Emergency response risk assessment,fema earthquake kit checklist,response to complex emergencies - PDF Review

The concept of emergency planning is a derivative of the existence of innate manmade and naturally occurring risks and hazards. Once risks are identified, mitigation measures can be implemented and emergency scenarios can be addressed. The chart below offers examples of hazards, assets at risk, and potential impacts created by those threats to existing hazards. All management levels should take an interest in their companya€™s risk management program.
In order to plan for emergencies and mitigate as necessary, potential risks and hazards must be identified and evaluated. Identify site-specific assets: Assets are unique to each specific industry, company, and site. Mitigation opportunities: As you assess potential impacts, identify any asset vulnerabilities or weaknesses that would make it susceptible to loss. Evaluate each hazard rating for probability and severity resulting from an accident or emergency. Ready.gov offers a basic risk assessment guidance table to aid in performing risk assessments. For an understanding of the necessary elements in creating an effective fire pre plan, download our Fire Pre Planning Guide.
Every year, disasters related to meteorological, hydrological and climate hazards cause significant loss of life, and set back economic and social development by years, if not decades.
From 1970 to 2012, 8,835 weather, climate and water-related disasters were reported globally. In 2005, government’s endorsed the “Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters (HFA) to build the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. The paradigm shift from post disaster response to a proactive risk reduction approach requires meteorological, hydrological and climate services to support science-based risk management decisions, as well as investments in early warning systems (Figure 2).
A lone house remains standing after Hurricane Ike (2008) devastated Gilchrist and Galveston, Texas, United States of America. An increasing number of countries are taking steps at national to local levels to reduce risks associated with natural hazards. Disaster risk reduction is therefore one of the high priorities for the development of the Global Framework for Climate Services, to meet both the growing needs and opportunities to increase disaster resilience. With appropriate use of meteorological, hydrological and climate information as part of a comprehensive multi-sector, multi-hazard, and multi-level (local to global) approach, considerable achievements can be realized.
The emergence of climate prediction provides opportunities to increase the lead times of early warnings (Figure 3). Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Disaster Risk Management and Social Impact Assessment: Understanding Preparedness, Response and Recovery in Community ProjectsRaheem A.
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) (2002Living with Risk: A Global Reviews of Disaster Reduction Initiatives Preliminary version.
S Jegillos, 1999Fundamentals of Disaster Risk Management: How are South East Abian Countries Addressing this?
K Keipi, and J Tyson, 2002Planning and Financial Protection to Survive Disasters Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, D.
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis is the process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or actions by assessing and combining probability of occurrence and impact.
You can buy each template individually or purchase the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Package for 74% Off. This template helps you to define risk probabilities and impact for various sectors of your project, such as cost, scope, quality, and time. This template is a risk assessment and its probability of occurrence with key topics involving risks related to customer support. This is a worksheet where you can log your risk events, impact, scores, and like hood of their occurrences. It helps your to foresee risks, estimate effectiveness, and create response plans to mitigate them. Healthful, and incredibly economical - an important matches, warm clothing, flares, initial has been a writer and editor. Corporate regulatory compliance can be a complex puzzle and challenging effort for industrial facilities that are subject to hundreds of constantly changing federal, state, and local requirements. Utilize database tools to assign compliance tasks, frequencies, due dates, and persons responsible. Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) and Facility Response Plan (FRP) inspections are conducted to fulfill the Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation of the Clean Water Act as amended by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. To ensure that oil storage facilities, refineries, electrical utilities, and oil production fields, among other subject industries, are in compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 112. Regional EPA representative(s) conduct both announced and unannounced inspections at facilities. The EPA has requested $34.4 million of its total budget to be allocated to continue to focus on issues included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Leaks, or releases, from underground storage tanks (UST) continue to pose a serious threat to the environment and to public health. Ensuring that tank owners and operators are complying with notification and other requirements. Requiring secondary containment or financial responsibility for tank manufacturers and installers.
According to the EPA’s semi-annual report of UST Performance Measures Mid fiscal year 2010, 491,572 releases have been reported since the beginning of the monitoring program in 1984.
The new rules directly regulate vessels carrying oil in bulk and marine transportation related (MTR) oil facilities that are required to have an oil response plan under the current Vessel Response Plan rules.
