Clorox bleach water storage,flood emergency plan in malaysia,emergency kit checklist for work - Review

In multi-level marketing scams, the parent company keeps a low profile and makes few claims that would attract the scrutiny of regulators such as the U.S. To further mislead science-naïve readers, another Kangen page employs the common ruse of misrepresenting the 1931 Nobel Prize work of a famous pioneer of biochemistry. Alkaline water must contain metallic ions of some kind — most commonly, sodium, calcium or magnesium. The idea that one must consume alkaline water to neutralize the effects of acidic foods is ridiculous; we get rid of excess acid by exhaling carbon dioxide.
If you do drink alkaline water, its alkalinity is quickly removed by the highly acidic gastric fluid in the stomach.
The claims about the health benefits of drinking alkaline water are not supported by credible scientific evidence. If you really want to de-acidify your stomach (at the possible cost of interfering with protein digestion), why spend hundreds of dollars for an electrolysis device when you can take calcium-magnesium pills, Alka-Seltzer or Milk of Magnesia? Electrolysis devices are generally worthless for treating water for health enhancement, removal of common impurities, disinfection, and scale control. Pure water consists almost entirely of H2O molecules loosely bound in a network-like structure in which individual molecules are constantly changing partners. Whether a water is acidic or alkaline, it will always contain equal numbers of positive and negative electric charges. Charge Balance: all ionic solutions must contain equal numbers of positive and negative charges.
Electrolysis refers to the breakdown of a substance by passing an electric current through it. Note that the consumption of H+ ions at the negative electrode leaves an excess of OH– ions in the vicinity of this electrode, making the water in this region alkaline.
One more thing about the electrolysis of water having very low ion content: because of the very small number of ions in such water, it conducts electric current very poorly, so the process is extremely slow and inefficient. For electrolysis to occur to any practical extent, additional ions must be present in order to transport the current. Studies have shown that placebos can relieve the symptoms in about 40 percent of those who suffer from chronic ailments. Hypochlorous acid HOCl (always present even in alkaline hypochorite solutions) is now known to trigger a number of cellular processes connected with cancer, either through inducing mutations in DNA sequences, or by making epigenetic changes to certain DNA bases. Acid-base chemistry plays a crucial role in physiology, both at the level of the individual cell and of the total organism.
Virtually all important metabolic processes involve the uptake or release of hydrogen ions. Respiration, the most important physiological activity of a cell, is an acid-producing process. It is remarkable that the pH of most cellular fluids can be kept within such a narrow range, given the large number of processes that tend to upset it. Acid-base balance in the body is maintained by two general mechanisms: selective excretion of acids or bases, and by the buffering action of weak acid-base systems in body fluids. The major buffering system in the body is the carbonate system, which exists mainly in the form of HCO3– at normal physiological pH.
The idea, widely promoted on commercial quackery sites, that people need "alkaline" water supplements to "balance body pH" or "neutralize" acidic foods, has no scientific support.
In order to flog their electrolysis units, these hucksters (mostly independent agents showing little evidence of any knowledge of chemistry or physiology) spin a number of yarns that are simply untrue, but which are easily believed by many people who are not familiar with modern chemistry and physiology. If the water is pure enough to be potable, the amount of electrolysis that actually occurs is too small to be significant. These devices separate the alkaline water (produced at the negative electrode) from the acidic water (produced at the positive electrode), allowing you to draw them off separately.
This will not work with pure water because it is physically impossible to have water that contains an excess of OH– (alkaline) without the presence of a charge-compensating metallic ion such as Na+ or Ca2+. The pH of intracellular bodily fluids such as blood is controlled by an exquisitely-balanced set of reactions involving removal of (acidic) carbon dioxide through the lungs, removal of (alkaline) ammonia through the kidneys, and the buffering action within the blood by bicarbonate, and to a smaller extent by phosphate and certain proteins. The amount of oxygen that water can hold is very limited, and it is not significantly absorbed by the gut anyway. How can alkaline water with a pH of 9 or 10 be expected to affect the body when the pH of the stomach is 2 or less? 1It is important to remember that hydrochloric acid is present in the stomach only when food is there.
