Disaster risk assessment matrix,natural disasters caused by government,disaster relief survival kits,natural disasters coping with the health impact - Try Out

This document provides an overview of a Disaster Risk Assessment (DRA) process and the associated results generated through the course of the process, as well as a road map for conducting a comprehensive DRA in a country, which is led by a national authority and implemented via the extensive participation of national institutions.
Desertification is a typical disaster risk event in which human settlements and living environments are destroyed. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Conceptual Frameworks of Vulnerability Assessments for Natural Disasters ReductionRoxana L. The Pacific RISA facilitated the integration of climate risk analysis and adaptation into disaster management plans by engaging the disaster management community as a primary stakeholder in climate activities. Source: Figures extracted from eight hazard mitigation plans—American Samoa, CNMI, Guam, and Hawai?i. Because of the established relationships with the disaster management community in the Pacific, climate has been embedded in formal multi-hazard mitigation plans required by the Federal Emergency Management Agency for provision of post-disaster recovery and pre-disaster mitigation funding. This project investigated the potential of incorporating Climate Risk Assessments into Multi-Hazard Risk Assessments. The integration of socioeconomic data and hazard risk layers improves the understanding of community sensitivity and exposure to climate hazard risks and enables decision makers to understand ways that systems overlap to produce risk.
The Pacific RISA reviewed existing disaster risk-reduction plans and has suggested areas in which island governments could improve climate-related disaster planning. Our VisionResilient and sustainable Pacific communities using climate information to manage risks and support practical decision-making about climate variability and change.
It has been great working with colleagues in six offices across two UNICEF regions to develop an innovative risk assessment tool which draws upon UNICEF’s unique collection of child data. The tool acts as a bridge between development and humanitarian action by combining information about natural hazards and climate change with child vulnerability data.
A child-centred risk assessment is a powerful analytical tool that makes UNICEF’s new resilience agenda a reality.
The tool allows governments and organizations to approach their policy and planning in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation with children at the forefront and in this way promoting child rights and child participation.
Humanitarian action in this field should be focused on vulnerabilities rather than being shock-driven and I believe this tool is one important way of achieving that. About This SiteThis site contains a sampling of UNICEF’s Innovation initiatives, resources, media coverage, and first person posts on how UNICEF country offices are creating innovations in programme, process, partnership and product.
The risk assessments are for the Redland City mainland coastal, hinterland and island communities (Refer to map for more information). This plan focuses on the likelihood and affects of disasters occurring within the Redland City and recognises that Redland City is made up of a “community of communities” that face their own unique challenges during disaster events. Risk assessment is a process of evaluating the source and possible consequence of the risk, and the likelihood that those consequences will occur.
A major part of the disaster recovery planning process is the assessment of the potential risks to the organization which could result in the disasters or emergency situations themselves. There are many potential disruptive events and the impact and probability level must beassessed to give a sound basis for progress.
Cost of business interruption Cost of business interruption –A Calculating the impact and cost to an enterprise of a disruption of service is difficult.
Lack of BYOD policy at State Department causes havoc in presidential campaign Lack of BYOD policy and enforcement at the State Department have caused havoc in the presidential campaign. The post Lack of BYOD policy at State Department causes havoc in presidential campaign appeared first on IT Manager - CIO.
Cloud Disaster Plan lacking Cloud Disaster Plan lacking and is not enough to protect your data.
Cloud Based Disaster Recovery Cloud Based Disaster Recovery Cloud based disaster recovery is all the rage.
Adapted with permission from the BCM Lifecycle developed by the Business Continuity Institute. A DRA is a 3-step process starting with a country getting ready for it by setting up necessary legal and political framework to facilitate the process and understanding the current situation of DRA in a country. Therefore, Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is a long-term, locally supported and implemented process and Disaster Risk Assessment (DRA) is the key to develop an effective and efficient DRR solution, aiming at a thorough understanding of the disaster risk problem a country is facing.
Desertification Disaster Risk Assessment can control and prevent the occurrence and development of desertification disasters and reduce their adverse influence on human society.
IntroductionChina is one of the most serious desertification hazard countries in the world and Northern China is a key area of desertification research, prevention and control [1].
Philippines – annual expenditure under the National Calamity Fund (1996 – 2002) (Based on GDP at price market) [4]2. Conceptual framework for holistic approach to disaster risk assessment and management [23] in [11]Table 1.