155.235 Emergency towing capability for oil tankers- An emergency towing arrangement shall be fitted at both ends on board all oil tankers of not less than 20,000 deadweight tons (dwt), constructed on or after September 30, 1997. 155.1050 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying groups I through IV petroleum oil as a primary cargo.
Affected plan holders should review the final rules and take all necessary measures to ensure that an updated response plans are submitted by February 22, 2011 and in compliance. The rule applies to pre-approved areas only, not areas designated for quick approval of dispersant use.
The new regulations will affect facility response plans, vessel response plans, and dock operations manuals.
Plan holders to offset their mechanical recovery equipment inventory by as much as 25% in exchange for including dispersants in the response plans.
Pre-authorization agreements indicate that dispersant use may be appropriate and will be approved for use in a spill incident meeting certain predetermined criteria that may occur in the covered area.
Regulations were modified to clarify that plan holders should plan to have aerial tracking capabilities available to support response operations for entire daily operational periods.
Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into service after June 30, 1973, must meet the design, fabrication, material, inspection, and testing requirements in ANSI B31.3. All welding or hot work conducted on or at the facility is the responsibility of the facility operator. Vapor collection system piping and fittings must be in accordance with ANSI B31.3 and designed for a maximum allowable working pressure of at least 150 psig. Under Appendix C to Part 154: The guidelines for determining daily application capacities for dispersant response systems, evaluating the high-rate required response methods, and calculating cumulative dispersant application capacity has been updated. In addition to the equipment and supplies required, a facility owner or operator must identify a source of support to conduct the monitoring and post-use effectiveness evaluation required by applicable regional plans and Area Contingency Plans. Identification of the resources for dispersant application does not imply that the use of this technique will be authorized. The Coast Guard is also revising the compliance date for updates to vessel response plans required by the Salvage and Marine Firefighting final rule published Dec. Companies should also consider the benefits of a business continuity plan (BCP) to counteract the impact of risks and hazards. Risk recognition can occur through many paths, including inspections, audits, and job hazard analyses. The probability and impact severity of a risk should determine the priority level for planning and mitigation the hazard.
The probability and impact severity should determine the priority level for correcting the hazard.
The house was rebuilt taking advantage of lessons learned from Hurricane Rita, which struck the area in 2005.
The hazard side of the equation uses historical data and forward looking modelling and forecasting about environmental conditions such as tropical cyclones, rainfall, soil moisture and hill slope stability, mountain weather patterns and river basin hydrology.
For instance, seasonal climate outlooks help governments predict – and manage – excessive or deficient rainfall.
E Ojo, 2003Disasters and Sustainable Development: Some Reflections and African Perspective. A Raheem, 2007Urban Development and Environmental Implications: The Challenge of Urban Sustainability in Nigeria. This Risk Management Guide describes how risk management activities will be organized and performed in your project. This template is a risk assessment and its probability of occurrence with key topics involving risks related to the human resources sector of the project.
Companies must track and document actions items required for compliance and maintain vigilance for new requirements.
The use of Excel spreadsheets is a common way to manage these requirements and may be effective for small operations. The EPA has conducted such inspections since 1973 in an effort to minimize oil spills from reaching our nation’s waters. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) representatives the opportunity to educate owners and operators about the regulations and ways to ensure compliance. A copy of the facility’s SPCC Plan should be available for inspector(s) to review at all times. Observations are discussed with those accompanying personnel who are familiar with your facility’s SPCC measures, diversionary structures, and standard operating procedures.
Coast Guard’s new regulations to improve pollution-response preparedness for vessels carrying or handling oil upon the navigable waters of the United States goes into effect February 22, 2011.
For oil tankers constructed before September 30, 1997, such an arrangement shall be fitted at the first scheduled dry-docking, but not later than January 1, 1999.
All resource providers and resources must be available by contract or other approved means.
This continuing evaluation is part of the Coast Guard's long-term commitment to achieving and maintaining an optimum mix of oil spill response capability across the full spectrum of response modes. For a vessel that carries multiple groups of oil, the required effective daily recovery capacity for each group is calculated and summed before applying the cap. When planning for the cumulative application capacity that is required, the calculations should account for the loss of some oil to the environment due to natural dissipation causes (primarily evaporation). Coast Guard’s new regulations to improve pollution-response preparedness for facilities carrying or handling oil upon the navigable waters of the United States goes into effect February 22, 2011. If you have an existing approved facility response plan, you must have your plan updated and submitted to the Coast Guard by February 22, 2011. The new rules directly regulate marine transportation related (MTR) oil facilities that are required to have an oil response plan under the current Facility Response Plan rules. The regulations will ensure that the dispersant equipment and materials are available, and that the cost of maintaining those resources is shared equitably among all potential private sector users.