1The stomach always contains some gastric secretion and is always acidic; eating food stimulates the production of more acid. 2Nonsense; the stomach lining is protected by a mucous film which is continually replenished. The body keeps blood pH stable by utilizing alkaline buffers to neutralize acidic liquids (such as colas, which have a pH as low as 2.5) and other acidic products and byproducts. The principal buffer is bicarbonate which is continually generated when glucose, the body's immediate cellular energy source, is metabolized. The hexagonal molecular structure resulting from electrolysis is what makes ionized water wetter than tap or bottled water. There is no scientific evidence to support the assertions about the existence of water clusters or its beneficial effects on tissue hydration. Increases energy, decreases recovery time and  improves capacity for aerobic activities.
The electrolysis process rearranges healthy minerals that are native to your tap water according to their electrical charge. There is no credible scientific evidence for any of these statements, which you will find only on Web sites promoting commercial products. Those of us who live in Vancouver and other cities where the drinking water comes from mountain runoff and snowmelt have been drinking acidic water for years with no demonstrable ill effect.
Claims such as these are widely propagated by water ionizer hucksters without any supporting evidence. According to this CBS-11 News story, Alpha-Omega Labs was shut down by the FDA after its owner pleaded guilty to various charges relating to the marketing of this and other products. By placing an Ionized Stone next to a glass of water or plate of food, the water or food becomes energized, increasing digestibility and nutrient absorption. As is explained above, these electrolysis devices produce what amounts to a dilute solution of sodium hypochlorite, similar to what can be obtained by diluting some ordinary laundry bleach such as Clorox to the point at which the odor is no longer noticeable. Is it worth purchasing an expensive electrolysis device to generate the same mixture than one can get perhaps several hundred gallons of by diluting a $1.49 bottle of home laundry bleach? Is this stuff any more effective for purposes such as disinfecting vegetables and foods than by simply washing with ordinary water, or with water acidified by vinegar or lemon juice?
Do you really want your food to come into contact with an oxidizing agent that can react with some of the organic components to produce potentially carcinogenic by-products? Electrolytic "bleach generators" are legitimate devices for use in industrial and institutional settings in which large quantities disinfectant are required. The Tennant Company is a long-established and reputable manufacturer of industrial cleaning equipment. So maybe their new machine does clean better and greener, but it is too bad that their marketing people feel the need to put out this silly hype; why not some actual performance results instead? See this 2011 article about a dispute that challenges the effectiveness of this technology. They additionally claim that it kills bacteria and viruses by electroporation, a process that ruptures cell walls and is widely employed to insert DNA into cells. None of these papers is very convincing to me, and I doubt that they would have passed muster in the more prestigious journals— which may explain the rather strange publishing venues several of the authors have chosen which are quite outside the medical and physiological fields. Have you ever heard of those foot-baths through which an electric current is passed in order to draw out the "toxins" from your body? See this aquarium enthusiast's Junk Science page that takes a critical look at these absurdities. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. On June 30, we launched a one-year pilot program that uses diluted bleach to disinfect drinking water for four remote villages in Peru.
The Clorox Safe Water pilot will provide diluted bleach to disinfect drinking water for four remote villages in Peru.


Over the years, Clorox has supported a number of programs aimed at stopping the spread of infection, but this is our first time leading an intervention that addresses the chronic issue of unsafe drinking water in underprivileged rural communities. Throughout the next seven months, we’ll use this blog to provide updates and discuss what we’re learning from the pilot. Bleach is powerful – Sodium hypochlorite, the main ingredient in Clorox® bleach, is one of the most effective disinfectants on earth, killing over 99 percent of bacteria and viruses commonly found in untreated water, such as E.
Bleach is inexpensive – Community-based bleach disinfection projects can be scaled with modest resources. Bleach is better than boiling – Germs are easily re-introduced to boiled water, but bleach stands guard for 24 to 48 hours and kills the vast majority of the bad stuff that can infect a water supply. Of course, creating a sustainable clean water program is much more complex than pouring bleach down a well. Deeply engrained, accepted practices can be difficult to challenge, and when you can’t see germs with the naked eye, the concept of disinfection can be pretty abstract.
Dispensers are filled with a sodium hypochlorite solution and release a metered dose appropriate for a standard water-collection vessel. Our pilot in Peru uses a promising new, high-impact, low-cost approach developed by Dispensers for Safe Water at Innovations for Poverty Action.
