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The mission of the Glendora Emergency Response Communications group, herein known as GERC, is to unite those amateur radio operators who have a common interest in communications, specifically to provide training, support and encouragement to radio amateurs who wish to serve as emergency communicators for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The purpose of GERC is to: 1) provide support and training to radio amateurs who wish to serve in emergency communications positions. This chapter summarizes operational, tactical, and institutional support to effective communication and information exchange, and reviews common challenges, as well as successfully implemented approaches.
The operational domain of Traffic Incident Management (TIM) spans a broad range of incident types (as discussed in chapter 1 of the Handbook), ranging from simple roadside debris incidents to major natural or manmade emergencies that affect our Nation's roadways.
State and local transportation and public safety agencies manage the vast majority of traffic incidents at the local level. Effective interoperable interagency communications and information exchange[127] are vital to TIM.
Lessons learned from incidents of all sizes occurring in all areas within the United States point to the critical importance of effective communications, information exchange, and shared use of supporting technologies for an effective TIM program. Strategic Communications: These communications include those practices and protocols established by a TIM Team and measured by responder comprehension and actions while managing an incident. Tactical Communications: From the TIM perspective, tactical communications occur between a public safety answering point (PSAP) and a Traffic Management Center (TMC), and between responders on scene during an incident. Figure 10 illustrates all agencies that potentially may be involved in responding to an incident and the types of information the various agencies need to perform their incident response activities.[133] Without multi-agency communications and information-exchange capabilities, these agencies collect data and information and operate based on their own information. For mass casualty incidents, additional national-level organizations, such as through DHS' Homeland Security Advisory System (HSA),[134] various U.S. In reviewing each responder's information needs, it is clear that much of the data collected by a particular agency also benefits other responding agencies. Figure 10 also illustrates the information needs of various responders, and how intelligent transportation systems (ITS) support incident management. Today, most jurisdictions have invested in the development of emergency call centers (PSAPs), which receive 911 calls. The most efficient way to accomplish real-time, accurate information exchange is to develop interoperable systems that can electronically exchange data. The law enforcement agency and the PSAP are informed that the nearest police cruiser is miles away and involved in a motor vehicle stop based on data transmitted from an Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) device that automatically tracks the vehicle's location and transmits this information back to the PSAP and law enforcement agency.
Because the TMC shares video with the PSAP in real time, law enforcement personnel are kept apprised of the incident's status from the point of notification stages through to its final clearance. During this incident, the Department of Transportation (DOT) provided the emergency response, while at the same time saving the police agency valuable resources. PSAPs: The PSAP often serves as the point of origin for TIM-related information exchange and communication since it receives and processes 911 calls and other requests for assistance, and serves as the main dispatch center for law enforcement, fire, and emergency medical services.
A typical CAD system includes other functions in addition to receiving emergency call information and dispatching emergency responders. A growing number of jurisdictions are integrating PSAP CAD systems into TMC operations to facilitate the real-time exchange of incident data.
Traffic Management Center (TMC): Designed to monitor traffic conditions and manage traffic management resources in a specific metropolitan or regional area. TMC operators can take steps to reduce congestion, dispatch resources, and make appropriate actions based on intelligence-driven decision-making data.
Florida DOT (FDOT) CAD-TMC integration: Florida is deploying CAD-TMC integration statewide.
Real-time data sharing in New York City, New York (NY): Operated by the New York Department of Transportation (NYDOT), the New York City's Integrated Incident Management System (IIMS) enables incident response personnel to transmit data about an incident to other responders and dispatchers on a real-time basis.
TIM professionals use many communications and information exchange technologies to support incident detection and verification and to coordinate overall incident response. The TMC is the focal point for receipt, analysis, and synthesis of all roadside-generated data. CCTV: When shared with public safety agencies, this device provides multiple agencies with a common operating picture of an incident scene. Traffic Detectors: These devices monitor the flow and volume of traffic, and when combined with CCTV, identify anomalies in traffic flow. Ramp Meters: These devises are used to increase freeway volumes, trip reliability, and freeway speeds, while decreasing travel time and the number of crashes. Lane Control Signals: These applications can alert motorists of an incident in a specific travel lane or in a lane within a tunnel. Traffic Modeling Tools: These applications can assist motorists in selecting a choice of alternative routes. Adaptive Signal Controls: These programmable devices can respond to and reduce traffic congestion, either on the primary route or on detour routes during incidents. ATIS are another type of ITS technology that provides highway and transit users with the right information at the right time to assist in travel decisions.