As operations are not routinely conducted during darkness, these operational periods will be less than 10 hours per day when there is less than 10 hours of daylight, and longer than 10 hours when there is more than 10 hours of daylight. The COTP may require that the operator of the facility notify the COTP before any welding or hot work operations are conducted.
Actual authorization for use during a spill response will be governed by the provisions of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan (40 CFR part 300) and the applicable Local or Area Contingency Plan. A BCP may limit operational a€?down timea€? due to unforeseen circumstances by prioritizing the needs of core business processes and establishing recovery time objectives. The higher the probability and impact severity, the higher the emphasis should be on corrective action.
This includes observing, detecting, monitoring, predicting and early warning of a wide range of weather–, climate- and water-related hazards.
It was built on elevated ground and the pitch of the roof and the windows were designed to withstand winds of up to 209 km per hour, thus surviving Hurricane Ike and its winds of 177 km per hour..
This must be augmented with socio-economic data that quantifies exposure and vulnerability (for instance casualties, construction damages, crop yield reduction and water shortages). This template contains the information on the identified and collected project risks such as risk category, trigger point, impact, probability, risk score, strategy, and response plan among other risk analysis. This template is a risk assessment and its probability of occurrence with key topics involving risks related to the third party.

However, larger operations must use an effective relational database to ensure that compliance can be managed on an enterprise level. Any other relevant documentation of your operating procedures, spill prevention measures, personnel training, inspection procedures, drainage discharges, and spill incidents should be provided to inspector(s), as well as, site plans for tankage, diversionary structures, and drainage patterns. By having key individuals present, questions can be answered by both parties and ensure that correct information is provided.
109-58 (EPAct) imposed several responsibilities and regulatory requirements on the individual states. Instead of detailed equipment lists, plan holders can reference OSROs that provide dispersants if USCG classified and whose availability has been ensured by contract or other approved means.
As best available technology demonstrates a need to evaluate or change mechanical recovery capacities, a review of cap increases and other requirements contained within this subpart may be performed.
Any welding or hot work operations conducted on or at the facility must be conducted in accordance with NFPA 51B. In addition to constraining fiscal viability, operational impacts can be detrimental to relationships with customers, the surrounding community, and stakeholders. Mitigation is the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening impact from disasters.
Through a coordinated approach, and working with its partners, WMO addresses the information needs and requirements of the disaster risk management community in an effective and timely fashion. The ten most costly disasters accounted for 19 per cent of overall economic losses (US$ 443.6 billion). Equipped with the quantitative risk information, countries can develop risk management strategies using early warning systems to reduce casualties; medium and long-term sectoral planning (such as land zoning, infrastructure development, water resource management, agricultural planning) to reduce economic losses and build livelihood resilience, and weather-indexed insurance and risk financing mechanisms to transfer  the financial impacts of disasters. But this is no longer sufficient, because hazard characteristics are changing as a result of climate change. This template helps you to analyze the identified and collected project riskssuch as risk category, triggerpoint, impact, probability, risk score, strategy, andresponse plan. Establishing definitions and levels of probability can reduce the influence of bad risks and therefore increase the success of the project.
The inspection and evaluation may be summarized in a letter or a more detailed report containing photographs. Section 1523 of the Act imposed one of the most significant new requirements: States must inspect all regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) every three years. The 2011 allocated budget will continue to allow the EPA to monitor underground storage tanks. An individual plan holder may choose to plan more precisely, based on actual length of daylight operational periods.
Risk analysis results in information providing a mitigation activities foundation reducing risk and flood insurance protecting financial investments. Storms, droughts, floods and extreme temperatures all figure on both lists of the worst disasters. This must be underpinned by effective policies, legislation and legal frameworks, and institutional coordination mechanisms as well as information and knowledge sharing, education and training. For instance a 100-year flood or drought may become a 30-year flood or drought or, simply said, more severe events could happen more frequently in the future weather and climate services with forecasts from the next hour to seasonal through to decadal time scales are therefore needed to inform long-term investments and strategic planning, for instance, coastal zone management, development of new building codes and the retrofitting of infrastructure to withstand more frequent and severe hazards.