The dispensers are supported by a sodium hypochlorite supply chain and a community education program that includes a local volunteer promoter who encourages use and maintains and refills the dispenser. This approach has been used successfully in Kenya and led to a six-fold increase in water treatment with sodium hypochlorite, which was sustained three years after the dispenser was installed. Over the 12-month pilot, Clorox will test this model in northern Peru, learning about the project’s cultural acceptance and impact alongside our local implementation partner, PRISMA, a research-based nonprofit. We visited our Safe Water project communities in November, and we’ll talk about that trip in our next update in a few weeks. I think this is a very interesting project from Clorox and a service that would be greatly appreciated by many communities across Peru. But when stomach contents enter the intestine, they are neutralized and made alkaline by the pancreatic secretions — so all the water you drink eventually becomes alkaline anyway. My understanding is that the Japanese Health Ministry is highly critical of therapeutic claims made for alkaline water. True, it is possible for water to contain dissolved ions (electrically-charged atoms or molecules), but that's something else again.
No electrical device or chemical additive is capable of increasing these ion concentrations in pure water above this very minute level which is so small that for most practical purposes pure water can be considered to be ion-free, as evidenced by the fact that it will not conduct an electric current.
Since alkaline water contains an excess of OH– ions, it must also contain some other kind of positive ion in addition to H+ in order to equalize the opposite charges.
This is accomplished by placing a pair of oppositely-charged electrodes (usually of platinum or some other unreactive metal) in the solution. Similarly, the consumption of OH– ions at the positive electrode makes the water near this electrode acidic. This means that if your water supply is free of dissolved minerals, no significant amount of electrolysis will occur. For example, the large-scale electrolysis of water to manufacture highly pure H2 and O2 is carried out by adding sulfuric acid. The hypochlorite ions present in most such waters (see above) may make their way through the digestive tract and end up in the large intestine, where it comes into contact with the hundreds of species of [mostly] bacterial organisms that colonize everyone's colon. It is known, for example that HOCl leads to the formation of 5-chlorocytosine, which is believed to suppress some genes that normally act to inhibit cell proliferation and tumor growth. Thus proteins contain both acidic and basic groups, so that their shapes and their functional activities are highly dependent on pH. The very act of being alive tends to change the surrounding intracellular pH (usually reducing it); this will eventually kill the organism in the absence of buffering agents.
About two-thirds of this water is located within cells, while the remaining third consists of extracellular water, mostly interstitial fluid that bathes the cells, and the blood plasma. This comes about because the weak organic acids in such foods are partly in the form of sodium or potassium salts M+A–.
This is due to the exquisite balance between a large number of interlinked processes operating at many different levels. Owing to their electric charges, these two species are closely linked to salt balance with ions such as Na+ or K+, and Cl–. Secondary buffering action comes from phosphate, from proteins and other weak organic acids, and (within blood cells), the hemoglobin.
Thus hyperventilation, which can result from emotional upset, leads to above-normal loss of CO2, and thus to alkalosis.
Urinary pH depends on many factors and is a useful clinical diagnostic only in the context of numerous other measurements on urine and blood chemistry (reference). And sites such as this one which falsely claim that acidity causes cancer are beyond contempt. Similarly, any water that is acidic (excess H+ ion) must contain a compensating impurity ion such as bicarbonate or sulfate. Any water that is sufficiently alkaline to significantly affect gastric pH is unlikely to be considered potable by most people. But bear in mind that acidosis and alkylosis are serious conditions that require medical intervention and can be properly diagnosed only by measurements of blood electrolyte and CO2 content.
Some sales sites reveal their ignorance of chemistry by stating that the enhanced oxygen content causes the water to act as an anti-oxidant (any high-school chemistry student should be able to debunk this one!) It should also be pointed out that evolution has allowed our bodies to develop anti-oxidant enzymes such as peroxidase that are millions of times more efficient than anything that an electrolysis device could produce even if it did work!
Several of their misleading statements are outlined below; anyone questioning my comments on them can check any standard textbook on human physiology. But as the blood stream receives these acidic substances, the alkaline buffers get used up.
