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Have you been wondering, like many, what is Grid Energy Storage and why is there so much talks about large scale energy storage in the RE realm?
In particular, the use of grid-connected intermittent energy sources such as solar (photovoltaic) and wind can benefit from grid energy storage.
There are several methods that are currently being pursued as a possible means of grid energy storage. When it comes to industrial control systems (ICS) specifically to supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) then a basic unterstanding of the business is crucial.
For a starter, this article shall give a short introduction into electrical grids in general. Generator domain; includes all sort of bulk power generation plants such as nuclear reactors, fossil fuel (coal or gas) plants as well as hydroelectricity plants. Distribution domain; provides the whole infrastructure to bring power to the end user (consumer).
The four domain model gives a good introduction into the basic concept of an electrical grid but it does by no means appreciate the full detail of the electrical grid nor does it fully model the energy flow. Since 2001 distributed power generation significantly emerged due to renewable energy got political attention and national funding [5].
Note, this work is a preview version of an MSc Information Security dissertation in the fields of electrical grids.
This entry was posted in Industrial Control Systems, Standards and tagged electrical grid, enisa, focp, ics, nerc, scada, smart grid by Cyrill Brunschwiler. The electrical grid is at the heart of our daily activities, yet we rarely think about how electricity is delivered to us.
A smart grid involves monitoring and controlling the electrical grid to ensure it remains balanced and reliable.
My report highlights some important components of a smart grid, including smart meters, distributed generation and energy storage. Several Ontario utilities (such as Toronto Hydro) have taken the lead by providing Internet applications that show users their metered electricity consumption data collected from smart meters.
Ontario’s existing grid was developed long-ago and, although our electricity needs have increased and evolved, our grid has not changed in a similar way. This entry was posted in Reports to the Legislature and tagged electrical grid, energy, energy pricing, energy supply, peak demand, smart grid, Toronto Hydro by ECO.
Since Cyber War is a covert activity we can gain insight into the resources being marshaled by nation states by looking at the way they prepare for the Olympic Games.
The US Defense Department, in response to this growing threat, is in the process of dramatically boosting cyber security by recruiting what it refers to as Cyber Warriors; this recruiting effort is being called the Manhattan Project of the current college age generation. A recent dramatic example of Cyber War was the effort to spy on and sabotage the  Iranian Nuclear Program’s computer systems in 2010. Reportedly US government agencies, defense contractors, technology firms, universities, banks, utilities, email accounts and companies like Google, Facebook, and Lockheed Martin and many others have been compromised. Hijacked computers become attack platforms or relays helping to conceal the identity of the attackers. Attackers often use a tech platforms and relays located in countries where law enforcement does not cooperate with outside countries.
ISPs do not verify the identity of new account users making it easier for attackers to create thousands of bogus accounts. Converting the Internet to Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) in which each computer and device would have a unique identity would help flush out hackers by keeping track of the number of attacks launched from specific computer and devices. Western countries are based on the rule of law where the expectation is that if people break the law they can be punished; where cyber war is being waged in countries not committed to the rule of law it is exceedingly difficult to prosecute hackers. According to Chambers, Cyber War is now affecting the profitability of private industry as they are beginning to hire large numbers of security engineers and technicians.  But solving the problem of Cyber War through a new and ongoing cyber arms race is perhaps not the way to go. Stay tuned as we will go into more detail on the technology used in Cyber War in future posts!
David enjoys research and writing about cutting edge technologies that hold the promise of improving conditions for all life on planet earth.
Power Transmission and Distribution system (PTD) has been carefully structured with one thing in mind that Innovations in Power Transmission and Distribution are necessary to guarantee the reliable power supply for the growing world economy in the future. A Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) is a system comprised of static equipment used for the AC transmission of electrical energy. This method is used either while charging the transmission line or when there is very low load at the receiving end.
The advantage of HVDC is the ability to transmit large amounts of power over long distances with lower capital costs and with lower losses than AC. Endpoint-to-endpoint long-haul bulk power transmission without intermediate 'taps', for example, in remote areas.