The mitigation phase differs from other phases because its focus is on long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk. Storms and floods accounted for 79 per cent of the total number of disasters due to weather, water, and climate extremes and caused 55 per cent of lives lost and 86 per cent of economic losses.
Usman1[1] Department of Geography and Environmental Management University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria[2] Physical Development Department, Nigeria Institute for Social and Economic Research (NISER), Ibadan, Nigeria[3] School of Basic and Remedial Studies, Kwara State College of Education, Ilorin, Nigeria1. Vessels operating on open waters of the Great Lakes will be required to maintain these capabilities.
Droughts caused 35 per cent of lives lost, mainly due to the severe African droughts of 1975 and 1983–1984. IntroductionDisaster refers to an emergency caused by natural hazards or human-induced actions that results in a significant change in circumstances over a relatively short time period.
This includes first wave core emergency services, such as firefighters, police and ambulance crews. Others may include damage to physical infrastructure, depletion of natural and social capitals, institutional weakening and a general disruption of economic and social activity.
When conducted as a military operation, it is termed Disaster Relief Operation (DRO) and is follow-up to a Non-combatant evacuation operation (NEO). Disasters may differ somewhat in the trigger, scope, duration and requisite actions (Coletta, 2004, Olorunfemi and Raheem, 2007).The global scenario in relation to disasters is dismal. World statistics indicate present and future trends of increasing impacts from natural and human made hazards on life and livelihoods (Niekerk, 2002; Ojo, 2003). Well-rehearsed emergency plans, developed as part of the preparedness phase, enables efficient rescue coordination. During the past four decades, hazards events such as earthquakes, drought, floods, storms, fires and volcanic eruptions have caused major loss of human life and livelihoods; destruction of economic and social infrastructure and significant environmental damage. According to Gavidia (2000), natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes can wipe out years of urban development by destroying infrastructure and housing and by injury or killing thousands of people.
The 2011 Tsunami in Japan is an example of a disaster characterized by an immense loss of lives and property.Social and economic structure of a society is a major determinant of the vulnerability of the population to the impact of disasters. This differs from the response phase in focus; recovery efforts are concerned with issues and decisions made after immediate needs are addressed.
This explains the variation in the impact of disasters and environmental emergencies all over the world.
The Munich Re-insurance estimated that economic losses due to environmental emergencies have increased three-fold from the 1960s to the 1990s, and in the first few years of this decade, are running about US $50 billion per year.
Although most of these economic losses occurred in industrially developed parts of the world developing countries in Africa and Asia suffer greater burden of the relative impact of these disasters. EMTs consist of senior personnel normally chaired by the highest-ranking official as emergency director. Ideally business recovery representatives are EMT members, enabling transition from response to recovery, continuity operations. According to Henderson (2004), this level of risk is attributable to socio-economic stress, aging and inadequate physical infrastructure, weak education and preparedness for disaster and insufficient fiscal and economic resources to carefully implement the preparedness, response, mitigation and recovery components of integrated emergency management.Disaster risk is a potential factor in many development projects.
EMTs have oversight and activity coordination responsibilities during all phases of an emergency.
Environmental hazards can affect a project area, with socio-economic consequences for the project’s target populations.
EMTs may operate from an Emergency Operations Centre (EOC), where all incident response and recovery actions required are coordinated and monitored. Development projects can increase or reduce the risk of natural disaster, through their impact on social resilience and the natural environment.
In dealing with emergencies, an important requirement is need for specific government regulations awareness and close activities coordination with local emergency services.
By understanding and anticipating future hazard events, communities, public authorities and development organisations can minimise the risk disasters pose to socio-economic development. ERTs consists of trained security, safety, and engineering employees having specific duties, equipment and emergency response tasks.Safety and Security Risk Assessment A. Understanding the interactions between projects and environmental hazards is crucial in ensuring the sustainability of development gains.
Threat Assessment – The first step in a risk management program is a threat assessment.
Sustainable development is accepted as a fundamental objective for public policy and decision making because the overall objective of any development process is to enhance the quality of life of the target population. Thus the growing acceptance of sustainable development as an over-arching policy goal has rightly stimulated interest in assessing the impact of particular intervention on sustainable development at aggregate, sectoral or project levels (Centre for Good Governance, 2006). Threat assessment examines supporting information evaluating occurrence  probability of each threat.