Fragility curves ‘forced’ to unity and manually extrapolated to the next order of magnitude for volume (local roads).
Ciurean1, Dagmar Schroter2 and Thomas Glade1[1] Department of Geography and Regional Research, University of Vienna, Austria[2] IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria1. Social and environmental indicators research is common in the field of sustainable science. However, the extent of these losses is frequently underestimated especially when landslides are associated with the occurrence of floods or earthquakes (their consequences tend to be aggregated). The practice of discussing climate through impact analysis of extreme climate events developed a foundation for considering changes in climate.  Researchers, meteorologists, and climatologists built on experiences with tropical storms, hurricanes, and typhoons to plan for the impacts of climate variability and ENSO cycles. Table found in “Overview of Climate Risk Reduction in the US Pacific Islands Hazard Mitigation Planning Efforts” report, pg.
For the State of Hawai?i, the plan describes the types of hazards associated with climate variability and change, attempts to evaluate risks from climate-related impacts (more data and research is needed in this area), describes institutions and organizations that contribute to risk reduction, and recommends mitigation actions. Hazard risk and vulnerability assessments (RVA), specifically for climate-related risks, have been established as an interdisciplinary methodology that underpins the development of disaster risk-reduction plans. Geographic information systems (GIS) can easily manage databases of information and can be integrated into models to consider spatial risks and vulnerability. It utilizes existing information to visualize areas with high levels of risk in order to encourage preventive action. It also allows us, as UNICEF, to define our child-centred disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and resilience agendas. This is achieved through the Risk Rating Matrix below, where the consequence of the risk is mapped against the likelihood that the risk will occur, which provides a risk rating level – low, medium, high or extreme. It is necessary to consider all the possible incident types, as well as and the impact each may have on the organization's ability to continue to deliver its normal business services. In 2015 the average cost of a data breach was $3.79 million, and that figure is expected to grow to close to $5 million by the end of this year. A Google with all of its resources had data destroyedA and lost due to 4 lighting strikes at one of it data centers. On this basis, a country prepares a realistic strategy for implementation in terms of the country context and detailed implementation action plan with a longterm vision.
On the other hand, many high-risk countries are facing various issues and challenges in conducting DRA on their own due to the comprehensiveness and complexity of the DRA process. This study presents the methodology and procedure for risk assessment and zoning of desertification disasters in Horqin Sand Land. Although desertification research and control has been carried out for half a century, there is a sign that the situation is improving in parts, but the overall area is getting worse [2]. Results from the study are indicated by black dots, the corresponding mean vulnerability is indicated by red dots [53]Table 2. IntroductionThe last few decades have demonstrated an increased concern for the occurrence of natural disasters and their consequences for leaders and organizations around the world. For example, United Nations Development Program’s Human Development Index [30], proposes a composite indicator of human well-being, as well as gender disparity and poverty among nations. Rainfall forecast information developed by PEAC is used to show precipitation trends related to ENSO events.
Because of the extensive risk from multiple types of climate-related disasters and the wide variation among island communities and infrastructures, islands must employ a multi-hazard risk reduction framework. Displaying a visual map can help communities better understand the underlying reasons for vulnerability. An explanation of the criteria for risk likelihood descriptors and risk consequence descriptors appears in the following tables. Some of theA factors need to be considered: How will your clients, customers, and users react a disruption? A The numbers have improved in almost all of the states in the past 12 months save West Virginia.

A DRA is a diagnostic process of understanding the problem of risks and their impacts that needs to engage stakeholders who are at risk at the very beginning of the process in an interactive manner. In this context, UNDP, through itsGlobal Risk Identification Programme (GRIP), has developed this solution package, which serves as a practical toolkit for high-risk countries to use to develop a total solution for their  DRA activities: Risk assessments, data and information integration, and capacity development. Based on natural disaster risk theory and the desertification disaster formation mechanism, the Desertification Disaster Risk Index (DDRI) combined hazard, exposure, vulnerability and restorability factors and was developed mainly by using multi-source data and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Desertification results in land degradation, lower biological production, loss of available land resources and deterioration of the ecological environment.
Entropy Combination Weighted MethodThe Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a convenient and effective method that implements qualitative and quantitative analysis for indicators and compares the indicators one to one.