Connecting a remote generating plant to the distribution grid, for example Nelson River Bipole. Stabilizing a predominantly AC power grid, without increasing maximum prospective short circuit current. HVDC can carry more power per conductor, because for a given power rating the constant voltage in a DC line is lower than the peak voltage in an AC line.
Because HVDC allows power transmission between unsynchronized AC distribution systems, it can help increase system stability, by preventing cascading failures from propagating from one part of a wider power transmission grid to another.
Well, Grid Energy Storage are large scale facilities used to store energy in some form or the other (electrical, potential, gravitational, etc) within an electric power grid.
These energy sources are by nature unpredictable – mean that the amount of electrical energy they produce varies over time and depends heavily on random factors such as the weather.
He holds a Bachelor and a Masters of Science Degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of the West Indies. In the curse of my master thesis I am currently digging into parts of the electrical grid and try to examine the issues and security level of some specific protocols. It aims to introduce general terms and to state the difference between the former electrical grid architecture and the smart grid. They consist of towers and poles that hold wires to transport the electricity and finally make it available to the consumer. Typically, these are power plants that can continuously generate electricity of several hundred million watts (MW). This includes components such as large interconnection nodes, substations and of course, cables either mounted on towers or buried underground.
The domain also includes transformer equipment which is necessary to reduce the voltage as power is transported to the consumer.
The industries as well as household regardless of the amount of consumption and the consumer geographic location. Due to the liberalization of the power market the generation domain is not exclusively subject to large utilities anymore. Local utilities more frequently setup own facilities to generate power which will be feed-in directly at the distribution level at high voltages. These fundings do not only focus on large installations but also take small generators in home scale into account. Therefore, governments provide guidance in form of critical infrastructure protection (CIP) programmes [6,7] and in form of written recommendations [8,9] on how to securely operate the IT stuffed new generations of grids.
I’ll provide a closer look to the smart grid in about two weeks and will definitely take your comment into account.
In its simplest form, the grid is made of a series of wires that carry electricity from the source of generation to our homes and businesses, as well as equipment like transformers that regulate the voltage of the power delivered. For example, smart meters record when and how much electricity is used, allowing consumers to learn more about their electricity consumption habits.
At these websites, consumers can monitor their electricity usage to identify sources of electricity waste and shift some of their electricity use to times when the overall demand is lower.
According to Ontario’s Long-Term Energy Plan, provincial electricity consumption will grow by 15 per cent between 2010 and 2030, meaning that we will need more generating stations to provide power. We expect that our grid will continue to provide us with reliable electricity, and modifications are needed to ensure the grid remains reliable and dependable.
Russian and Chinese Olympic organizations, for example, search their populations for the most talented children, often removing them from their homes, and fast track them through intensive training programs with the goal being to bring home gold medals every four years, regardless of the human and financial cost. Finding a way to bring countries into a legal structure of treaties where intellectual property is protected and theft whether by individuals, companies or governments is aggressively prosecuted may be the only reasonable and effective solution. It is meant to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability of the network. Whenever an inductive load is connected to the transmission line, power factor lags because of lagging load current. Depending on voltage level and construction details, losses are quoted as about 3% per 1000 km.
While this has minimal effect for DC transmission, the current required to charge and discharge the capacitance of the cable causes additional I2R power losses when the cable is carrying AC. Changes in load that would cause portions of an AC network to become unsynchronized and separate would not similarly affect a DC link, and the power flow through the DC link would tend to stabilize the AC network.
Energy is stored during times when production exceeds consumption and the stored energy is used at times when consumption exceeds production.
In an electric power grid without energy storage, energy sources that rely on energy stored within fuels (coal, oil, gas) must be scaled up and down to match the rise and fall of energy production from intermittent energy sources.Thus, grid energy storage is one method that the operator of an electric power grid can use to optimize on energy production from intermittent renewable energy resources.
He specializes in Power System Engineering, Renewable Energy, and Power System Economics and is a former vice-chair of the IEEE Power and Energy Society Trinidad & Tobago.

Additionally, paradigm changes and challenges [1] to the current grid will be pointed-out and the conclusion will include some reasoning for a more flexible architecture – the smart grid. The figure provides an overview how these facilities are logically grouped into four major electric grid domains. Bulk consumers typically get their power at higher voltages, for example 16kV, then common house holds for which 230 Volts and 400 Volts present common values. For example, consumers may want to invest into renewable energy such as photo voltaic (PV) equipment in order to cover their own power consumption and to supply current out of surplus production to others. Distributed generation (DG) is nothing new to grid operators and utilities as it was already discussed in literature [4] in 2001. Meanwhile, distributed generation has taken off and demands for advances in measurement and operations of the electrical grid.
With home producers you have the electricity flowing in both directions, which gives additional problems, when taking down a power line for maintenance.
This gives some additional tasks in this play to ensure also safety for these persons maintaining power lines. This is the electricity we use to power almost everything, from computers, televisions and air conditioners, to our traffic lights, hospitals and shopping malls.
This will reduce the strain on our electrical system and help avoid the need for new and costly peaking power plants that are built for use during times of very high electricity demand.
However, if we use what we already have more efficiently, we could decrease the amount of new generation required. Arguably the stakes in Cyber War are much higher; we can imagine teams of young geniuses with computer programming talent being trained all around the world to infiltrate computer systems for economic and military gain. Series inductance occurs in long transmission lines and when a large current flows, it causes a large voltage drop.
To compensate, a shunt capacitor is connected which draws current leading the source voltage. High Voltage Direct Current transmission allows use of energy sources remote from load centers. This allows existing transmission line corridors to be used to carry more power into an area of high power consumption, which can lower costs. The magnitude and direction of power flow through a DC link can be directly commanded, and changed as needed to support the AC networks at either end of the DC link. In this way, electricity production need not be drastically scaled up and down to meet momentary consumption – instead, production is maintained at a more constant level.
The domain concept is not entirely new and was similarly outlined in a description of cyber security on the essential parts of the smart grid [2].
The voltage for that size of transmissions networks is  several hundred of thousand volts (kV). The referenced book [4] does also introduce several forms of generators and does recognize the technical and financial impact of distributed generation to the grid.
Only the introduction of additional information technology (IT) will allow to coordinate all generators, storages and consumers and thus to ensure efficiency and reliability of the grid. I believe that for the smart grid to succeed, one organization must establish the vision and provide overall leadership necessary to guide all participants towards the common goal of modernizing the grid. Due to the physics of delivering electricity over wires, Ontario loses about 6% of its electricity between the generating stations and consumers. The worm delivered a payload designed to monitor and subvert supervisory control and data acquisition systems and infect Programmable Logic Circuits (PLCs).
The receiving end voltage may become double the sending end voltage (generally in case of very long transmission lines). This has caused many power system operators to contemplate wider use of HVDC technology for its stability benefits alone. The reader will find information on combustion turbines, PV systems, micro turbines, fuel cells, combined heat and power as well as background information on grid operations with distributed generation and storage.
By minimizing these losses, we can get more power from our existing generation stations to the end-users. The target was undoubtedly the uranium enrichment infrastructure in Iran which was reportedly set back months, if not years.
In fact, my report recommends that the Ontario Energy Board encourage and facilitate smart grid investments that reduce line losses, putting these investments on an equal footing with conservation investments.

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Comments to “Electric grid terrorism”

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  3. AISHWARYA_RAI writes:
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