Many jurisdictions are developing traveler information capabilities to provide information gathered by the TMC to the traveling public. Internet-Based Traveler Information: Travelers rely upon the transportation information provided by government agencies, media and other private sector firms. HAR: Information provided by HAR offers an effective, if limited, means to alert travelers of incidents in a general area, whether planned or unplanned. DMS: Fixed DMS (also known as Variable, Changeable, Electronic) message signs are often located on highly traveled roadways to provide updated traveler information. Automatic Crash Notification (ACN) and Advanced Automatic Crash Notification (AACN): These vehicle-equipped tools alert a telematics provider when a vehicle is involved in a collision or an airbag is deployed. E911 and Next-Generation (NG) 911: These key response tools identify the immediate and exact location of an emergency call.
AVL: This tool allows a dispatch center to locate the vehicle closest to an incident scene for immediate dispatch. Traffic Signal Preemption: By using a vehicle-mounted preemption emitter device, this system allows emergency vehicles to disrupt normal signal cycle operations and proceed through an intersection with quick access to a green signal light, and maintain a red signal light for cross-traffic vehicles. Emergency Vehicle-Mounted Lighting: The use of emergency vehicle lighting, such as high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights, is essential, especially in the initial stages of a traffic incident. Delivering accurate and effective media communications are important functions that transportation agencies must develop and maintain to provide current roadway information that is valuable to travelers. First, this policy provides the media with a pre-determined POC from which to receive accurate and timely information to disseminate to the public.
Second, this policy allows responders and their agencies to continue with the task at hand, uninterrupted by repeated requests for information from multiple sources. Third, this policy assures that the information is well-developed, accurate, and consistent.
An agency's Public Information Office and designated PIO can develop and distribute a Media Guide to assist in providing guidance on how to handle public communications. Technical integration of key information systems is a critical element of interoperability, but it is not a stand-alone issue. The first step to achieving real-time communication and information exchange is development of a strong governance structure, an essential element to ensuring that a multi-jurisdictional and multi-disciplinary team maintains a shared vision. Grant funds are often useful in jump-starting multi-agency efforts to achieve interoperability, but significant reliance on grants for funding interoperability programs cannot sustain a program for an extended period.
As with any operational or technical investment, agencies want to ensure they generate a measurable return on investment in communications and information exchange. As TIM teams across the country seek to improve or achieve real-time, multi-agency communication and information exchange, they can expect to encounter challenges.
Challenge: Proprietary systems that are not integrated (different terminology or data dictionary).
Identify the shared data needs and reach agreement on a shared data dictionary as the first step toward facilitating data sharing between, or integration of, incompatible systems. Because DOTs and TMCs generally do not need the sensitive information for TIM purposes, create agreements to export non-sensitive data.
Implement effective actions to filter out sensitive data to improve TIM communications without compromising security. Establish clear data entry guidelines and procedures, including single point data entry, where possible, when manual data entry is required. Implement a structured, user-friendly interface (pull down menus, etc.) to promote consistent data entry.
Agree on the owners of specific pieces of information, which can help streamline these issues. In some cases, have DOTs help fund the law enforcement CAD system or integration costs, in exchange for data sharing agreements regarding data collected by the CAD system. Where possible, collaborate to develop a cost-sharing policy during ITS architecture design, which can help eliminate this barrier. To activate multi-disciplinary response resources, the exchange of information between agencies must be accurate and timely. SAFETEA-LU: Section 1201 of the SAFETEA-LU requires the Secretary of Transportation (Secretary) to establish a Real-Time System Management Information Program that provides, in all States, the capability to monitor, in real-time, the traffic and travel conditions of the major highways of the United States, and to share that data with State and local governments and with the traveling public. NIMS: One of the five components of the NIMS focuses on communication and information management.