Acids convert it into carbonic acid which breaks down to CO2 and water and is exhaled by the lungs. Alkaline water has as its main benefit that it assists in the absorption of alkaline minerals. Transport of these ions across cell membranes is facilitated by specialized protein assemblies that are largely independent of local pH. The text in the left column below is taken verbatim from a typical water-ionizer sales site as it existed in Sept 2002. There is no way that H2O molecules in liquid water can be stabilized or retained in the hexagonal configuration shown. As a result, alkaline ionized water contains essential calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium minerals in a form that can be assimilated. A look at the patent reveals that the fabric is treated with various compounds that are weakly dissociated into ions in water, and are basically the same as those employed as anti-static agents in fabrics and home laundry products. Ionized stones can also be used effectively in conjunction with Ener-Chi Art -- simply place an Ionized Stone on the corresponding area of the body while viewing an Ener-Chi Art picture. If this is made slightly acidic (by addition of some vinegar or lemon juice, for example), then most of the hypochlorite ion is in the form of hypochlorous acid, which is a bactericide and is the active product produced when chlorine is used to disinfect drinking water. They are considered a "green" alternative to shipping or handling chlorine gas (dangerous) or hypochlorite solutions (mostly water, and thus heavy). More recently, Tennant has been sued in Germany for misleading advertising and has been made to withdraw some of its claims in Germany, Belgium and the UK.
According to their Web page, it does not use salt or generate sodium hypochlorite, which was my original assumption that led to its mention on this page. As the charges from the nanobubbles build up on the dirt particles, they separate from one another and break apart due to repulsion of like electrical charges, and become suspended in the water solution – allowing the dirt to be wiped away.
All low-pH solutions tend to be bactericidal, but before buying into this, I would like to see some evidence that these products are more effective than a hypochlorite solution of this kind, any mild detergent or soap solution, or even a dilute solution of vinegar. Most are from Japan, and none that I have seen clearly states the composition of the water used— a failure that would probably guarantee rejection by a mainstream medical journal. Hanaoka: Antioxidant effects of reduced water produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions. Shirahata et al: Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidatioin damage. Kikuchi et al: Hydrogen particles and supersaturation in alkaline water from an alkali-ion-water-electrolyzer.
One wonders if these journals have reviewers qualified to give papers on this subject adequate scrutiny.


To someone who knows no chemistry, it can be quite impressive to see all these evil substances color the water various shades of brown, green, and blue as the current works its magic. Chemistry is my favorite subject, and I hate to see it misused to confuse, mislead or defraud the public. For children in the developing world, unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of intestinal disease, malnutrition and death.
Here, a Clorox volunteer teaches people how to treat their water using public dispensers placed next to community water sources.
Our goal with this project is to build an effective, scalable and sustainable model that local communities could adopt to improve the quality of their drinking water and reduce the rate of intestinal illness. Nonprofit organizations have been using bleach to disinfect water in developing countries for a long time, but with mixed success.
Also, the dosage must be correct — too little bleach, and you’re not killing the germs, too much, and the water tastes bad and people stop using it. The program places public dispensers next to community water sources such as wells and boreholes. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and USAID have also supported its expansion to other parts of the world. The position of the dispenser at the water source provides a reminder to treat water when it is collected. PRISMA has a 26-year history of successful community health projects and specializes in interventions that help reduce malnutrition and illness in children under three years old in order to help stop the cycle of poverty. In North America, distribution of these dubious devices has depended largely on multi-level marketing schemes that enroll science-ignorant dealers to exploit even-more-vulnerable consumers while enabling the manufacturer to maintain a low profile to regulatory agencies such as the FTC. Even the otherwise respectable Kurzweil and Grossman's Fantastic Voyage (see below) goes off the track on this craze. Of course, cranberry or citrus juices are much less expensive sources of equally acidic water. Almost all waters found in nature acquire ions such as calcium and bicarbonate as they come into contact with rocks and sediments. Positive ions that find themselves close to the negative electrode will acquire electrons, and negative ions near the positive electrode will lose electrons. If the regions near the two electrodes are surrounded by a semi-permeable barrier that inhibits diffusion of these ions into the bulk of the water, small local excesses can build up, but with pure water to start with, the acidity or alkalinity would be undetectable. The sulfate ions help carry the current, but they do not react at the positive electrode because H2O is more easily decomposed. It is now believed that these so-called gut flora can actively alter the nature of many food and metabolic products that enter the colon, and they vary greatly between individuals. The latter, amounting to about five percent of body weight (about 5 L in the adult), serves as a supporting fluid for the blood cells and acts as a means of transporting chemicals between cells and the external environment.