The EM-DAT International Disaster Database [1] statistics show that, in the last century, the mortality risk associated with major weather-related hazards has declined globally, but there has been a rapid increase in the exposure of economic assets to natural hazards.Looking into more detail, UNISDR’s Global Assessment Report 2011 (GAR11) [2] indicates that disasters in 2011 set a new record of $366 billion for economic losses, including $210 billion as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accompanying tsunami alone, and $40 billion as a result of the floods in Thailand.
Similarly, the World Bank develops indicators that stress the links between environmental conditions and human welfare, especially in developing nations, in order to monitor national progress toward a more sustainable future [31]. For the US Flag Islands (Hawai?i, American Samoa, CNMI, and Guam), the Federal Emergency Management Agency requires that plans be updated every three years. The Solution Package consists of various standards, methodologies, guidelines, templates, and samples for DRA programming, coordination, and implementation.This poster is a brief introduction to GRIP's Disaster Risk Assessment (DRA) solution package. The results showed that high risk and middle risk areas account for 28% and 23% of the study area, respectively. It not only disturbs and affects the human survival and normal economic activities, but also creates huge losses in terms of lives and property. In natural hazards risk management framework, many of the indicator based vulnerability studies are relying on measuring attributes or factors influencing vulnerability rather than understanding relationships or processes [32].The composition and selection of vulnerability indicators is complex.
Of the four FEMA-approved plans, only Hawai?i assesses risks from climate change and has implemented drought mitigation plans. Rather, it is an integral part of a policy or decision making process, with clearly defined purpose of a DRA study! According to statistics, the economic losses caused by desertification disasters costs the country more than 54.1 billion Yuan a year [3].
The indictors are subdivided into different membership levels according to the tightness of its class.
Ideally, there are nine different phases in the development of indicators (Figure 6) [33]: first, a relevant goal must be selected and defined. In the islands, multi-hazard mitigation plans were required in 2004 from the FSM and RMI, but they did not include risks from sea level variability, sea level rise, or other effects of climate change.
In this context, a DRA is generally conduced following the steps:1) Readiness development2) Development of disaster risk profiles3) Development of applications to different decision makingGiven different levels of the country capabilities, it is suggested that a country starts a DRA process with conducting a comprehensive Country Situation Analysis of disaster risk assessment and it's use in decision making based on a systematic inventory and evaluation of what exists in a country and established a national disaster loss database (Figure). Visible, in-depth studies on the desertification disaster problem are imperative.Horqin Sand Land is located in the transition zone between northeast plain and Inner Mongolia plateau, it is a semi-humid and semi-arid region.
They are quantified on the basis of one indicator and different components of each indicator reflect the influence degree on the research object [25].
Disaster databases, such as the ones referred to above, represent key resources for actors involved in policy and practice related with disaster risk reduction and response.
Then, it is necessary to perform a scoping process in order to identify the target group and the associated purposes for which the indicators will be used. This initial phase may take 6 months up to 12 months, with an aim to engage all the stakeholders, initiate an effective national coordination mechanism, introduce necessary data and information sharing policy and mechanism. It is one of the most serious desertification regions in arid and semi-arid areas in Northern China.
However, considering their diversity and recognizing their different roles, one can identify at least one limitation in their use i.e.
The third phase presumes the identification of an appropriate conceptual framework, which means structuring the potential themes and indicators. Some consider vulnerability within the landslide risk management framework, others evaluate exclusively physical vulnerability.
The 2nd phase of a DRA may take at least 6 months up to several years until a comprehensive disaster risk profile to be developed, depending on the availability of the data and information that are required for risk assessment and the level of a country capability for risk modeling and mapping.The comprehensive disaster risk profile provides an evidence base for a country or a city to formulate a realistic national strategy and associated action plans for disaster risk reduction.
Very high risk areas account for 18% of the study area and are distributed in the northeastern parts. Desertified land (the region affected by the desertification) in Horqin Sand Land measure 5 ? 104 km2, which accounts for 42% of the Sand Land. The following sub-sections give a short overview of some of the conceptual models presented in [11], such as the double structure of vulnerability, vulnerability within the context of hazard and risk, vulnerability in the context of global environmental change community, the Presure and Release Model and a holistic approach to risk and vulnerability assessment. The fourth phase implies the definition of selection criteria for the potential indicators (see below). Three general types of methodologies can be identified (without excluding the possibility of other classification schemes):Qualitative methods ([47], [48], [35]) - given a particular landslide type and the characteristics of the elements at risk, the appropriate vulnerability factor is assessed by expert judgment, field mapping or based on historical records.
