins to sources outside our solar system or even our galaxy, could conceivably knock out every electrical grid on Earth, but we are most comfortable believing that the chance of that happening is so infinitesimally small that is unreasonable waste time considering it. But, what people are comfortable believing does not always line up with reality.Let’s say we accept the optimistic view that in all probability, all naturally occurring EMP’s in our lifetime will originate from the sun. This would be complicated by the fact that no one knows how to rebuild the grid from scratch and reboot it. It is not a “maybe.” It has happened before and will happen again.So how do you get any forewarning of a naturally occurring EMP? If you have your feelers out, you may very well receive advance warning via our emergency communications channels since equipment constantly monitors the sun. If you do not hear about beforehand, other folks probably would, but even if you were alone, you could deduce that it was an EMP and not a garden-variety power outage by the fact that it would be accompanied by an interruption in RF communications.So when in doubt, grab a transistor radio and tune in to your local emergency station. If the radio seems to be working, but the station is off the air, your area may have experienced an EMP of natural origin but may still be able to receive stations transmitting from farther away.
Determining the scope and duration will require more a more persistent intel collection effort on your part.Man made EMP occurs when nuclear weapons are detonated high enough in the atmosphere to excite high energy electrons via Compton Scattering. This results in a thousand-fold increase in the EMP that would normally accompany such a nuclear detonation.




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