This sustainability objective is justified based on the fact that issues pertaining to the ecosystem’s capacity to tolerate and respond to population growth and other human induced stresses have become essential for sustainable management of natural resources and human livelihood systems related to them.(Uito and Morgan, 1996). For natural threats, historical occurrence frequency data for natural disasters such as tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, fire, or earthquakes is used to determine credibility for specific threats. Crime rates surrounding area criminal threats provides type of criminal activity indicator for threats to the facility. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service (1994), “social impacts" refers to the consequences to human populations of any public or private actions-that alter, or are capable of altering, the ways in which people live, work, play, relate to one another, organize to meet their needs and generally cope as members of society. The term also includes cultural impacts involving changes to the norms, values, and beliefs that guide and rationalize their cognition of themselves and their society. For example, a facility utilizing heavy industrial machinery is at higher risk of job related serious or life-threatening accidents than typical office-buildings.Attractiveness of the facility as a target for terrorist threats is a primary consideration. Social Impact Assessment (SIA) is the process of analysing, monitoring and managing the social consequences of policies, programmes and projects. Additionally, type of terrorist act varies based on potential adversary and attack method likely to be successful in a specific scenario. These consequences may be positive or negative, intended or unintended, direct or indirect; they may be short-term impacts or long-term changes. For example, a terrorist attempting a strike against the federal government will probably attack a large federal building rather than attack a multi-tenant office building containing a large number of commercial tenants and a few government tenants. As well as helping to explain how a proposed action will change the lives of people in communities, SIA indicates how alternative actions might mitigate harmful changes or implement beneficial ones.The rest of this paper is subdivided into four sections. However, if security at the large federal building renders mounting a successful attack too difficult, the terrorist is diverted to a nearby facility not as attractive from an occupancy perspective, but has a higher success probability because of an absence of adequate security. After this introduction the next section is devoted to the clarification and definition of major conceptual issues with a view to establishing a link between each of the concepts and providing a framework for the entire paper. In general, likelihood of terrorist attacks cannot be quantified statistically because terrorism is of a random nature. We also provide a discussion on the ways disaster risk can be minimised in community development projects. When considering terrorist threats, the developing credible threat packages is important.B. The next two sections in the paper examine respectively the livelihood contexts in disaster management and the need for a process that integrate disaster risk into community projects through social impact assessment. Vulnerability Assessment – Once credible threats are identified, a vulnerability assessment is performed.
The SIA process is also discussed as a series of interrelated steps and how hazards and disaster risk typically require a SIA. Loss Impact is the degree agency mission is impaired by successful attack from a specific threat. Finally the last section is devoted to examining the critical challenges to the success of adoption of SIA in community projects.2. Key to a vulnerability assessment is proper loss impact rating defined for a specific vulnerability. Some conceptual issues in disaster risk managementConceptually, the relationship between vulnerability, hazard and disasters has been described as the Pressure Model or Disaster Crunch Model by Blaikie et al (1994). As a example, the time  duration a mission capability is impaired is an important factor for calculating loss impact.
If an Air Route Traffic Control Tower is the facility being assessed, downtime of a few minutes is a serious loss impact. An example is the construction of shanty buildings on fragile or sloppy urban land.Disaster management aims at motivating societies at risk to be more involved in the conscious management of risk and reduction of vulnerability in our various communities. HazardA hazard can be defined as a potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity which may cause the loss or life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
Hazards can include hidden conditions that may represent future threats and can have different origins.
Sample vulnerability ratings definitions are:A vulnerability assessment includes detailed analysis of potential loss impact from explosive, chemical, or biological attack. Typical examples of hazards can be the absence of rain (leading to drought) or the abundance thereof (leading to flooding). A sample output generated by detailed explosive analysis is modeled then presented for discussion . Chemical manufacturing plants near settlements can also be seen as hazards.Similarly, incorrect agricultural techniques will in the long run lead to possible disasters such as loss of crops and famine. A model of potential facility damage from explosive attack allows a building owner to quickly interpret results from analysis. A detailed quantitative engineering response model is required to design a retrofit upgrade.
In addition, similar models are used to illustrate response of an upgraded facility to a similar explosive threat.