It is crucial to identify country-specific DRR options, delineate high-risk areas, and conduct cost-benefit analysis for decision making. Its basic principle is that the smaller the information entropy (which indicates the ratio of the amount of information and the information value, the lower the entropy value is, the bigger the information values, indicating the relative importance of the indicator ) of an indicator is, the greater the degrees of the variation of the indicator values. Compiling and analyzing an extensive natural disaster data set for the period 1993 – 2002, Alexander [3] showed that, for example, in the Philippines in 1996 there were 31 major floods, 29 earthquakes, 10 typhoons and 7 tornadoes. A typical national strategy for DRR needs to clearly defines the priorities, DRR programmes, establish necessary risk financing mechanism and corresponding institutional arrangement, with clearly specified timelines and the role and responsibilities of each stakeholder. It has important theoretical and practical significance to prevention and control of desertification in Horqin Sand Land and even in Northern China.
The greater the amount of information it provided, the larger the role it played in comprehensive evaluation and the greater the weight it has [26]. Due to population pressure, large areas of Luzon and other islands were denuded of their dense vegetation cover resulting in landslide prone slopes.
The double structure of vulnerabilityAccording to Bohle [18] vulnerability can be seen as having an external and internal side (Figure 2).
Finally, there is the evaluation and selection of each indicator (phase 6) taking into account the criteria developed at an earlier stage, which results in a final set of indicators.
Such a wide range of land desertification has seriously hindered the development of the local society and economies, deepening the extent to which the people live in poverty. Using the minimum relative entropy principle, entropy combination weighted method combined the AHP and entropy weight method to reduce the impact of subjective and objective influence.
Twelve major episodes of slope failure causing high damages to infrastructure and build up areas were registered in the archipelago during 1996. The external side is related to the exposure to risks and shocks and is influenced by Political Economy Approaches (e.g. The outcome of previous phases must be validated against real data, which in many cases proofs to be the most challenging part of the process due to difficulties in measuring or quantifying some of the intangible elements or aspect of vulnerability (e.g. However, a major limitation of this approach is that most of the data have to be assumed and there is no direct (quantified) relation between hazard intensities and degree of damage.As an example, in [47] an empirical GIS-based geomorphological approach for landslide and risk analysis was proposed, using stereoscopic aerial photographs and field mapping in order to represent the changes in distribution and shape of landslides and assess their expected frequency of occurrence and intensity. Therefore, desertification prevention and control has become one of the urgent problems to be solved in local and related areas.Desertification research work has been carried out for many years all over the world and desertification assessment is an important related research field. Although documentation of the Government expenditures to finance relief efforts for natural disasters during the 1996 – 2002 period is not completely contained in Figure 1 [4], one can observe that 1996 stands out as a particular year with high costs of rehabilitation.Experience has shown that considering the frequency of disasters affecting the Philippines, its socio-economic context, and risk culture, the disaster management system tends to rely on a response approach. From the existing research results, we have found that many of them are about monitoring and assessment of the desertification degree [5,6,7,8,9,10,11]. However, studies indicate that efforts are being made to engage more proactive approaches, involving mitigation and preparedness strategies [4]. The internal side is called coping and relates to the capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a hazard and is influenced by the Crisis and Conflict Theory (control of assets and resources, capacities to manage crisis situations and resolve conflicts), Action Theory Approaches (how people act and react freely as a result of social, economic or governmental constrains) and Model of Access to Assets (mitigation of vulnerability through access to assets). They are flexible and can, to a certain degree, reduce subjectivity, compared with the methods mentioned above. However, these are only about judgment or assessment of natural strength of desertification processes and desertification land types, with no thought for the disaster-causing ability of desertification and the interaction between the social and economic development and the losses, caused by disasters, on human society, which cannot reflect the essence of disaster. Within this category, damage matrices, for example, are composed by classified intensities and stepwise damage levels.
Disaster risk assessment is a quantitative analysis and assessment of the possibility of risk areas suffering from disasters of varying intensity, and their possible consequences. The definition of vulnerability for the purpose of scientific assessment depends on the purpose of the study – is it to get a differential picture of global change threats to human well-being in different world regions? These are mathematical combinations of sub-indicators that can be easier to interpret than trying to find a trend in many separate indicators. In [49] damage matrices were suggested based on damaging factors and the resistance of the elements at risk to the impact of landslides.