In order to maintain charge balance, some of the CO2 produced by normal metabolism of these food acids must be converted into bicarbonate (that is, M+ HCO3–) which is a weak base. So unless you are under the care of a physician for nephritic disease, diabetes or a urinary tract infection, daily pH testing is just another form of navel-gazing.
Beware of authors such as Hidemitsu Hayashi who claims to be a doctor but reveals his lack of basic medical expertise by endorsing quack remedies.
Thus ordinary drinkable water which contains only very low concentrations of metal ions will yield only weakly alkaline solutions.
Further, the enzymes that digest proteins in the stomach require a low pH in order to function properly, so if one were to ingest sufficient alkali to reduce gastric pH, it would also interfere with digestion. Drinking alkaline water helps reduce the burden on the limited alkaline buffers which are needed for the body s natural detoxification processes.
This is the main route of elimination of acids from the body, although the kidneys play a secondary role.
Of course, what they are selling is nothing more than an exceedingly-expensive means of generating what amounts to ordinary laundry bleach. Tourmaline also happens to be piezoelectric: when you squeeze it, a small voltage difference develops between the two ends of the crystal. Well not really, but natural radioactivity occasionally knocks an electron out of an atom, creating an ion pair which can remain locked into the solid for a long time.
Although the company claims that the efficacy of the device has been verified by third-party tests, they offer no performance data. It's interesting to note that the last journal in the list also published the now-discredited article on cold fusion in the 1980s. And perhaps most importantly, there must be broad community interest and adoption that includes local champions and promoters to educate people and to manage the dispensers and bleach supply. The dispensers are filled with a sodium hypochlorite solution and release a metered dose appropriate for a standard water-collection vessel. Also, given the strong social ties in rural communities, seeing others using the dispenser can lead to powerful habit formation around water treatment and encourages peer education about safe water practices.
These agents, few of whom are well-enough educated to evaluate these claims or to realize that they violate the FTC rules on deceptive advertising, are as much victims as are their consumer customers. Even the purest rainwater contains some hydrogen- and bicarbonate ions that are formed when it picks up carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
If some of this chlorine is allowed to combine with some of the hydroxide ions produced at the cathode, it disproportionates into hypochlorous acid HOCl, a weak acid and an oxidizing agent. An exception might be for people subject to kidney stones or gout, since low urinary pH promotes precipitation of uric acid. Those who question my skepticism will find solace in an interview with the "world renowned physicist Dr. And their claims regarding oxygen, nutrients, and alleviation of metabolic wastes are simply absurd. Nothing special here, but these operators weave this into a fabric of lies about the crystals putting negative ions into and purifying water, reducing cluster size. But for home use, it hardly seems economical; one could probably buy a supply of laundry bleach that would last several lifetimes for the cost of a "water ionizer"! The scientific literature contains some references to irreversible electroporation as a means of food preservation and water treatment, I am not aware of any research results that verify the claimed mechanism or quantitatively explore its practical utility. My somewhat-jaded view of this promotion seems to be reflected in a 2007 PharmaTracker review. Well, this is an old parlor trick, a nice chemistry-classroom demonstration, and, of course, a highly profitable scam.
Chemists express the degree of acidity or alkalinity on the pH scale which runs from about 0 to 14. Some ionizer devices allow the user to draw off this solution for use as a disinfecting agent. For such patients, citric acid or a citrate salt (which are metabolized to bicarbonate) are often prescribed for raising urinary pH.
Chronic acidosis or alkylosis can be very serious and is often associated with kidney failure. Tom Beardon" whose name, curiously, does not appear in the ISI database of published scientists. I wonder if those jocks with the backward-pointing baseball caps who used to sit in the back rows of my Chemistry classes will get taken in by this garbage! And how can water (or any bulk matter) violate the electroneutrality principle and carry a significant electric charge? It is offered by numerous quackery practicioners, including some naturopathic and chiropractic physicians, and can go by such names as Ionic Detoxification, Aqua Chi, Bionic Hydrotherapy®, etc. In many cases the two streams can be combined to form a mixture consisting of both HOCl and sodium hypochlorite (equivalent to diluted ordinary laundry bleach), depending on the pH desired. Finally, have any of these people passed high school chemistry, where they would learn what happens when you mix "acidic and alkaline water"?
But in fairness, recent research does has shown that tiny nanobubbles of oxygen can be formed during electrolysis, and there is some evidence that they may be able to attach to hydrophobic surfaces and thus exert some kind of a detergent-like action.




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