VulnerabilitiesVulnerabilities is a set of prevailing or consequential conditions resulting from physical, social, economic and environmental factors, which increase the sustainability of a community to the impact of hazards (ISDR 2002: 24).

Blaike et al (1994) is of the opinion that vulnerability is the characteristics of person or group in terms of their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a hazard.Vulnerability can be expressed as the degree of loss resulting from potentially damaging phenomenon or hazard (Niekerk, 2002). Upgrade Recommendations - Based on risk analysis findings , the process next step is countermeasure upgrades identification required to lower various risk levels. If specific facility minimum standard countermeasures levels are not present, these countermeasures are automatically included in upgrade recommendations. Above minimum standards additional countermeasure upgrades are recommended as necessary addressing specific identified facility threats.
Population increases due to high birth rate and the lack of good governance do make communities in developing nations to be highly vulnerable to hazards.The community and its members may or may not be willing participants in contributing to or tolerating the conditions leading to vulnerability. Taken together, they create a dynamic mix of variables, each of which results from a continuous process.
Vulnerabilities can be physical, social or attitudinal and can be primary or secondary in nature. RiskRisk is usually associated with the inability of people to manage hazard events that may eventually lead to negative consequences like destruction of the environment, socio-economic activities, properties and losses of lives.Risk in terms of disaster management has a specific focus (UN, 1992). The final process step is re-evaluation of ratings for each threat resulting from recommended upgrades.
Risk is therefore the possibility that a particular hazard might exploit a particular vulnerability (Nierkerk, 2002).It is the production of the possible damage caused by a hazard due to the vulnerability within a community. In other words, risk is usually due to hazard events exploiting the vulnerable situation of an environment or community. Therefore, explosive threat loss impact rating improves, but vulnerability rating remains the same.F. The poorer communities are more at risk because of their high vulnerability to hazard situations due to their low coping capacities.
DisastersA disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing or threatens to cause, widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of affected community to cope using only its own resources (South Africa, 2002). General Services Administration (GSA) and the Department of Homeland Security Federal Protective Service  use the Federal Security Risk Management (FSRM) methodology currently.
Disasters are caused due to the interaction of humans with their environment.A disaster is a function of the risk process. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) adapted the same methodology to assess over 700 facilities housing IRS employees.
It is only when such phenomena occur in an environment where they pose a threat to human life, property, infrastructure or the environment that they can be classified as hazards. Similarly in the case of technological developments, it is only when such developments pose a danger e.g. The Social Security Administration trained over 50 facility managers and security specialists to apply the methodology. Finally, the Department of Homeland Security will use the FSRM process within agencies it oversees.CAD—CAD consists of software packages for initiating public safety calls for service, dispatch, and status of responding field resources. So the effects of a disaster are determined by the extent of a community’s vulnerability to the hazard.Hazards in themselves do not constitute disasters. CAD is used by emergency communications dispatchers, call-takers, 911 operators in centralized, public-safety call centers, and field personnel using mobile data terminals (MDTs) or mobile data computers (MDCs).Model-driven business process security requirements Various types of security goals, such as authentication or confidentiality, can be defined as policies for service-oriented architectures, typically in a manual fashion. Therefore, we foster a model-driven transformation approach from modeled security goals in the context of process models to concrete security implementations.
Simply out, therefore, disaster risk is the product of the combination of three elements – vulnerability, coping capacity and hazard (ISDR, 2004). We argue that specific types of security goals may be expressed in a graphical fashion at the business process modeling level which in turn can be transformed into corresponding access control and security policies. Deforestation, land degradation, and related food security are shaped by human resource use (e.g.
Risk identification and analysisTo identify the risk of natural disasters at an individual, local or national level, it is necessary to estimate the potential magnitude and probability of natural hazards, as well as to estimate the potential magnitude and probability of natural hazards, as well as to evaluate the vulnerability of each of them. According to Keipi and Tyson (2002), vulnerability may be evaluated from various standpoints (physical, social, political, technological, institutional, environmental, cultural and educational). Vulnerability to natural disasters is the result of anthropogenic factors; that is, factors that result from the interaction between human beings and nature. Additionally, vulnerability is a consequence of the individual and political decisions that a society makes before a hazard occurs, which are evident once the disaster takes place (ECLAC-IDB, 2000).Freeman, et al (2001), analyze the components of different types of vulnerability and cite studies that make an effort to measure the potential physical, social and economic consequences of natural phenomena. Those who concentrate on physical vulnerability analyze the impact on buildings, infrastructures and agriculture. For example, the Latin American’s Council on Applied Technology publishes vulnerability studies on the earthquake resistance of 50 types of structures (ATC, 1985).