In addition to these national policies, several related national or Federal initiatives underscore the importance of communications, and suggest that this area remains one of the most dynamic and evolving aspects of TIM. National Emergency Communications Plan: The purpose of the National Emergency Communications Plan is to promote the ability of emergency response providers and relevant government officials to continue to communicate in the event of natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other manmade disasters, and to ensure, accelerate, and attain interoperable emergency communications nationwide. Guide for Short-Term Interoperability: The Oregon State Interoperability Executive Council developed this Guide to assist non-technical, everyday public safety personnel in achieving simple, short-term interoperability solutions. Previously, the IACP, Highway Safety Committee, in the document titled, Traffic Safety Strategies for Law Enforcement: A Planning Guide for Law Enforcement Executives, Administrators and Managers (August 2003),[145] recognized the need for an effective TIM program (Strategy No. Strategies for States to Achieve Public Safety Wireless Interoperability, was released by the National Governors Association (NGA) Center for Best Practices on November 19, 2006. The National Task Force membership includes public safety, public communications, State legislators, governors, mayors, and city officials. Develop a formal TIM information sharing method between public safety and transportation agencies.
Numerous examples of State and local policies and procedures affirm the importance of multi-agency communication among agencies and with the public and the importance of technology and data sharing from a TIM context. Many State and local agencies have gone beyond these agreements to develop specific policies that support joint TIM operations and information sharing. For additional resources and information, please view the items listed in the following resource guide.
This chapter also presents an overview of related policies and provides information on where readers can learn more.
Further, TIM involves more than just incident clearance; it involves managing the traffic affected by the incident that may affect just one facility or the overall transportation system or network. Larger-scale incidents may involve agencies from multiple jurisdictions; and incidents of national significance, managed in accordance with the National Incident Management System (NIMS), involve a host of Federal, local, and State response agencies.
The different and responding agencies need access to important pieces of information that other agencies know or collect to better manage and improve on-scene operations. Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) NIMS describes four levels of incident-related communications: strategic, tactical, support, and public address.


Strategic communications also includes gathering and consolidating multiple pieces of data used to evaluate and improve operations. This narrow view limits the effectiveness both of the agencies individually, as well as the overall TIM response.
For example, each agency shown in Figure 10 requires information about hazardous materials (Hazmat). For example, calls for emergency incident response made to a PSAP responsible for 9-1-1 calls (the notification box) are routed to fire, and public safety agencies. These call centers are staffed by highly trained professional dispatch personnel, who use the latest technology to identify the caller and dispatch the closest emergency services to the scene. Real-time communication and information exchange requires institutional, technical, and operational coordination among agencies, operational support centers, and systems. The local law enforcement and transportation agencies have a shared functional responsibility to maintain safety and mobility of the highway by ensuring quick response to any lane-blocking incident. CAD is the PSAP's primary information system and most common means used to manage and dispatch multiple response vehicles from the PSAP.
The CAD system also tracks the locations of the closet available units, the locations of other units, the status of previously dispatched units, and the disposition of a call for service.
TMCs are staffed by representatives from the transportation agency, law enforcement, and other emergency service agencies, whose personnel share space and which sometimes have interoperable systems in the center.
Traffic engineers use automated traffic control signals and other devices to control traffic into, or divert traffic away from, congested areas. TMC operators have access to law enforcement, fire, and PSAP dispatch, and can control DMS, 511, and Internet-based traveler information from their desktops.
FDOT District 4 has deployed an Interagency Video Event Data Distribution System (iVEDDS) that enables member agencies to view incident data in real time. When an incident is entered into IIMS, the system uses a Global Positioning System (GPS) to identify the incident's exact location. ITS technologies may include roadway and traffic data collection devices, such as weather and traffic detectors, as well as DMS, ramp metering, and adaptive signal control devices, which help regulate traffic. CCTV can monitor normal traffic conditions, verify the existence of an incident, and provide a view of progress toward clearance of the incident. The TMC can use data from lane and ramp metering to control flow into an incident scene and to facilitate a more rapid response of an emergency vehicle to an incident scene. Lane control signals provide motorists with advance warnings about impending lane closures, and are particularly valuable where physical separations exist at the entrance to a tunnel.