It not only considers the disaster itself, but also emphasizes the dangers of the disaster.
Is it to inform particular stakeholders about adaptation options to a potential future development? However, there are no generally accepted methods of index aggregation (index construction) and their interpretation is not unique. Figure 8 shows a correlation, in terms of vulnerability, between exposed elements and the characteristics of the hazard. As such, identification and assessment of risk factors of the desertification disaster can combat the occurrence and development of the desertification. Is it to show that likelihood of harm and cost of harm have changed for a specific element of interest within the human-environment system? The applicability of this method, requires statistical analysis of detailed records on landslides and their consequences [50]. It has more practical significance for desertification prevention and control.Currently, only a few reports on disaster risk assessment of desertification exist. In scientific assessment the term vulnerability can have many meanings, differentiated mostly by (a) the vulnerable entity studied, (b) the stakeholders of the study.The design of scientific assessment (as opposed to scientific research) has to respond to the scientific needs of the particular stakeholder who might use it [5].
Based on a comprehensive environmental assessment model, Mouat selected five kinds of desertification risk assessment indicators (potential wind erosion, drought indicator, vegetation indicator, weed invader species and forage grass pressure indicator), which are used to assess the desertification risk in Colorado [12].
An integral part of vulnerability assessment therefore is the collaboration with its stakeholders [6], [7].
Quantitative methods are usually employed by engineers or actors involved in technical decision making, as they allow for a more explicit objective output. Sun used statistical modeling techniques to develop a desertification risk indicator (RI) for Minqin County, Gansu Province, China [13]. Thus, the specific definition and the method of vulnerability assessment is specific to each study and needs to be made transparent in the specific context.
The results can be directly integrated in a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) also taking into account the uncertainty in vulnerability analysis. Costantini assessed desertification disaster risk in Italy by using a soil aridity indicator [14]. The procedures involved can rely on i) expert judgment (heuristic), ii) damage records (empirical) or iii) statistical analysis (probabilistic).One example of quantitative expert judgment used to evaluate physical vulnerability of roads to debris flows was used in [55]. From the perspective of climate change and human disturbance, desertification risk was monitored by remote sensing and GIS technique in India [15]. This index is composed of four factors estimating capacity related to risk identification, risk reduction, disaster management and financial protection.
147 respondents from 17 countries were asked to use their expert knowledge to assess the probability of a certain damage state being exceeded given that a volume of debris impacts a road (Table 3).
Le considered many human activity factors (population, poverty, weak management capacity, lack of awareness, etc.) which were used to assess the desertification risk in Binh Thuan Province (Vietnam) by using the Leopold matrix [16].
Vanmaercke discussed how sediment yield can be used as a desertification risk indicator at the small regional scale [17].
The study is based on a review of recent research findings in global change and natural hazards risk management. Physical vulnerability assessmentIf in social vulnerability assessment the focus is on determining the indicators of societies’ coping capacities to any natural hazard and identifying the vulnerable groups or individuals based on these indicators, in physical (or technical) vulnerability assessment the role of hazard and their impacts is emphasized, while the human systems in mediating the outcomes is minimized. A desertification prediction model was built based on the GIS technique and cellular automata by Chen [18]. The overall aim is to identify current gaps that can guide the development of future perspectives for vulnerability analysis to hydro-meteorological hazards. Following the introduction (section 1), the second section starts with a definition of vulnerability within the context of risk management to natural hazards (sub-section 2.1).
The evaluation of vulnerability and the combination of the hazard and the vulnerability to obtain the risk differs between natural phenomena. Farajzadeh evaluated the desertification hazard for the Iyzad Khast plain, Iran, by using the MEDALUS model and GIS [20]. However, the majority of models see vulnerability as being dependent both on the acting agent (physical impact of a hazard event) and the exposed element (structural or physical characteristics of the vulnerable object). Gad mapped the environmental sensitivity areas for the desertification of Egyptian territory by using remote sensing and GIS [21]. In the third section, the importance of addressing uncertainty in vulnerability analysis is discussed and lastly general observations and concluding remarks are presented.2. The most common expressions of physical vulnerability for different types of hazards (landslides, floods, earthquakes) are: vulnerability curves (stage-damage functions), fragility curves, damage matrices and vulnerability indicators [35]. In recent decades, research on flood vulnerability assessment has advanced substantially (especially with the aid of computational techniques) and different modeling approaches ranging from post-event damage observations to laboratory-based experiments and physical modeling have been developed. From the trend of the research, it is still necessary to carry out desertification risk assessment from its process and mechanism. Vulnerability and risk management to natural hazardsAccording to the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) Report [8], there are two essential elements in the formulation of risk (Eq.