Those who focus on social vulnerability estimate the impacts on especially susceptible groups such as the poor, pregnant women and infants, the handicapped, children and youths. Those interested in economic vulnerability calculate the potential impacts on economic processes and assets.The results of the hazard analysis and of the evaluation of vulnerability are then combined to yield an estimate of risk (defined as expected loss per period) (Keipi and Tyson, 2002). A full scope evaluation of risk encompasses the appraisal of potential losses generated by the disaster and identification of those affected by the risk. Projection of the likelihood of their occurrence and estimates of their impact allow decision makers to evaluate the total risk to a country, a geographical area or a specific sector, as well as to establish concrete prevention and mitigation measures and investments.According to Keipi and Tyson (2002), prevention and mitigation actions require a good understanding of natural threats, vulnerability and risk. For example, given the frequency of disaster events that have occurred in Latin America and the Caribbean, on many occasions, investments in prevention and mitigation in the affected countries were not adequate to withstand the natural threats (see also Charveriat, 2002).4. Livelihoods context for disaster managementWhile physical tangible assets such as stronger homes, hospitals etc are crucial to reducing risks from disasters, there are many less tangible assets which people depend on to recover and survive. For instance, following an earthquake disaster in India on 26 January 2001, an evaluation by the London-based Disasters Emergencies Committee (DEC), one villager said, “We received 2,000 tents for 900 households because we had a prominent politician in the community”.
Some villagers proved more capable than others in accessing aid for relief and reconstruction. The DEC’s evaluation found that “Women, lower income groups and those representing smaller number stated they were left out of decision-making in the relief committees and hence were also omitted from relief distribution”.The livelihoods – based approach to disaster reduction tries to unpack different aspects of vulnerability and capacity. It describes how people, both rich and poor, access the assets they need, how these assets are controlled and how assets are used both to improve livelihoods and to reduce vulnerability to disasters and “shocks” such as ill-health or unemployment. These non-tangible resources are often ignored by disaster managers, but prove pivotal in sustaining disaster preparedness, mitigation and rehabilitation. The non-tangible assets which include skills training to improve earning opportunities, raising awareness of vulnerable people’s right, building the capacity of self-help community groups, and strengthening the involvement of the poor in the decision-making process should be enhanced.The livelihoods approach therefore sits on the cross-roads between disasters and development. It makes clear that disasters are part of everyday life, and must be overcome if livelihood is to be sustainable.
Within this approach, disaster mitigation is in effect the act of building up tangible and non-tangible assets to reduce vulnerability. This leads to another key feature of the livelihoods approach which is the need to view vulnerable communities in a holistic rather than a sectoral way.
The livelihoods approach sees people as the starting point of all interventions to reduce risk. People’s lives are complex and do not fit nearly into the sectoral areas that aid practitioners specialize in.
Solidarity among neighbours and their willingness to help in times of disaster, for example, is more valuable than the best drafted preparedness plan.
By rooting risk reduction in a developmental context, livelihoods strategies enable disaster managers to take better account of the complex interaction of life that people themselves employ to mitigate, respond to and recover from disaster.
Smaller, ongoing disasters can over a period of time, take a heavier toll than big one-off disasters.
For instance, a London-based Disasters Emergencies Committee Evaluation in Gujarat India discovered people constantly emphasized the need to restore livelihoods rather than receive relief and expressed some frustration that outsiders did not listen to them on this point.
They wanted to receive cloth and make their own clothes rather than receive clothing but no one took any notice.5.
Integrating disaster risk into community projects through social impact assessment Sustainable development and disaster reduction are essential preconditions for each other. Development projects can increase or reduce the risk of natural disaster, through their impact on social resilience and the natural environment.Social impacts can be characterized and defined in many ways. The following definition is widely understood and used:SIA originated as a socio-economic component of environmental impact assessment (EIA), although it has since expanded and developed considerably, in developed and developing countries.
SIAs can be carried out at different stages in project and policy development, from initial planning to implementation and post-implementation evaluation.