When combined with signal timing technology, these tools can help determine the most efficient use of these particular traffic modeling tools. ATIS involves the collection, consolidation, analysis, and dissemination of decision-making information to the public. Transportation agencies are most often the initial supplier of information to commercial information service providers. HAR must be combined with messaging systems to direct travelers to tune to the HAR frequency for information.
These communications devices, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), cell phones, and camera phones, are common among TIM responders. As the more sophisticated model, AACN is capable of predicting the severity of the crash and injuries, thereby enabling operators to more quickly dispatch the appropriate incident and emergency responders.
Traffic signal preemption provides emergency vehicles with immediate right-of-way, prevents cross-traffic, reduces response times, and enhances overall traffic safety. Emergency vehicle lighting enhances driver and pedestrian awareness regarding the incident scene, thereby increasing the level of the safety of emergency responders and victims, as well as oncoming vehicles approaching the incident.
The new standard calls for striping on the front, sides, and rear of all fire and emergency apparatus, thereby increasing awareness and visibility to road users. When a highway incident escalates to the point where evacuation is necessary, such as in the case of a major hazardous materials spill, responders enact and implement protocols established by jurisdictional emergency management groups. Interoperability is not just about technology; it is about changing the culture of a State or region in how it gathers and communicates information that is accessible to multiple public and private sector entities, law enforcement, transportation, and safety organizations. Guidance and involvement of high-level representation from each agency provides the experience and focused vision that helps an interoperability committee maintain focus. For example, the governance structure may consist of subject matter experts (SMEs) in the areas of technology, operations, and program management from each agency. Therefore, any initial achievements made through grant funding must be sustained using agency funds. Being able to demonstrate return on investment makes it easier for agencies to secure ongoing or increased funding support for interoperable systems that support effective TIM communications. The plan is a joint effort by governmental and private organizations with responsibilities for highway incident management and public safety.
The Plan defines the communication, response, resource, and responsibility procedures and guidelines of the county Transportation Management Teams (TMT) across the State for response to any event or incident that impacts the transportation system. Many State and local TIM programs have overcome these challenges, and offer lessons learned for others. Typically, most agencies purchase communication systems to serve their internal communication needs. Once key data fields are identified and mapped, apply the technical patches necessary to extract and import or export the data. Systems incompatibility is one of the major issues with large-scale, multi-agency emergency response. Often, shared standards apply to only part of the system needed to achieve the operational objectives.
Key systems, such as CAD systems, may be owned by law enforcement agencies that do not have the budget to pay for expensive integration initiatives.
The most efficient way to accomplish real-time accurate information exchange is to automate this exchange.
This proposed rule would establish minimum parameters and requirements for States to make available and share traffic and travel condition information via real-time information programs. First created in March 2004 and updated in December 2008, the NIMS is a comprehensive national approach to emergency management designed to improve the effectiveness of emergency management and response personnel across the spectrum of potential incidents and hazard scenarios. The following list of resources is available on the Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS) Web site.[143] LLIS is a national database of lessons learned, best practices, and innovative ideas for the emergency response and homeland security communities sponsored by the DHS Federal Emergency Management Agency.
The NIFOG includes information from the National Interoperability Frequency Guide (NIFG), the instructions for use of the NIFG, and other reference material. The intent of the solutions is to enhance day-to-day operations and that afford preparation for major multi-jurisdictional events. The Guide also provides strategies, best practices, and recommendations for public safety radio projects. At the 112th Annual Conference of IACP held on September 27, 2005 in Miami, Florida, the IACP passed a resolution calling for Information Technology Standards. This document identifies barriers to interoperability and suggests strategies to achieve interoperability.
The United States Fire Administration published the Traffic Incident Management Systems, its final list of recommendations, which includes (No. Factors involved in developing an effective information-sharing program are institutional, technical, and operational. Most States have interoperability policies, due to DHS requirements for interoperable systems in emergency response. In 2002, the Washington State Patrol (WSP) and the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) developed A Joint Operations Policy Statement[150] (JOPS) to govern all aspects of incident management.