One major applications of flood vulnerability analysis is the development of guidelines for reducing structural vulnerability for different types of properties.
In this way, the impact factors of the desertification can be more clearly seen, and their roles, which can then be used to serve the desertification prevention practice.The main objectives of this study are to (1) build the concept framework of desertification disaster risk based on the theory of natural disaster risk and desertification disaster formation mechanism, (2) combined with the natural conditions and socio-economic situation of Horqin Sand Land, build an indicator system of desertification disaster risk assessment and Desertification Disaster Risk Index (DDRI) by using multi-source data (meteorological data, social and economic statistical data, remote sensing data and soil experimental data), (3) assess the desertification disaster risk level in Horqin Sand Land by using the entropy combination weighted method, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, optimal segmentation method and gridding GIS technique. Likewise, the results of these studies are used in spatial development strategies (spatial planning) and for identification of the elements or areas where damages would be expected in case of flood occurrence. The assessment results can help to recognize the desertification disaster risk level, and provide important references for the rational exploitation and utilization of lands.
A «hazard» is “a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage”.Within the risk management framework, vulnerability pertains to consequence analysis. It also has important theoretical and practical significance for combating desertification in Horqin Sand Land even in the Northern China. It generally defines the potential for loss to the elements at risk caused by the occurrence of a hazard, and depends on multiple aspects arising from physical, social, economic, and environmental factors, which are interacting in space and time. Within the last category, two general methods can be identified:Empirical methods are based on the analysis of observed consequences (collection of actual flood damage information after the event) through the use of interviews, questionnaires and field mapping.
This type of approaches are resource demanding (time and money) but allow for a better understanding of the relation between flood intensity and degree of damage for an exposed structure with definite characteristics. Directly linked with these forces are the characteristics of the damaging agent (water) which are reflected in a number of actions on the exposed structure: hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, erosion, buoyancy, etc. Vulnerability modelsThere are multiple definitions, concepts and methods to systematize vulnerability denoting the plurality of views and meanings attached to this term.
Birkmann [11] noted that ‘we are still dealing with a paradox: we aim to measure vulnerability, yet we cannot define it precisely’. However, there are generally two perspectives in which vulnerability can be viewed and which are closely linked with the evolution of the concept [12]: (1) the amount of damage caused to a system by a particular hazard (technical or engineering sciences oriented perspective – dominating the disaster risk perception in the 1970s), and (2) a state that exists within a system before it encounters a hazard (social sciences oriented perspective – an alternative paradigm which uses vulnerability as a starting point for risk reduction since the 1980s). The former emphasizes ‘assessments of hazards and their impacts, in which the role of human systems in mediating the outcomes of hazard events is downplayed or neglected’. The latter puts the human system on the central stage and focuses on determining the coping capacity of the society, the ability to resist, respond and recover from the impact of a natural hazard [13].
In [40] the importance of further influencing factors like ‘duration of inundation, sediment concentration, availability and information content of flood warning and the quality of external response in a flood situation’ are emphasized. While the technical sciences perspective of vulnerability focuses primarily on physical aspects [14], the social sciences perspective takes into account various factors and parameters that influence vulnerability, such as physical, economic, social, environmental, and institutional characteristics [8].
Other approaches emphasize the need to account for additional global factors, such as globalization and climate change.
Thus, the broader vulnerability assessment is in scope, the more interdisciplinary it becomes.
A threshold for collapse corresponding to 100% damage is set, while below this threshold the damage is estimated based on the inundation level only. The model also takes into account the effect of warning which is assessed based on a ‘day-curve’. If a public response rate of 100% is assumed, a maximum of 35% of damage reduction can be achieved depending on the time of warning [26].

Nationwide test of the emergency alert system
Emergency evacuation procedure template nz
Sample business continuity plan checklist
Home disaster plan checklist

Comments to “Disaster risk assessment matrix”

  1. VIDOK writes:
    The ancient ones acquired and get to make.
  2. VORON writes:
    Dried fruits, such area or break camp for.