In project-level assessment, typical applications include considering the likely impacts of new industrial activities, construction, land use or resource management practices. SIA often forms part of a broader social analysis or assessment, but has a distinct and more specific purpose.As a conceptual model, SIA is equipped to take hazard and related disaster risk into account, whether these are external factors affecting a project or conditions created or magnified by the project itself. Seen in this way, SIA has clear linkages to EIA and other forms of ex-ante impact assessment, as well as with vulnerability and sustainable livelihoods analysis. It is more common for a formal risk analysis or a health impact assessment (see Box 2) to be undertaken, either to complement the SIA or within a broader EIA of which the SIA is part.6.
Integrating hazard and disaster risk into the SIA processAccording to the Centre for Good Governance (2006), a conventional SIA process comprises the following ten steps, which are set out below with comments about how hazards and related disaster risks can be incorporated into the process.Step 1. Develop public involvement programmeThe first step is to develop an effective plan to involve the public. It should explicitly include those who might be exposed to greater (or lesser) hazard risk as a result of the project.
Describe proposed action and alternativesThe proposed action or policy change (and alternative approaches, if appropriate) is described in enough detail to begin to identify the data requirements for an SIA and design the framework for assessment. Potentially key types of social impact, including those related to disasters, should be identified and plans made to obtain relevant data.
Describe relevant human environment and zones of influenceRelevant data on the geographical and human environments related to the project are collected and reviewed through a baseline study or community profile.
Identify probable impacts (scoping)This stage seeks to identify the full range of possible social impacts (including those perceived by affected groups). Early, comprehensive and systematic screening can identify potential hazards and associated risks that might affect the project and communities at any stage in the project cycle, as well as the impact the project itself might have on disaster risk. It is important that the views of all affected people, including those vulnerable to hazards, are taken into account.Step 5.
Investigate probable impactsInvestigation of the social impacts identified during scoping is the most important component of the SIA.
A range of methods, including modelling and scenarios, can be deployed to investigate probable future impacts. Hazardous events (as external factors or consequences of the project) and their risk or uncertainty should be included in trend and scenario analysis. Determine probable responseThe responses of all affected groups to the impacts are assessed, in terms of attitude and actions. This should include responses to changes in social vulnerability as a consequence of the project and to a disaster event with an impact on the project. Estimate secondary and cumulative impactsSecondary (indirect) and cumulative project impacts are assessed, although it is almost impossible to identify all dimensions of social impacts because of the way in which one change leads to others. Recommend changes or alternativesThe consequences of changes to the plan or alternative interventions are assessed as in step 5 (though usually on a more modest scale) and the same key issues should be considered.Step 9. Mitigation, remediation and enhancement planA plan is developed for mitigating adverse impacts, by not taking or modifying an action, minimizing its impacts through design and operational changes, or compensating for its impact by providing alternative facilities, resources or opportunities.
Impact avoidance should be the first priority, impact reduction or minimization undertaken if avoidance is not possible, and offsetting or compensation for adverse impact used only when no other options are available.Step 10. Develop and implement monitoring programmeA monitoring programme is developed to track project or programme development and compare actual impacts with projected ones.7. ConclusionWhen placed in the context of sustainable development, disaster management represents an important aspect of socio-economic and national security, therefore facilitating a continuous development process. Policymakers in the development and poverty reduction sector need to recognize that disasters are not just “setbacks” or “roadblocks” to development, but result from the paths that development is pursuing. Thus by changing our planning processes, and incorporating disaster risk assessment in the planning of all new development projects, we can make sure that the future natural hazards will encounter resilient communities that are capable of withstanding their impact and therefore remain mere emergencies rather than disasters. We need to recognize that we can mitigate the impact of disaster and make mitigation the cornerstone of disaster management interventions. We must shift the focus to the most poor and vulnerable sections of our society, and ensure that our interventions are community-based and driven.
To do this the extent to which a community disaster risk space is linked with environmental management practices must be recognized and given adequate consideration. For instance, during flood events, a sustainable risk reduction must take note of increased flood that is caused by the conversion of natural landscapes into agricultural areas such that flood mitigation does not jeopardize agricultural practices with an attendant risk of food insecurity. In essence, community participation is required since members of the community are directly affected by the disaster and are the ones who need to take decisions to reduce the risk; it is therefore unlikely that risk reduction will be successful without active involvement of the local community in the critical stages of disaster risk reduction efforts.

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