DVRPC, in coordination with Pennsylvania and New Jersey DOT (PennDOT and NJDOT, respectively) and Pennsylvania and New Jersey State Police (PSP and NJSP, respectively), established multi-jurisdictional Incident Management Task Forces (IMTF) for multiple areas along the East Coast. This document provides a powerful foundation for interoperable communication and information exchange between core TIM response agencies—law enforcement and transportation.
NIEM was launched on February 28, 2005 to support the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to exchange data on terrorist information, through a partnership agreement between the DOJ and the DHS. As incidents increase in complexity and scale, so do the number and types of responders involved who must communicate effectively to manage the incident, while minimizing further risk to responder and driver safety.
The responsibilities of the multiple jurisdictions and agencies involved have the potential to overlap. Secret Service,[135] also may be employed as needed to supplement the organizations defined in the NTIMC's Prompt, Reliable Traffic Information Systems brochure. Integrating a TMC with the PSAP (or the PSAP's computer-aided dispatch [CAD] system) could enable transportation agencies to more efficiently initiate support operations such as traffic management, traffic diversion, and provide real-time traveler information.
TMCs provide critical support communications to agencies involved with TIM and the traveling public.
Co-location of personnel from different agencies facilitates real-time communication at an operational level for more coordinated and efficient decision-making and resource allocation. Using its own radio system, the TMC dispatches a service patrol capable of immediate response. The TMC is the heart of an effective TIM program, and for mature TIM programs, is the single point of contact among responder agencies for highway incidents. Ideally, the TMC also receives and integrates data from the PSAP's CAD system and TMC systems to enable faster and more efficient incident detection, verification, and response. Instant access to decision-making data enables traffic engineers to respond to solve traffic problems quickly. They have real-time access to non-sensitive law enforcement CAD data (AZTech blocks sensitive data, and because of privacy concerns and given the volume of data, the center has not yet implemented automated data exchange between systems). With the proliferation of personal cellular phones and in-vehicle communications systems, incident detection has become more efficient, with motorists reporting incidents. As the capabilities of technology and communication expand, the capabilities of ATIS also expand.
TMC operators provide information to reroute and divert the traveling public to minimize incident-related delay and to help prevent secondary crashes. Information service providers can send information directly to communication devices or to a designated State, regional, county, city, or other local Web site. Whether fixed or portable, DMS can provide information regarding expected travel time to certain locations, incident status, and alternate routing.
Agencies can have their own internal communications groups that allow them to communicate when there is no need for multi-agency response. This form of silent communication allows a single agency to communicate additional or lengthy information to any responder without interfering with voice communications on a shared channel. Responders exchange numbers prior to an incident and use them during an incident for communication. As the initial notifications are sent to private service providers, technology must be developed to coordinate with and alert public service providers in real time. It should be noted that emergency vehicle lighting provides warning and awareness only, and yields no effective traffic control.
Photogrammetry is a technique using remote sensing technology to make precise measurements from photographs to determine physical dimensions involved in crash investigations. At any incident scene, both major and minor, one agency representative should be pre-selected to provide information to a central point of contact (POC).


Institutional support for interoperability involves strategic planning and operational changes among all participating entities for it to be successful.
The governance group members must remain fully involved in the decision-making process because they are responsible for identifying sources of initial and continued funding.
Participating agencies should develop an MOU, encourage additional agencies to participate, and seek legislative support on interoperability issues to sustain its funding resources. An effective SOP details the issues related to technology reserves (radio caches), survivability, and redundancy. A results-oriented strategic plan is a critical component of effective communication and information exchange. The Plan establishes the framework for a systematic, statewide, multi-agency effort to improve the management of highway incidents.
Frequently, the systems are proprietary and not readily integrate with other agencies' communication systems.
Some agencies are reluctant to share electronic data with TMCs out of concern that sensitive information may be inadvertently accessed following data exchange. Entering dates and times in inconsistent formats can create a significant barrier to otherwise straightforward data exchange. For example, the owner of incident start time may be the agency first notified of the incident. Numerous national organizations have issued policy statements or developed guidance to support communication and information exchange.
The FHWA includes the reporting of all traffic incidents that block roadway or lane travel as an element that must be reported. Applicable at all jurisdictional levels and across functional disciplines, NIMS provides a unifying framework for incident management. Focusing on information sharing, the system seeks to improve preparedness nationwide by allowing local, State, and Federal homeland security officials and response professionals to tap into a wealth of front-line expertise on the most effective planning, training, equipping, and operational practices for preventing, preparing for, responding to, and recovering from incidents. 2, Communications, supports the restoration of public communications infrastructure, facilitates the recovery of systems and applications from cyber attacks, and coordinates Federal communications support to response efforts during incidents requiring a coordinated Federal response. One strategy is to support funding for public safety agencies that work to achieve interoperability and reject agency budgets that do not include interoperable solutions.
Implement cooperative partnerships and frameworks based on formal agreements or regional plans to guide day-to-day activities and working relationships. Several areas of the country indicate that interoperability issues remain the purview of the Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI). JOPS establishes policies and procedures for operational areas of mutual concern and involvement with both the WSP and WSDOT.
These agencies share information through Florida's SunGuide system,[151] which allows the TIM teams to respond more efficiently and effectively to incidents, and provides real-time information to travelers through 511, DMS, and on-line traffic information. The project's goal is to establish a standards-based approach to critical information exchange among transportation and public safety agencies during planned and unplanned incidents.
NIEM does not attempt to standardize all databases; it does, however, identify the required cross-discipline activities needed to share information for numerous purposes. Members include representatives from the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), Fire, Law Enforcement, Public Safety Communications, Towing and Recovery, and Transportation communities. SAFECOM provides research, development, testing and evaluation, guidance, tools, and templates on interoperable communications-related issues to Federal, State, tribal, and local emergency response agencies. Agencies must manage resources effectively, including technology, to maximize the effectiveness and safety of incident management efforts. If a TMC were able to share a video feed from a closed-circuit television (CCTV) system with other responders, those responders could tailor their own incident response activities to identify Hazmat spills, the presence and seriousness of injuries, or to determine whether extrication is needed.
These entities act as important multi-agency coordination hubs in TIM, and often host the systems that maintain the data archives for incidents.
The TMC uses its CCTV to locate the disabled vehicle, and guide the service patrol to the disabled vehicle's exact location. Silent communication is often needed when voice channels are inappropriate for the sensitive nature of the information to be exchanged or when the radio channels become overcrowded during major incidents with multiple responders. These centers use the transportation tools of facility surveillance and traffic monitoring.
Operators are able to support TIM response through extensive CCTV coverage and via direct voice and data access to responders. Details such as agency arrival and departure times, location, and traffic conditions are available, as are images and video from all District 4 CCTV cameras. The system creates an incident log, including timestamps on incident duration, and enables responders to exchange data about the incident. TMC staffs increasingly use technologies such as CCTV to monitor and guide more efficient incident response and traffic operations (by providing responders with information based on visual monitoring of the incident scene, surrounding traffic conditions and possible diversion routes).
By knowing how many vehicles can pass a given point at a specific time with specific traffic volumes, models can determine queue lengths when one or more lanes are blocked. The TMCs freely share traveler information with media outlets that package and deliver information to the traveling public by radio, television, and the Internet. When public transportation is available in any area, it is important to include a link to the transit Web site to provide conditions and mode travel schedules. The radios can be configured to allow cross-communication when the need for interoperability exists.
This type of communication also allows responders to share sensitive information on a prioritized basis. However, the National Task Force on Interoperability discourages reliance on personal communication devices because, by doing so, responders are required to share frequencies with the private sector. This ensures that the media agencies are able to receive the information needed to provide travelers with information on an incident or event without compromising incident response activities and responder safety.
However, if the State elects to take a regional approach, there is a need to establish interoperable committees from each region, consisting of SMEs that make decisions for that region.
When multiple agencies independently collect the same information (such as incident start time), data conflicts are created when agencies exchange data.
This agency may vary, but the agreement between stakeholders may be when time stamps differ, the earliest time is considered to be authoritative. This rule reflects the intent of other Federal legislation that agencies that respond to highway incidents must be capable of instantaneous communication and data exchange in order to mitigate, in an expedient manner, all highway incidents. The USAI recognizes that major metropolitan areas of the country have issues, vulnerabilities, and threats unique to large cities. These policies and procedures included data sharing and coordinated public communications with the media and for traveler information for incident traffic management.
The Integrated Justice Information Systems (IJIS) Institute published the study's results in March 2007.
Every agency and jurisdiction is required to have a homeland security contact that can provide additional information on NIEM. For incidents that occur on a road system not covered by ITS, integrating a TMC with a responding law enforcement CAD system could provide the TMC with dispatch notification and an incident log whenever a public safety responder is dispatched to an incident. The service patrol vehicle is able to clear the incident before it disrupts the flow of normal traffic.
Using a TMC as the primary point of contact for all responder agencies confirms the concept that TIM also is about managing traffic affected by the incident that may impact not just one facility, but the overall transportation system or network. TMCs in the region are establishing center-to-center connections for interconnectivity to the various TMCs. Deployed in each New York City borough, IIMS is used by New York State and New York City transportation, law enforcement, and emergency response personnel. The modeling tools can help decision-makers evaluate implications and tradeoffs associated with various operational decisions, such as completely closing a highway to provide responders with time and space to clear an incident versus simply reducing traffic throughput by diverting a portion of this traffic to alternative routes. Cross-installation of radios among different responders from different disciplines is another solution. In other areas, the Governor (or other designated county or municipal elected official) appoints a governance or advisory committee that chooses its own SMEs, who then work within a committee structure and report to the governance committee. The planning guides provide many other strategies in addition to interoperability and resource sharing that are applicable to TIM. Through Federal grant funding from the DHS, the UASI mission is to reduce area vulnerability, prevent terrorism, and prepare regions for an all-hazards environment. The project committee identified 22 potential incident management information exchanges, and selected 12 for XML modeling in the project. The NIMS was originally published on March 1, 2004, and revised in 2008 to reflect contributions from stakeholders and lessons learned during recent incidents. These examples demonstrate the complex nature and diversity of communications used to support TIM. An agency can archive the data from its CAD system and maintain the information in agency records. The District uses this information to facilitate communications between TMCs and update the statewide 511 Automated Traveler Information System (ATIS) system, which all the TMCs manage directly (no separate 511 provider).
IIMS data exchange capabilities have helped to reduce incident response time by enabling responders to verify incidents and identify what response assets they need.
This approach may be realistic in smaller jurisdictions, but it may become problematic for larger areas where the available space within a response vehicle provides limited room for multiple radios. In still other locations, a pre-existing agency achieves the interoperability needs of the jurisdiction or region. The tri-State UASI region of Southwest Ohio, Southeast Indiana, and Northern Kentucky (SOSINK) identifies highway incidents as a major threat and concern. The JOPS also establishes specific performance targets for clearing incidents and the process for performance is measurement. These examples also illustrate the overlapping information each responding agency needs to perform its role on scene. Responder radios can support a gateway interface call that allows a transmission from one radio to be broadcast on the frequency of another radio, where one frequency is used to rebroadcast interagency messages. Also, personnel in command must be able to reach multiple responders at the same time—an ability that is not always available with a cell phone.
The Advanced Regional Traffic Interactive Management and Information System (ARTIMIS) provides incident services using the common tool of a TMC, while the incident management tools of data and voice communication standards are established by SOSINK. JOPS is updated on a regularly by the State and is an excellent example of how a State established communications practices and procedures to coordinate the roles and responsibilities of on-scene, multi-disciplinary responder personnel. Another consideration is that dialing and waiting for a cell phone connection is not feasible or acceptable during an incident. A similar model is followed in Charlotte, North Carolina, where the TMC coordinates incident management and response, and the Charlotte UASI drives the communication and mutual aid agreements. A limitation of this approach is that the single frequency can quickly become over-crowded at major scenes with multiple responders. However, camera phones are simple devices that can be used to transmit exact information on an incident scene, and can be useful in identifying vehicle size and type parameters that must be considered for vehicle removal.



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